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2019年10月18日 05:46:13 | 作者:预约新闻 | 来源:新华社
In recent years, weve seen a big increase in the numbers of swans across the country. So some people feel that swans are becoming a danger to other river life. To answer this question, here is Paul from the Salmon and Trout Association.近年来,我们看到整个国家天鹅的数量大幅增加。因此有些人感觉天鹅正在威胁其它的河流生命。为了解答这个问题,现在连线三文鱼和鳟鱼协会的发言人保罗。What happens is the swans come along and in deep water, they just graze on it, thats no problem. Its quite resilient and itll come back. The problem is in low water, theyll eat it right down to the roots and theyll kill it off. The problem here is more (that there is) not enough water in the river.发生的情况是,天鹅来到深水区,以植物为食,这没问题。植被的生长具有反弹性,会复原。问题在于浅水区,天鹅会吃掉植物的根部,因而毁掉植被。更严重的问题是河流不再有足够的水。Although its difficult to believe that today with all this flood water coming down. Thats the real issue. We need more water in the river to provide the depth for fish and birds to coexist side by side. Lets hear from Graham who works for the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, RSPB.尽管在洪水泛滥的今天,人们很难相信这个事实。但这是真正存在的问题。我们的河流需要更多的水来为鱼和鸟类的共存提供一定的水位空间。让我们来听听在英国皇家鸟类保护协会(RSPB)工作的格雷汉姆的意见。The amount of water being taken out of the system is unsustainable, and also the amount of pollutants from washing achines and from farmland run-off coming into these rivers are also causing problems. So yes, lets look at the problems swans are causing, but lets look at the much bigger environmental picture too. That is historically the case, but these days all swans are protected under the wildlife and countryside act.从水生系统流失的水是不可再生的,流向河流的大量洗涤和农田径流污染物也导致了这一问题。是的,让我们来看看天鹅造成的威胁,同时我们来看看宏观的环境现状。这是历史遗留下来的问题,所有的天鹅都属于皇室,它们都受到法律保护。原文译文属!201304/233646How do birds sleep?鸟儿如何睡觉?How do birds hang onto trees when theyre asleep? Why dont they fall off?鸟儿睡觉时是如何挂在树上的呢?它们为什么掉不下来?Thats easy. Its because of the hallux toe. Hallux toe? Is that the toe on some birds that points backwards instead of forwards? Thats the one. We aly mentioned the hallux toe once on the show, when talking about how well-adapted some bird feet are for perching on branches.很简单!那是因为它们有大趾。大趾?就是某些鸟儿身上指向后方而不是前方的趾头吗?对,就是那个。我们曾在节目中谈论适应性强的鸟儿的脚是如何帮助其栖息于树枝上时,提到过“大趾”。But you say it holds the bird in place even when its sleeping. Absolutely! Its because of the way the tendons work in a perching birds leg. When the bird hunkers down for sleep, it bends its leg at the knee and the heel. Two thin wires, called flexor tendons, run down the leg around the knee and heel, and attach to the toes.但是你刚刚说大趾能在鸟儿睡觉时助其保持平衡。正是!这与栖息的鸟儿腿里鸟腱运作的方式有关。当鸟儿蹲下睡觉时,鸟腱使鸟腿在膝盖和脚踝弯曲。两根纤细的屈肌腱使腿在膝盖和脚踝处弯曲,然后就与脚趾连接在一起。The bending of the birds legs when it perches tightens up these tendons, and, like a puppets strings, curls the toes. The neat thing is the bird doesnt even have to think about it to make it happen.鸟儿栖息时,鸟腿的弯曲拉紧了这些屈肌腱,就像是拉动木偶的绳子一样,使得脚趾卷曲起来。有趣的是,鸟儿根本不用去想怎么让其发生。 /201208/196461

Many of the early Samba songs were meant to size malandros, sharply-dressed hustlers of the black communities, and the authorities outlawed musicians and their Samba parties. 早期许多桑巴歌曲是为马兰多斯量身定做, 黑人社区衣着光鲜的骗子,当局取缔的音乐家们及只有桑巴团体才能享受这种舞曲。But all that would suddenly change. 但一切突然改变。Samba was to be appropriated, transformed and used by the government. 桑巴被政府挪用,转换并善加利用。From now on, music will play a new role in Brazilian life.从现在开始,音乐将在巴西人的生活中扮演一个新角色。注:听力文本来源于普特201212/217945

Dehydration脱水If I were to stop drinking water right now, how long could I live?如果从现在开始停止喝水,能活多久呢?There are different factors involved here. A human being isn’t an automobile which needs a certain amount of gas. There are conditions under which a person could die of dehydration within a single day, and other conditions whereby a person might live for over a week. It’s unlikely, though, anyone could go much beyond that.这涉及到很多方面的因素。人不是汽车,只需要一定量的汽油就行了。有时候,人体脱水一天便会死亡;但是有时,人体可以在脱水的情况下存活超过一个周。但是,任何人在脱水的情况下都不能长久的生存。Water comes into our systems not just from drinking but from eating as well. It goes out of us through urine, through sweat, and even through exhaling. Ever notice the fog you can make on a window by breathing on it? That’s water vapor leaving your body.我们的身体不仅通过喝水获得水,还通过吃饭。我们的身体通过排尿、出汗,甚至是呼吸将水排出体外。有没有注意到自己往窗户上呼气形成的水雾呢?那就是从体内排出的水蒸汽。The biggest reason it’s bad to lose too much water is that the actual volume of your blood goes down. When blood volume goes down, blood pressure goes down. As blood pressure goes down, body heat goes up, because your blood helps regulate your core body temperature. Without enough blood, you can’t cool off. Pretty soon you overheat.人体不能流失过多水分的最重要原因是因为会导致人体实际血容量减少。当血容量减少时血压也会随之降低。由于血液有助于调节人体温度,因此当血容量减少时,体温便会升高。如果血容量不足,人体便无法冷下来,很快,就会热得让人受不了。So various factors, from eating to circulatory health to the ambient temperature, play a part in how long you could go without water. Probably the biggest factor, though, is simply age: young people are much more likely to overheat faster than adults, which is why it’s especially important to keep an eye on the little ones on hot summer days.因此,从饮食到循环系统的健康再到环境温度,众多的因素决定了一个人在脱水的情况下能存活多久。但是,可能最重要的因素只是简简单单的——年龄:年轻人比成年人更快更容易过热,这也就是为什么在炎热的夏天要特别留神照顾小孩子了。 /201303/227730

However, the effect was short lived. Within three months, both groups of callers were more or less equal when it came to how many had remained smoke-free. The researchers are optimistic, though, that continuous positive messages about the benefits of quitting smoking could have a longer lasting effect. Most people, smokers included, are well aware of the dangers of nicotinendash;so well aware, in fact, that warnings about the health hazards of smoking may come across as annoying or redundant. The researchers suspect that emphasizing the benefits of quitting may be more effective because it promises a certain, beneficial outcome. And with enough positive encouragement, smokers learning about the benefits of a smoke-free life may be more inclined to quit.然而,其效果是短暂的。三个月内,组戒烟的人中能成功戒烟的人数大体相等。不过,研究人员仍然很乐观,持续的告诉人们戒烟的好处对人们有更持久的效果。包括吸烟者,大多数人都清楚地认识到尼古丁的危害;;十分了解,事实上,关于吸烟危害健康的警告可能会恼人或太泛滥了。研究人员猜测强调戒烟的好处可能更有效,因为它承诺了一定的,有益的成果。给予足够的积极鼓励,了解有关无烟生活的好处的吸烟者可能更倾向于戒烟。201201/167981

Books and Arts; Book Review;Our love of garbage;Rubbish heaps;文艺;书评;我们对垃圾的爱;成堆的垃圾;Garbology: Our Dirty Love Affair With Trash. By Edward Humes.《垃圾学:我们对垃圾非常感兴趣》,Edward Humes 著。Although it is the buried tombs and the lost cities that get all the press, one of the most valuable things that an archaeologist can dig up is rubbish. Palace murals and heroic statues record the sanitised, official version of history, but a societys garbage tells the true story of how its members lived.虽然深埋的古墓和迷失的城市占据了所有的新闻版面,但是垃圾,却是考古学家们最值得深挖的东西。宫廷壁画,英雄雕像,那些记录的都是一尘不染的东西,是历史的官方版本,但是,一个社会的垃圾讲述的却是实实在在的市民生活。With that thought in mind, archaeologists of the future are in for a treat. The industrial societies of the worlds developed countries are the most wasteful ever, their spoor turning up in every corner of the Earth. Almost by definition, waste is something that most people prefer not to think too much about. But Edward Humes, an American journalist, is fascinated by the stuff. “Garbology” is his attempt to make sense of our historically unprecedented iness to throw things away.这样想来,我们确实是好好地款待了那些未来的考古学家们。因为处于工业社会的发达国家,他们制造了有史以来最多的垃圾,地球上的每个角落都有他们的足迹。很显然,大多数的人是不怎么会深思垃圾这类东西的。但是爱德华休姆斯,一位美国记者,却对垃圾如此着迷。他试图通过“垃圾学”,搞清楚我们为什么会及其相当之非常愿意扔东西。The book begins at the Puente Hills landfill, an artificial mountain near Los Angeles. It is the biggest dump in America, 30 years old, 150 metres high and containing 130m tonnes of rubbish within a 700-acre footprint. If it were a building, it would be among the 20 tallest in the city. Building a rubbish pile is, it turns out, surprisingly high-tech. The mountain is a giant, putrid layer-cake, with dozens of strata of rubbish separated by soil and plastic liners designed to contain the brew of noxious chemicals that would otherwise leach into groundwater. The rot produces methane, which is collected via a network of pipes that penetrate the mountain, and burned to produce electricity.本书以朋地山垃圾场开头,朋地山垃圾场,靠近洛杉矶,大得看起来像一座假山。是美国最大的垃圾堆,30岁高龄,150米高,1.3亿吨,700英亩。假如它是一座建筑物的话,那就能名列该城市前20名了。建一座拉一堆可不是易事,事实明,技术含量出奇的高。这座大山犹如一个腐烂的大蛋糕,几十层的垃圾,由土和塑料管隔开。设计塑料管的目的,是为了防止变质中的有毒化学物质浸入地下水。腐烂物产生沼气,经由管网收集,管网贯穿大山之中,然后燃烧发电。From there, Mr Humes traces the history of garbage in America, beginning with New Yorks “White Wings”, an army of municipal rubbish collectors created to clean the citys stinking streets in the 19th century, through the heyday of backyard incinerators (and the smog they produced) to the modern day, where the most common solutions often involve burying the stuff in the ground or dumping it in the sea. He talks to the researchers who are chronicling the plasticisation of the oceans, a swelling suspended solution of pulverised plastic. And he describes the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, an enormous expanse of the Pacific Ocean where currents concentrate the trash over a continent-sized area.休姆斯先生从那里去追溯美国的垃圾历史。先从纽约“白翼”开始,纽约“白翼”指的是19世纪,为了清扫臭气熏天的街道,市里成立的专门用于收垃圾的群体。之后是后院焚烧炉活跃期(还有焚烧炉产生的烟雾)。再后就是如今,最普遍的垃圾处理方法莫过于地下掩埋或是倾倒大海。休姆斯先生与从事海洋塑化记录的研究员一起,谈论那悬而未决的、了不起的粉末塑料解决方案。他说,太平洋垃圾带,使太平洋体积膨胀变大,水流将垃圾集中到一起,大小有陆地那么大。The author is just as interested in the creation of rubbish as its disposal. But whereas few will disagree with the gist of his observations about the shortcomings of our modern, disposable, consumer culture, the analysis is rather superficial. Mr Humes comes close to blaming a single man—J. Gordon Lippincott, an industrial designer—for the creation of the entire wasteful model of modern consumerism. And although it is understandable that an American author should write a book looking mostly at the problems of America, it nevertheless feels like a missed opportunity. Some of the most interesting parts of the book come towards the end, where he discusses some of the possible solutions—such as Denmarks strategy of burning rubbish to produce electricity, or an Irish scheme to charge shoppers for plastic bags, which led to a 90% drop in their use. Food for thought, and more.这位作者对垃圾的产生与对垃圾的处理一样感兴趣。但是他的言论宗旨,即我们现代的、一次性的消费文化缺陷,虽然很少有人反对,可是依然很肤浅。休姆斯先生几近于只责备一个人——杰戈登利平科特,工业设计师——创造了整个奢侈的现代化消费模式。作为一个美国作者,主要写当下美国发生的问题,是可以理解的,可是这总还是会让人觉得缺少了点什么。一些最有趣的部分放在了最后,像关于垃圾问题的可行的解决方案——丹麦焚烧垃圾发电,或是爱尔兰人对塑料袋收费计划,降低了对塑料袋90%的使用。发人深思,意味深远,超出你的想象。 /201212/212170

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