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2019年06月25日 20:48:01 | 作者:最新诊疗 | 来源:新华社
Washington (AFP) - The ed States on Tuesday denounced a flag-raising ceremony at Taiwans de facto embassy in Washington, saying it violated a long-standing pact on US-Taiwan ties.法新社华盛顿1日电 美国周二1日谴责了台湾在华盛顿实际开设的办事处进行的升旗活动,说这件事违反了存在已久的有关美台湾关系的协定;Were disappointed with the action,; State Department spokeswoman Jen Psaki said when asked about the hoisting of the Taiwanese flag at the compound on New Years Day.美国国务院女发言人Jen Psaki当被问到在元旦当天台湾旗帜在建筑群中升起的事件时,她说“我们对这次举动感到失望”。The ed States has long held a one-China policy, and as such does not have full diplomatic relations with Taiwan, the island Beijing claims as a renegade territory.美国长期坚持一个中国的政策,因此与台湾这个北京宣称是叛变领土的岛屿没有正式的外交关系。Instead, Washington has a representative office in Taipei, while Taiwan maintains a representation at a luxury estate in the US capital known as Twin Oaks.相反,华盛顿在台北设有办事处,而台湾在美国首都一个豪华庄园“双橡园”里有一个办事处。Taiwans English-language daily the China Post said the islands flag was raised over the building on Thursday, for the first time in 36 years since the US switched diplomatic recognition from Taipei to Beijing in 1979.台湾的英语日报《中国邮报》说,这个岛屿的旗帜周四在建筑上方升起,是自从美979年与台北断交、与北京建交6年以来第一次升起。Psaki stressed however that the US administration had not been informed in advance of the move.Psaki强调,然而美国政府没有以任何方式预先得到这次举动的通知;The flag-raising ceremony violated our longstanding understanding on the conduct of our unofficial relations,; she told reporters.她告诉记者:“这次升旗仪式违反了我们之间对非正式关系处理长期以来的理解。;We have a robust set of cultural relations, but we do not have diplomatic relations.;“我们文化上的关系很强大,但没有外交上的关系。”US officials in Washington and Taipei were discussing the issue with their Taiwanese counterparts, she added.她补充说,在台北的华盛顿办事处正在和台湾的对等人员讨论这件事。来 /201501/353373Train drivers and conductors in the GDL trade union are continuing their strike. Along with freight trains, passenger services have been affected by the strike since Thursday. While the media and politicians are doing everything to smear the striking train drivers, they have considerable popular support.德国铁路司机工会组织GDL的火车司机和售票员正在继续他们的罢工。从周四开始,旅客列车和货运列车皆受到其影响。尽管媒体和政府用尽一切办法来诋毁罢工的火车司机,但他们仍受到民众的广泛持。The picket line in Berlin图为在柏林的罢工Deutsche Bahn lodged an application at the labour court in Frankfurt on Thursday in an attempt to force the drivers back to work. The judges issued a compromise in the evening, which remained unpublished. At first it was unclear if the negotiating parties had agreed to the proposal or if the court was still reaching a decision.德国联邦铁路公司(德国最大的铁路运输公司)在周四向法兰克福的劳动法庭提出申请,以期迫使罢工中的司机回到工作岗位上。法官在综合考虑各个方面后给出了还未公布的折中方案。而现在谈判双方是否已经同意这个方案还是仍需要法院来做出判决尚不清楚On public television ARDs Morgenmagazin on Thursday, GDL leader Claus Weselsky declared that a precondition for any agreement was the recognition of the GDL as a negotiating partner for the conductors it represented. “Deutsche Bahn has to stop violating the fundamental rights of train drivers and conductors,said Weselsky. Thus far, management has refused to negotiate separate comprehensive agreements with the GDL.在周四德国电视一台的《晨间杂志》节目中,德国铁路司机工会组织(GDL)主席魏塞斯基宣称承认GDL是代表售票员和司机来作为谈判的一方是达成任何协议的前提条件。魏塞斯基说:“德国联邦铁路公司必须停止侵犯火车司机和售票员的基本权益。”迄今为止,管理方已经拒绝了单独同GDL达成综合协议的谈判。Strikers in Berlin柏林罢工者Deutsche Bahns judicial action was accompanied by a raging media campaign against the train drivers. Representatives of all parties attacked the strikers and demanded an end to the action. By contrast, the population has met the strike with sympathy.与此同时,媒体也开始向铁路司机发起讨伐。各方代表开始攻击罢工者,要求他们结束行动。与之形成对比的是,民众对罢工持同情态度。At Ostbahnhof in Berlin, dozens of strikers gathered to inform passengers about their demands.在柏林火车东站,许多罢工者聚集在一起向乘客阐述他们的要求。JürgenJürgen, a train driver, explained the connection between privatisation and the deterioration in working conditions. “Deutsche Bahn is always cutting back. Nothing is accepted that costs money. Care and waiting have been neglected, workshop staff laid off. As a driver, I now take on the responsibilities of a train driver, head conductor, of preparing the train, and a lot more. All for the same pay.;于尔根是一名火车司机,他解释了私有化和工作条件恶化之间的关系。“德国联邦铁路公司一直都在削减。只要是花钱的项目一律不予考虑。火车养护和等待都被忽略掉了,车间工人都被解雇了。作为一名司机,我现在不仅要做好一名火车司机,还要做乘务长,做好火车的准备工作和其它很多工作。但工资却没有增长。”Train driver Axel stated that working conditions had gotten progressively worse in recent years, and that the only direction pursued was more layoffs. “Shifts are increasingly directed towards being effective. Breaks have been reduced so much that it cant go on. Train drivers are sent across the country, have to stay overnight in hotels and are in this way separated from their families. Co-workers call this a denial of their freedom. Deutsche Bahn operates so many trains. Why cant it be organised differently?”火车司机艾克斯尔称最近几年工作条件变得尤为恶劣,并且公司唯一能做的便是解雇员工。“倒班越来越多。休假一直在减少,以至于无法继续下去。火车司机被派往全国各地,不得不在旅馆过夜,并且因此与家人分开。工友们认为这剥夺了他们的自由。巴恩公司经营着这么多的列车,为何不能在运营组织方面做出改变呢?”The workers no longer matter, only efficiency. ;All times are almost measured in seconds,; he said. The result of this burden is that workers are laid off, while those who remain have to do more overtime. ;Thats why we want to improve the conditions for all rail staff.;工人们无关紧要,只顾追求效率。“时间几乎都以秒来计算,”他说道。这种高压造成的后果是很多人离职,而剩下的必须进一步加班加点。“这就是为何我们要求改善所有铁路职工工作条件的原因。”The strike was also about organising in an independent trade union and being allowed to strike, Axel noted. “The basic principle of a large trade union is actually good, because it is strong,he said. ;But the question has to be asked, why are the DGB (German trade union confederation) unions losing so many members? Why does the Margburger Bund (doctors union) in some areas organise more staff in hospitals than Verdi? Workers dont feel they are represented by the trade unions any more.;这次罢工还涉及到独立工会的组织问题以及工人拥有罢工的权利问题。艾克斯尔提到“一个大型工会的基本原则是好的,因为这样的工会很强大。”他说道“但问题是为何德国工会联盟会丧失如此众多的会员?为何某些地方的医生工会组织到的人比威尔第工会所组织到的人多?工人们感到工会不再代表他们。”MirkoAlong with train drivers, conductors and many other rail workers who had moved from the EVG to the GDL in recent years were also present. A train conductor explained that she had joined the GDL after the head of the EVG predecessor, Norbert Hansen of Transnet, had joined company management and made millions for himself. “I thought then, this is not a trade union that represents my interests.;与火车司机一起出现在现场的还有售票员以及很多其他铁路工作者,近些年他们从铁路工会转到铁路司机工会。一位火车售票员解释说在铁路工会前任负责人Norbert Hansen加入公司管理集团后,她加入了铁路司机工会,而Hansen还获得了百万收入。“从那时起,我便想到这个工会不能代表我的利益。”There were fewer signs of the strike at the central train station in Stuttgart. In southern Germany, the number of train drivers employed as public servants is much higher than in the rest of the country. They are banned from striking. Two co-workers employed as public servants expressed their full solidarity with the strike. They were shocked by the hysteria in the media.在斯图加特中心火车站的罢工迹象更少。在德国南部,受雇成为公务员的火车司机数量比其他地区多。政府禁止他们罢工。但两位公务员同事也表示完全持罢工。媒体歇斯底里的报道令他们感到震惊。Passengers also showed their solidarity and opposed the media campaign. “As an employee I support the strike,a passenger said. ;Even though I have to wait over an hour for my train. A strike is always a means to push for demands that would otherwise be denied.;旅客们也表示持罢工,并且反对媒体的行为。“作为一名被雇佣者,我持罢工。”一位旅客说“尽管我不得不花小时等车,但罢工终归是一种手段,以争取不被接受的需求;;One only has to look at history,; Mirko, a train driver, intervened. ;Then one can say why people are leaving the EVG (the DGB-aligned rail union). The trade union and its predecessor organised the privatisation of the railway with the SPD (Social Democrats).; Since then, he added, everything has been about maximising profits. “The EVG collaborated with everything.;“人只有回顾历史才会明白,”火车司机默克打断道“为何人们要退出铁路工会。工会及其前身同社会民主党一起实施了铁路私有化。”他补充道,“从此,所有工作都为了利益最大化,铁路工会与所有人合作。”Uwe, a train driver from Berlin, also saw the defence of the right to strike as a central issue in the strike action. “Twenty five years ago, we took to the streets for our basic rights. We got rid of the unified trade union (the East German trade union), because as employees we were not represented by it. Now we are to give up these basic rights and be compelled to join a massive union. What do the politicians want from us来自柏林的火车司机尤为也看到了在罢工行动中,捍卫罢工权利是核心问题。5年前,我们走上街头争取自己的基本权利。我们抛弃了统一工会(东德工会),因为工会不再代表作为工人的我们。现在要我们放弃这些基本权利,被迫加入一个大型工会,政治家们想要从我们身上得到什么?”PatriciaAt the train station in Essen we spoke with Patricia, who works in the care sector and comes from Leipzig. She compared the hysteria in the media against the train drivers with war reporting. ;As in war, the first victim is the truth,;she said.在Essen火车站,我们与Patricia进行了交谈。她来自Leipzig,在列车养护部门工作。她把媒体反对罢工、歇斯底里般的报道形容成战争,“正如在战争中,首先牺牲的便是事实。”她说道。The media was portraying it as if all that is involved is a struggle between the trade unions. ;I dont agree with this presentation. The small trade unions are not superfluous.;媒体把罢工描述成仿佛一切都是不同工会间的一场斗争。“我不同意这个观点。小型工会并非没有必要。”She had previously experienced how bad the large trade unions in the care sector were. ;Public service union Verdi is above all concerned with fighting for its own interests, not those of the workers.; The right to have ones own union and independent strikes had to be defended.以前他曾见过在养护部门的大型工会表现极为差劲。“公共务工会Verdi首先关注的是争取自己的利益,而不是工人的利益。”我们必须捍卫拥有自己的工会和举行独立罢工的权利。来 /201411/343109

There are few happy consequences of the emergence of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, which has swept across Iraq and Syria since the beginning of the year. A rare shaft of light, however, is to be found in the rapprochement between the two biggest branches of the Islamic mainstream.“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国ISIS)从今年初以来横扫伊拉克和叙利亚的大片土地,这个组织的诞生没有带来什么好结果。但我们将可以看到一线阳光,那就是伊斯兰教两大主流教派重新修奀?Shia and Sunni Islam have been at odds for most of the past decade. But the self-declared caliphate of terror known as Isis presents them with a common challenge. And they are beginning to put aside their differences in an effort to meet it.过去十年的大部分时间里,什叶派和逊尼派争斗不休。但自封为“恐怖哈里发国”的ISIS让两个教派面临共同的挑战。为应对这一挑战,两大教派开始搁置分歧。The grand clerics of both schools the Shia from Tehran, Qom and Najaf, and the Sunni from Riyadh and Cairo have called upon their followers to take up arms against Isis. Political leaders have also declared their support for an intensified campaign. When the Iranian and Saudi foreign ministers met in New York in September, both diplomats hailed the opening of a new chapter in relations between their countries.两大教派的高级宗教领袖——德黑兰、库姆和纳杰夫的什叶派领袖、以及利雅得和开罗的逊尼派领袖——都号召各自的信徒们拿起武器抗击ISIS。政界领袖也宣布持加大抗击ISIS的力度。伊朗和沙特两国外长9月在纽约会晤,为两国关系翻开了新的篇章欢呼。For better or worse, western countries are also engaged in this complex, onerous mission.无论后果是好是坏,西方国家也参与了这项复杂而艰巨的任务。It is of paramount importance that all parties clearly understand the differences between Sunni and Shia traditions with respect to the war on Isis and other terrorist groups that claim to find justification in Islamic doctrine.至关重要的一点是,就抗击ISIS以及其他从伊斯兰教义中为自身行为找理由的恐怖组织而言,各方务必认清逊尼派和什叶派在传统上的差异。Neither traditional Sunni nor Shia clerics would recognise Isis as their own, but the group more closely follows the model of Islamic governance suggested in the teachings of Salafism, an offshoot of the Sunni school.传统逊尼派和什叶派的神职人员都不会将ISIS视为自己人,但ISIS与萨主义(Salafism)教义主张的伊斯兰教治理模式更接近,而萨是逊尼派的一。Isis did not materialise out of thin air. Its emergence was facilitated by financial and military aid from Sunni countries that support them supplied by individuals and governments alike, and initially intended to curb the influence of Shia Iran in Syria and Iraq.ISIS并非凭空出现,它的诞生得到了逊尼派国家的资金和军事持——个人和政府都参与了持——其初衷是打压什叶派国家伊朗对叙利亚和伊拉克的影响。The two Islamic factions differ in their ways of mobilising their followers in the campaign against Isis.两大教派在动员信徒参与抗击ISIS的方式上存在差异。In Shia tradition, this is straightforward because religious leadership is centralised. For instance, Ayatollah Khamenei in Iran and Ayatollah Sistani in Iraq can issue a fatwa urging their followers to join the fight. Hundreds of thousands of their followers would take up arms without hesitation. These leaders carry with them a huge mass of support.按照什叶派传统,这种动员是直接的,因为什叶派的宗教领导权是集中的。例如,伊朗的阿亚图#8226;阿里#8226;哈梅内伊(Ayatollah Ali Khamenei)和伊拉克的“大阿雅图拉席斯塔尼Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani)可以发出教令,敦促信徒参与战斗。他们的数十万名信徒会毫不犹豫地拿起武器。这些领袖有着非常广泛的持。But under Sunni Islam there is no central authority and no hierarchy, making the issue far more complicated. That is precisely why it is possible for a charismatic, authoritarian leader to assume control of a radical movement albeit a limited one.但在逊尼派中不存在中央集权,也没有宗教学者等级制度,因此问题要复杂得多。这恰恰就是使得一个富有魅力的威权领袖有可能控制一个激进运动团体(尽管控制力有限)的原因。This decentralisation gives the extremists latitude to develop their own ing and understanding of jihad. In the absence of central authority, preventing fundamentalist Sunni Muslims is a daunting task. So is thwarting financial or political support of extremists by this non-governmental force in the Sunni world.这种非中央集权的特点让极端分子能够对圣战做自己的解读和理解。没有中央宗教权威,使得遏制原教旨主义逊尼派穆斯林的任务变得极其艰巨。阻止逊尼派世界这股非政府势力为极端分子提供资金和政治持,也同样不容易。Major governmental Sunni players in the region, namely Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Turkey have taken contrasting approaches towards extremist groups. Qatar’s support for the Muslim Brotherhood created friction with Saudi Arabia and tensions have also appeared between Turkey and Saudi Arabia over their support for opposed currents of extremism in Syria and Egypt.该地区的主要逊尼派国家,也就是沙特、卡塔尔和土耳其,对不同的极端主义团体采取了相互矛盾的对待方式。卡塔尔因为持穆斯林兄弟会(Muslim Brotherhood)与沙特产生擦,土耳其和沙特也因为持叙利亚和埃及相互对立的极端主义潮流而关系紧张。The coalition built by America to check the advance of Isis must pay careful attention to these facts.美国牵头建立旨在阻止ISIS发展的联盟,必须注意上述事实。Sunni players in the region should be urged to cut their support for the terrorist groups. International measures should be taken to prevent sympathisers elsewhere from providing financial or material support. A co-ordinated approach was largely successful in starving al-Qaeda of support.必须敦促该地区的逊尼派势力停止持恐怖主义团体。国际社会必须采取措施,防止其他地方的同情者为这些团体提供资金或物资持。在切断外界对基地组al-Qaeda)持的努力中,各方合作的方式就在很大程度上取得了成功。Violent extremism that claims to act in the name of Islam has emerged as a monster that may come back and haunt Sunni states. But this threat has also created an opportunity. Shia and Sunni Muslims now face a common, grievous enemy. They must settle their differences and confront the danger together before events spiral even further out of control.打着伊斯兰教旗号的暴力极端主义魔鬼已经诞生,可能会回过头来袭扰逊尼派国家。但这种威胁也创造了一个机会。什叶派和逊尼派穆斯林眼下面对一个共同的可怕敌人。两派必须在事态进一步失控之前解决分歧、共同面对危险。For the Sunni states to succeed in this mission, difficult as it may be, they should put their differences aside and unify against the dark forces that threaten their stability and even their existence.逊尼派国家要完成这项任务,就必须抛开分歧,团结起来——尽管做到这些很困难——共同反抗威胁本国稳定、乃至带来亡国威胁的黑暗势力。The west particularly the US, as the leader of this coalition should recognise that as things stand the only unified actors in the Islamic world are the Shia. This force cannot be ignored. It should assume its proper place as the pillar of this vital campaign.西方、尤其是领导联盟的美国应该认识到,就眼下的情况来看,伊斯兰世界里唯一团结的力量就是什叶派,决不能忽视这股力量。什叶派应该在这场关键的战斗中扮演起应有的角色,充当顶梁柱。The writer, a former Iranian diplomat, is author of ‘Iran and the ed States: An Insider’s View on the Failed Past and the Road to Peace’注:本文作者是伊朗前外交官,著有《伊朗和美国:一个局内人对失败的过去与和平之路的看法Iran and the ed States: An Insider’s View on the Failed Past and the Road to Peace)一书。来 /201410/339277

Acontinent that not so long ago thought its modernity eternally secure now finds precious liberties under siege. In France, the attack by Islamist extremists on the offices of the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo marked an assault on the pivotal Enlightenment value of freedom of expression. Elsewhere most recently in Germany Islamophobic extremists are challenging the tolerance on which Europe has built its peace. This is an unholy alliance against democracy.不久前还自认为其现代性永久稳固的欧洲大陆,如今发现其所珍视的自由受到了围攻。发生在法国的伊斯兰极端分子对讽刺杂志《查理周刊Charlie Hebdo)办公楼的袭击,标志着一次对启蒙运动核心价值观——言论自由的攻击。在其他地方(最新的例子是德国),具有伊斯兰恐惧症的极端分子正在挑战社会宽容,而欧洲和平正是基于宽容而建立起来的。这是一个反民主的邪恶联盟。The response to the killings in Paris was heartening. Leaders found the right words. Fran#231;ois Hollande looked uncommonly presidential as he said that France had been attacked because it was a nation of freedom. Chancellor Angela Merkel, who seems to have been making the important connections between the various threats to Europe’s democratic order, talked of an assault on the “values we all hold dear Days earlier she had called on her compatriots to boycott the swelling protests in some German cities orchestrated by the self-styled Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamization of the West.对此次发生在巴黎的杀戮惨剧,国际社会的反应令人欣慰。各国领导人发表了恰当的言论。法国总统弗朗索瓦#8226;奥朗Fran#231;ois Hollande)说,法国之所以受到攻击,是因为它是一个自由的国度;他说出这话的那一刻看起来异乎寻常地有总统气派。德国总理安格#8226;默克Angela Merkel)似乎在逐渐认清危及欧洲民主秩序的各种威胁之间的重要联系,她说这是一次对“我们共同珍视的价值观”的攻击。几天前,她还呼吁她的同胞共同抵制在一些德国城市不断蔓延的抗议活动。这些抗议是由一个自称“爱国的欧洲人反对西方世界伊斯兰化Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamization of the West)的组织所策划的。The crowds pouring into the squares and streets of Paris holding aloft Je Suis Charlie placards, and the vigils in cities across Europe, were a reminder that, for all their disenchantment with ruling elites, people will not lightly surrender their liberties. From time to time you hear it said that we are living in an age when authoritarianism will flourish at the expense of democracy. I am not so sure that freedom and human dignity will be so easily given up. As Mr Hollande said, liberty will always be stronger than barbarism.在巴黎,人群涌入广场和街头,高举“我是查理”的标语牌。遍布欧洲许多城市的守夜活动则提醒我们:尽管对统治精英不抱有任何幻想,但人民不会轻易放弃属于自己的自由。你会不时地听到有人说,在我们所生活的这个时代,威权主义会以牺牲民主为代价蓬勃发展。我则不太相信自由和人类尊严会被这么轻易放弃。正如奥朗德所说,自由将永远比野蛮更强大。The purpose of the murderers in Paris, of course, was to frame a different conflict. They are as eager as the thugs and neo-nazis behind the demonstrations sping out from the German city of Dresden to light fires of hostility between Islam and the west. Nothing better suits the followers of al-Qaeda and the so-called Islamic State than talk of a clash of civilisations. What they pray for as they go about their murder is that they will provoke a backlash against all Muslims.当然,巴黎惨案行凶者的目的是要制造一种不同的冲突。他们与煽动德国游行示威(从德累斯顿蔓延到德国其他城市)的那些恶棍和新纳粹分子一样,急切地想要在伊斯兰世界与西方之间点燃敌对之火。没有什么比谈论文明冲突更让基地组织(al-Qaeda)和所谓伊斯兰IS)的追随者称心如意的了。他们在实施屠杀时满心希望的就是,自己的行为能够引发针对所有穆斯林的对立情绪。On the other side, the populist right casts Islam as a threat to what they say is Europe’s uniquely Christian heritage. This is a battle between fundamentalists jointly wedded to pre-Enlightenment intolerance and united in their social conservatism. The jihadis want sharia; the xenophobes ethnic and cultural homogeneity. In the clash of identity politics, neither side has time for ideas, for debate or diversity.另一方面,右翼民粹主义将穆斯林描绘成对他们所谓欧洲独特基督教传统的威胁。这是一场不同原教旨主义者之间的斗争,他们都吸收了启蒙运动前的那种不宽容,又团结于他们的社会保守主义思想。伊斯兰圣战分子(Jihadis)想要伊斯兰教sharia law);而排外主义者要的是民族和文化的纯粹性。在身份政治(identity politics)的冲突中,双方都没有时间思考或辩论,也无暇顾及多元化。The task for mainstream political leaders is to ensure that the outpouring of solidarity with the murdered journalists and police officers, and an implacable defence of freedom of expression do not tip over into ugly nationalism. Most obviously, the danger in France is that this week’s outrage will confer respectability on the Islamophobia of Marine Le Pen’s National Front. The polls aly suggest she could win the first round of a presidential contest.主流政治领导人的任务是要保,记者和警察被杀后社会展现出的团结一致以及对言论自由毫不妥协的捍卫,不会异化成丑陋的民族主义。最明显的是,法国面临这样一种危险,即近期的愤怒情绪可能为马琳#8226;勒庞(Marine Le Pen)领导的国民阵National Front)的反穆斯林宣传得好感。民意调查已经显示,勒庞有可能在第一轮总统选举中获胜。Europe’s populist right comes in all shapes and sizes. The National Front in France was rooted in anti-semitism before Ms Le Pen judged Islam a better target. In countries such as Hungary, where an authoritarian prime minister publicly disdains the liberal democratic tradition, old anti-Jewish hatreds are allowed to flourish. In Britain, the chosen scapegoats of the UK Independence party are imm-igrants from the post-communist east.欧洲有形形色色的右翼民粹主义。在勒庞发现穆斯林是一个更好的“靶子”之前,法国国民阵线曾坚定地宣扬反犹太主义。在匈牙利,威权主义的总理公开鄙视自由民主传统,古老的反犹仇恨则获准肆虐泛滥。在英国,英国独立党(UKIP)选择的替罪羊则是来自后共产主义东欧的移民。The protests in Germany, amplified by the darker chapters in the nation’s history, notionally have been directed against Berlin’s generosity in welcoming refugees from the wars in the Middle East. Yet they risk throwing struggling members of a fearful working class into the arms of racists and neo-Nazis.德国的抗议活动(被该国历史中的黑暗时期所放大)名义上是反对德国政府慷慨接纳中东战事带来的难民。然而,这些抗议有将胆怯的工薪阶层中的贫困成员推入种族主义者和新纳粹分子的怀抱的风险。Another important connection well drawn by Ms Merkel in her recent warnings about the myriad threats to European democracy has been the way these groups draw succour from Moscow.在其近期针对危及欧洲民主的种种危机发出的警告中,默克尔强调的另一个重要联系是,这些极端群体从莫斯科方面汲取帮助。Vladimir Putin, the Russian president, condemns alleged “fascistsin Kiev but bankrolls the far right elsewhere. Mr Putin’s ambitions, as Ms Merkel has observed, reach beyond Ukraine into the weak states of the Balkans. Shared xenophobia, reverence for a strong state, and cultural conservatism are indifferent to left-right divides.俄罗斯总统弗拉基米#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)谴责基辅的所谓“法西斯主义者”,但却资助其他地方的极右势力。正如默克尔曾说过的,普京的野心超越了乌克兰,直指巴尔干半岛的弱小国家。共同的仇外心理、对强大国家的敬畏以及文化保守主义是不分左右的。Europe does not have “a Muslim problem It has failed to integrate properly many of its immigrants, and a big proportion of those left on the margins are Muslims. The march of Islamophobia into the social democratic bastions of the Nordic states sounds a serious alarm. The thousands of young Europeans fighting in Syria point up an undeniable threat from the radicalisation of the dispossessed. Islamist fundamentalism offers them an identity absent in their own communities.欧洲不存在“穆斯林问题”。欧洲有很多移民没有充分地融入社会,社会边缘群体中很大部分是穆斯林。社会民主党影响力强大的北欧国家也患上了伊斯兰恐惧症,这拉响了高级别警报。成千上万的欧洲年轻人到叙利亚参战,清楚地表明了一无所有者走向极端带来的威胁。伊斯兰原教旨主义为他们提供了他们在本国社会无法获得的身份认同。On the other side of the fence, economic stagnation and austerity serve as a powerful recruiting sergeant for the extremist right. European history is littered with the corpses of scapegoats.另一方面,经济停滞和紧缩政策有力地推动了极右势力的发展壮大。欧洲的历史到处是替罪羊的尸首。There is no quick fix, even if I wish Ms Merkel’s insights extended to a more urgent appreciation of the need to restore economic growth. The most important thing, though, is to hold on to those values. Ideas are what count.现在没有什么速效对策,即使我希望默克尔能够同样明智地意识到,欧洲更迫切需要的是重启经济增长。不过最重要的是,我们要坚持自己的价值观。观念才是最重要的。When Charlie Hebdo was firebombed some years ago Stephane Charbonnier, its leading journalist, reflected that it was not the work of French Muslims but of “idiot extremists Charbonnier perished in the latest attack. The rest of us should hold on to his reflection.当《查理周刊》几年前被投掷燃烧弹时,该刊主编斯特凡纳#8226;沙尼Stephane Charbonnier)反思说,这不是法国穆斯林干的,而是“愚蠢的极端分子”所为。沙尼耶在最近这次袭击中遇害。我们生者应该铭记他说过的话。来 /201501/353865

The price of oil rose on Thursday as Saudi jets bombed Houthi rebels in the Yemeni capital, raising fears that the civil conflict in the Gulf state could escalate into a regional war.油价周四上涨。沙特飞机轰炸也门首都萨那的胡塞(Houthi)反政府武装,外界担心这个海湾国家的国内冲突升级为一场地区性的战争。Saudi Arabia, backed by a 10-country Sunni coalition, launched the air strikes early on Thursday against targets in Houthi-controlled Sana’a, including the airport and a military air base.在由10个国家组成的逊尼派联盟的持下,沙特阿拉伯周四凌晨对胡塞控制的萨那目标(包括机场和空军基地)发动空袭。The Houthis responded by firing rockets across the northern border into Saudi territory.作为回应,胡塞组织在北部边境向沙特境内发射了火箭弹。The Saudi attacks marked a big escalation of the Yemen crisis, in which the Shia Houthis, who are backed by Iran, are fighting to oust the country’s president, Abd Rabbuh Hadi, who is backed by Saudi Arabia and its Sunni allies.沙特的袭击标志着也门危机的一大升级。在这场危机中,伊朗持的什叶派的胡塞武装试图推翻也门总统阿卜拉布#8226;哈迪(Abd Rabbuh Hadi),而后者得到沙特及其逊尼派盟友的持。Oil prices rose as much as 6 per cent on Thursday in response to the strikes, though they later fell back slightly. Brent crude, the international benchmark, rose .36 to .84 a barrel, while West Texas Intermediate, the US benchmark, rose .62 to .83.空袭发生后,油价周四一度上%,尽管后来略有回萀?国际基准布伦特原油(Brent crude)上涨2.36美元,至每桶58.84美元,而美国基准西德克萨斯中质原油(West Texas Intermediate)上涨1.62美元,至每桶50.83美元。The fighting has raised concerns about the vulnerability of the Bab el-Mandeb strait between Yemen and Djibouti, which has been identified by the US Department of Energy as a potential “chokepointin the global oil market.这场战火引发了人们对于也门和吉布提之间的曼德海峡(Bab el-Mandeb strait)脆弱性的担忧,美国能源部认为这里是全球石油市场一个潜在的“阻塞点”。On average, almost 4m barrels of oil pass daily through the strait, which connects the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea and is only 18 miles wide at its narrowest point. Tankers carrying crude from Saudi Arabia, the ed Arab Emirates, Kuwait and Iraq have to pass through it to reach the Suez Canal and Europe.平均而言,每天有00万桶石油通过这一连接红海与亚丁湾和阿拉伯海的海峡,其最窄处的宽度只8英里。从沙特、阿联酋、科威特和伊拉克出发的油轮,必须通过这个海峡才能抵达苏伊士运河乃至欧洲。But analysts say neither side in the Yemen conflict has the kind of weaponry that would pose a serious threat to tankers in the Bab el-Mandeb.但分析师们表示,也门冲突双方都没有足以对曼德海峡的油轮构成严重威胁的那种武器。Richard Mallinson, geopolitical analyst at Energy Aspects, said he doubted the Houthis could carry out a “sustained campaign against shipping and also noted there was “no real threat to Saudi territory or oil productionEnergy Aspects的地缘政治分析师理查#8226;马林Richard Mallinson)表示,他对胡塞武装“对航运展开持续攻击”的能力表示怀疑,并指出,“沙特境内或石油生产并未真正受到威胁”。However, the overnight strikes set the stage for a broader, more direct confrontation between Shia Iran and Saudi Arabia and its Sunni allies in the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC).然而,这波夜间空袭为什叶派的伊朗与沙特及其逊尼派盟友在海湾合作委员GCC)展开更广泛、更直接的对抗搭起了舞台。来 /201503/367315

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