襄阳第四人民医院泌尿系统在线咨询百科晚报

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年02月25日 11:52:50
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Three hours of TV a day #39;doubles early death risk. Watching TV for three hours a day can be deadly – doubling your risk of dying early, warn researchers.研究人员警示大家:每天看电视三小时是有致命伤害的——让早死的风险提高一倍。A new study from Spain adds to evidence that time spent in front of the box is potentially life-threatening.来自西班牙的一项新的研究发现也符合这一论点:看电视的时间是有潜在生命威胁的。Researchers believe too much sitting – as opposed to insufficient activity – may be a new risk factor for premature death and illness such as diabetes and heart disease.研究人员认为久坐——和运动不足不同——可能会是早死和诸如糖尿病、心脏病等疾病的风险因素。Professor Miguel Martinez-Gonzalez, chair of the Department of Public Health at the University of Navarra in Pamplona, who led the study, said ‘Television viewing is a major sedentary behaviour and there is an increasing trend toward all types of sedentary behaviours.米格尔·马丁内斯-冈萨雷斯教授,现任位于西班牙潘普洛纳市的纳瓦拉大学公共健康学院主席,领导了这项研究。他讲道,“看电视是项主要的久坐行为,且现在各种形式的久坐行为都开始增加了。”‘Our findings are consistent with a range of previous studies where time spent watching television was linked to mortality.’“我们的发现和一系列之前的研究发现相符,看电视和死亡率有关。”Researchers assessed 13,284 young and healthy Spanish university graduates, average age 37, to investigate possible links between three types of sedentary behaviour and risk of death: television viewing time, computer time and driving time.研究小组调研了13284名健康年轻西班牙大学毕业生, 平均年龄为37岁,以此研究三种久坐行为:看电视时间、用电脑时间和开车时间与死亡风险的关系。The participants were followed for around eight years, when there were 97 deaths, including 19 deaths from cardiovascular causes, 46 from cancer and 32 from other causes.调研对象被追踪了大约8年,期间97人死亡,其中19人死于心血管病46人死于癌症,32人因其他原因死亡。The risk of premature death was twofold higher for those watching three or more hours of TV a day compared to those watching one hour or less.每天看电视3小时及以上的人,其早死风险比看电视不超过1小时者高出一倍。This twofold higher risk was also apparent after accounting for many other variables related to a higher risk of death, says a report published in the Journal of the American Heart Association.《美国心脏学会期刊》发表的一篇报告显示,在考虑了很多其他增加死亡风险的因素后,看电视3小时及以上加倍早死风险这一论点仍然显而易见。Researchers found no significant association between the time spent using a computer or driving and higher risk of premature death from all causes.研究人员发现,用电脑和开车的时间与早死风险之间未见明显关联。Researchers said further studies are needed to determine the biological mechanisms that may be involved.研究人员表明,尚需更多研究以确认用电脑和开车背后的生物学机制。Prof Martinez-Gonzalez said ‘As the population ages, sedentary behaviours will become more prevalent, especially watching television, and this poses an additional burden on the increased health problems related to aging.马丁内斯-冈萨雷斯教授讲道,随着人口老龄化,久坐行为日益普遍,尤其是看电视。人日渐衰老后健康问题会增多,而看电视造成了“额外的健康负担”。‘Our findings suggest adults may consider increasing their physical activity, avoid long sedentary periods, and reduce television watching to no longer than one to two hours each day’ he added.“根据研究发现,建议成年人多运动,少久坐,每天看电视的时间控制在一到两小时内。”他补充道。In the UK, the average amount of time spent watching TV is four hours a day compared with five hours in the US.在英国,人们每天看电视的平均时间是4小时,美国是5小时。Previous research found people who watch six hours of TV a day cut short their lifespan by five years compared with someone who watches no TV.先前研究发现,和不看电视的人相比,每天看6小时电视的人寿命会减少5年。People who sit for longer have bigger waist sizes, and higher levels of cholesterol, blood sugar and triglycerides.久坐的人,腰围更大,胆固醇、血糖和甘油三酯的含量也更高。The average adult spends 90 per cent of their leisure time sitting down and less than half of adults meet World Health Organisation physical activity recommendations.成人平均90%的空闲时间都是坐着的,且做到“世界健康组织”身体运动推荐的不到一半。In the UK, adults are urged to do 150 minutes of activity a week to promote health.英国鼓励成人每星期做150分钟的运动以增进健康。Other work suggests sedentary behaviour is linked to obesity, high levels of bad blood fats and other heart disease risk factors, and more opportunities for grazing on junk foods.其他研究显示久坐会导致肥胖 ,坏血脂指数提高,罹患其他心脏疾病的风险增加,还会让人摄入更多垃圾食品。US research earlier this year found young men who watch TV for just three hours a day have half the sperm count of men who rarely watch TV.美国今年初的研究显示,年轻男子每天看电视超过3小时的,和很少看电视的相比,精子数量会少一半。 /201406/308578A Chinese man has ensured that his movie night on Friday will not be ruined by snuggling couples, after he bought every other seat at a cinema in Shanghai.一名中国男子在情人节当天一下子买光了上海一家电影院放映厅的所有隔座,这也保了他观影时不被你侬我侬的情侣干扰。The unnamed man’s anti-Valentine’s triumph was made possible after he set up a campaign on a crowdfunding site in order to be able to afford all the tickets.这位匿名男子成功地进行了一场“反情人节运动”。此前该男子曾在网上发起活动,来募集资金购买所有的单座票。Thanks to his campaign, a Valentine’s Day showing of the film Beijing Love Story at a movie theatre in the city’s Xintiandi shopping centre now only offers odd seats.由于这位男子发起的活动,情人节当日在上海新天地一家影院中,电影《北京爱情故事》场次只出售单座票。The man, only identifying himself by the online nickname UP, described himself to the Shanghai Morning Post as a ‘computer nerd’.这位男子网名为“UP”,他向《新闻晨报》透露自己是一名“电脑迷”。After breaking up with his girlfriend last year, he is no longer interested in finding himself stuck between loved-up couples on Friday.去年“UP”与女友分手,他表示没兴趣在周五情人节挤在甜蜜的情侣之间。UP explained to the newspaper that the stunt was difficult to pull off as the theatres online bookings system refused him to reserve odd seats, and the staff at the cinema refused his request.“UP”对《新闻晨报》说,买光单座的方法很难实施,在线订票系统不允许他只订单座票,影院方面也拒绝了他的请求。‘I also didn#39;t have enough money. So finally a friend recommended that I start a campaign on a crowdfunding site, and there were enough single internet friends out there to help me raise the money to do this sort of thing.#39;“我也没这么多钱,所以最后我朋友建议我去集资网站上发起一个活动,那里应该有很多感兴趣的单身网友,也许会帮我募集资金来完成这个活动。”#39;I hope all lovers understand this is just a small joke,#39; he added.他还说:“我希望情侣们能理解,这只是我们单身族的一个小小的恶作剧。”After the online campaign, UP and his group of defiant singles have bought every other seat in the cinema, so that no two adjacent seats are available to purchase.在线上募集好资金后,“UP”和一群“反情人节”的单身族在一家影院里买光了所有的单号座,这样就没有连在一起的座位供情侣们购买了。 /201402/276275

  London (CNN) -- November is the season for poppies in Britain:Red paper flowers to remember those fallen in war.伦敦(CNN)--十一月的英国是罂粟花的季节:鲜红的纸花缅怀的是战争的亡魂。The tradition dates back to World War I; the paper blooms -- reminiscent of those that grew over the battlefields of Flanders -- are sold by thousands of volunteers, at train stations, in shops, and in offices.这个传统起源于第一次世界大战;这种纸花使人追忆起在佛兰德斯的战场上盛开的花朵。在火车站、商场、办公楼,成千的志愿者都在卖纸花。Pinned to the lapels of everyone from the man and woman in the street to news anchors and celebrities, the poppies raise money for the Royal British Legion, a charity which supports serving and former soldiers and their families.从男士到女士,从街头行人到新闻主持人和社会名流,所有人衣领上都别着这种罂粟花。卖花所得的资金都会捐给英国皇家退伍军人协会,用来帮助那些现役和退伍军人和他们的家人。Enter the Poppy Hijab: a Muslim head scarf with the iconic poppy print, launched by the Islamic Society of Britain, and sold online by British Future, with the money going to the Poppy Appeal.罂粟花头巾的诞生:大不列颠伊斯兰协会发布的穆斯林头巾,带有罂粟花印花图案,通过英国未来在网上销售,而销售所得还是交给罂粟花募捐。The hijab was launched to commemorate Khudadad Khan, the first Muslim to receive the Victoria Cross 100 years ago.这种头巾是用来纪念Khudadad Khan——一百年前第一个获得维多利亚十字勋章的穆斯林。;Of the 1.2 million soldiers, Indian soldiers that fought in World War I, 400,000 were Muslim,; Sughar Ahmed President of the Islamic Society of Britain told CNN. ;That really hits home to me. Because that#39;s part of my heritage. That#39;s part of who I am.;“在第一次世界大战中一百二十万印度士兵参战,其中有四十万是穆斯林,”大不列颠伊斯兰协会主席Sughar Ahmed告诉CNN。“这深深地影响着我。因为那是我血统的一部分,也是我自己的一部分。”But wearing a poppy is a sensitive issue for many British Muslims. In 2010, an extremist Muslim group set the paper flowers on fire in protest at British troops in Afghanistan and Iraq. Their act angered Britons and polarized opinion among many British Muslims.但是对很多英国穆斯林来说,带罂粟花头巾是一个敏感的话题。2010年,一个极端穆斯林团体点燃了纸折罂粟,抗议英国军队进军阿富汗和伊拉克。这个行为让英国人震怒,也造成很多英国穆斯林意见不一。Online, the scarf has received a mixed reception, with some taking to Twitter to mock it as a test of British loyalty.在网络上,这种头巾引起不同的声音,有人在Twitter上调侃说,这个头巾是用来评判对英国的忠诚度。I#39;m outraged at the fact that the ISB want me to wear a#poppyhijab. My hijaab is symbolic of my religious conviction not a billboard!伊斯兰协会让人带罂粟花头巾的行为让人愤怒。我的头巾是我宗教信仰的标志,不是一个广告牌!British Muslims #39;urged#39; to wear#poppyhijab. Translation: wear it to prove you#39;re properly British.英国穆斯林佩戴罂粟花头巾的潜台词就是为了明他(她)确实是个英国人。Sughar Ahmed acknowledges the criticism, but reiterates that it#39;s a choice to buy and wear the scarf, not a test.Sughar Ahmed 感谢了这些,但再次强调佩戴这个头巾只是一个选择,不是忠诚度检测。;One thing that I think is really intrinsic to this whole debate about the poppy is that we do have a choice,; she says. ;That, for me, is really quite significant -- because that#39;s what people fought for. For our freedoms. So that we could have a democracy. We could have a choice.”“我想所有关于这朵罂粟花的争论中有一个最本质的东西,那就是我们完全自由选择,”她说。“这对我来说意义重大,因为这就是人所争取的,为了我们的自由。这样我们就能拥有民主,拥有选择。”In the streets near the East London Mosque, reviews of the poppy hijab were more positive.在东伦敦清真寺附近的街道上,对罂粟花头巾的看法则积极得多。Asked if she would consider wearing the poppy hijab, one woman in a headscarf with green flowers told CNN: ;Well, I usually wear the poppy. The red one. But a headscarf? Yeah, as long as it goes with my outfit, why not?;当问到她是否考虑会带罂粟花头巾时,这名带着绿色花朵头巾的女士是这样回答的:“我一般会带罂粟花,红色的那种。至于罂粟花头巾嘛?只要能和我的衣搭配,就没有问题。” /201411/340629

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  The sneezing. The coughing. The lethargy. It#39;s enough to make a cold sufferer#39;s appetite disappear completely. Studies show that certain foods can help alleviate the symptoms of a common cold-and sometimes shorten its duration. One expert, Sharon Horesh Bergquist, assistant professor at Emory School of Medicine and a primary-care physician with a specialty in internal medicine at Emory Healthcare, offers her take on what to eat and what to avoid.-Heidi Mitchell.打喷嚏,咳嗽,无精打采,这些足以让一位感冒患者胃口全无。研究显示,某些食品可以帮助缓解普通感冒症状,有时还可以缩短病程。埃默里大学医学院(Emory School of Medicine)助理教授、埃默里医疗集团(Emory Healthcare)内科初级治疗医师伯奎斯特(Sharon Horesh Bergquist)是这方面的专家。她提供了有关感冒饮食和禁忌的建议。 /201312/269609Regular exercise is supposed to boost a person#39;s energy levels. So why do so many fitness fans complain of feeling fatigued during the afternoon? Making things worse, this workout-induced weariness can make it difficult to stick to a workout regimen. 有规律的锻炼按说能让人精力更加充沛,可为什么那么多健身爱好者却抱怨下午有疲乏感觉呢?更糟糕的是,这种由体育锻炼引发的疲劳感会让人很难把健身计划坚持下去。 Researchers and fitness trainers say whether you exercise in the morning, afternoon or evening, small changes in your routine can keep you from suffering midday blahs. 对此,研究人员和健身教练表示,不管你是早晨、下午还是晚上锻炼,只要对例行健身计划稍作调整,就能防止中午出现疲倦感。 Midday is the ideal time to exercise, some fitness experts say. A workout then can give you an energy boost lasting three to four hours, says James McKenna, a professor of physical activity and health at Leeds Metropolitan University in England. A study published in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine in 2011 monitored 171 employees at a large Swedish public dental-health group who were assigned to an exercise program during work hours. They reported increased productivity and fewer missed workdays. 英国利兹都市大学(Leeds Metropolitan University)的身体活动和健康教授詹姆斯#12539;麦克纳(James McKenna)称,中午锻炼带来的提神效果能够持续三到四个小时。在《职业和环境医学期刊》(Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine) 2011年刊登的一篇论文中,研究人员对瑞典一家大型大众口腔健康集团171名加入工作时间健身项目的雇员进行了监测。这些雇员称,他们的工作效率有所提高,工作时间请假也减少了。 If you prefer working out in the evenings, it#39;s best to avoid exercising two to three hours before bedtime to avoid sleep disruption, the National Institutes of Health says. On the other hand, if you are a morning exerciser and not getting seven to nine hours of sleep, Lona Sandon, a Dallas fitness instructor and assistant clinical nutrition professor at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, suggests getting to bed earlier or exercising in the evening. 美国国家健康研究院(National Institutes of Health)称,如果你更喜欢晚上健身,最好避免在就寝前两到三小时锻炼,以免干扰睡眠。另一方面,达拉斯的健身指导、德克萨斯大学西南医学中心(University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)临床营养学助理教授洛纳#12539;桑登(Lona Sandon)建议,如果你喜欢早锻炼,而且一天的睡眠时间达不到七至九个小时,可以早一点就寝或者改为晚上锻炼。 To avoid midday fatigue and preserve energy throughout the day, most trainers recommend doing more moderate workouts, meaning those in which you hit 70% to 80% of your target heart rate. #39;Listen to what your body is telling you,#39; says Ms. Sandon. #39;If you have a high-stress work environment then vigorous workouts may not make you feel better. You might be better off with restorative yoga so your brain can slow down.#39; 要避免中午感觉疲乏,让全天都能保持充沛的精力,多数健身教练的建议是多做些中等强度的锻炼,也就是让心跳达到目标心率70%至80%的运动。桑登说:“要倾听你身体发出的声音,如果你处在压力很大的工作环境中,那么剧烈运动或许不能让你感觉更舒。做修复瑜伽效果可能会更好,这样你的大脑能够放松下来。” An ideal schedule would be two to three high-intensity workouts during the week, mixed in with lighter workouts like yoga, walking or weight training, say fitness experts. 健身专家称,理想的安排是一周进行两到三次高强度锻炼,并加入瑜伽、健走或负重训练等强度较低的项目。 And mix up your workouts throughout the week -- either with cardio, core and flexibility each time, or a rotation of workouts emphasizing endurance, strength and stretching. It not only keeps you energized, it also helps you burn calories throughout the week, says Annie Malaythong, a certified personal trainer in Atlanta who teaches fitness workshops around the U.S. for National Academy of Sports Medicine in Chandler, Ariz. 此外,在一周的锻炼中把不同项目结合起来──可以每次同时进行有氧运动、核心肌群训练和柔韧性训练,也可以轮换进行耐力、力量和伸展性训练。亚特兰大的注册个人健身教练安妮#12539;马莱通(Annie Malaythong)称,这种安排不仅能让你保持充沛的精力,还能帮助你在整整一周的时间里燃烧卡路里。马莱通受亚利桑那州钱德勒(Chandler)的美国国家运动医学学院(National Academy of Sports Medicine)委派,在全美的健身工作室进行教学。 Nutrition is just as important as moving to keep from feeling fatigued, Ms. Malaythong says. She suggests eating something every three hours, including a snack such as a small piece of fruit an hour before a workout and a meal of protein and carbohydrates within the hour after. 马莱通表示,要想不感觉疲乏,营养和运动同等重要。她建议每三小时吃点东西,包括在健身前一小时吃点零食,比如一小片水果,并在健身后一小时之内吃一餐含蛋白质和碳水化合物的膳食。 The wrong food can leave you feeling depleted. #39;That breakfast pastry or a fast food lunch can sap your energy,#39; says Samantha Heller, an exercise physiologist and a senior clinical nutritionist at New York University. 吃得不合适会让你感觉精疲力尽。纽约大学(New York University)的运动生理学家、高级临床营养学家萨曼莎#12539;赫勒(Samantha Heller)表示:“早餐吃糕点或者午餐吃快餐会消耗你的精力。” And remember to sip water during workouts and throughout the day, says Ms. Heller. #39;When you#39;re not hydrated, you will feel fatigued,#39; she says. #39;You may not know why, but you will feel it.#39; 赫勒说,还要记得在健身间隙喝点水,一天之中也要不断喝水。她说:“当你缺水时会感到疲乏。你可能不知道原因,但你确实会有疲乏的感觉。” So why do so many people suffer from the midday blahs? 那么,为什么有这么多人中午感到疲乏呢? According to Charles Czeisler, director of Harvard Medical School#39;s Division of Sleep Medicine, the internal biological clock in the brain#39;s hypothalamus guides daily rhythms of your body temperature, melatonin, blood pressure, sleep and wakefulness. 哈佛医学院(Harvard Medical School)睡眠医学部(Division of Sleep Medicine)的负责人查尔斯#12539;蔡斯勒(Charles Czeisler)表示,位于丘脑下部的体内生物钟调控着你每天的体温、褪黑素分泌、血压、睡眠和清醒节律。 As the drive for sleep builds up during the day, it produces midday sleepiness for many people, Dr. Czeisler says. It also causes a surge in alertness that peaks in the late evening, he says. Exposure to artificial light in the evening can extend that second wind into the night, making it difficult to fall asleep and deepening the midday trough in alertness, he says. 蔡斯勒称,白天睡眠动力不断增强,导致许多人中午犯困,还会导致警觉清醒程度在傍晚时分急剧上升,达到高峰。他还称,晚间接触人工照明会将这种精力恢复的状态延长到夜晚,让人难以入睡,并加剧中午的觉醒低谷。 Sitting for a long stretch of time can make people feel more tired, says Natalie Muth, a San Diego primary-care pediatrician and health-care solutions director at the American Council on Exercise, a nonprofit that provides fitness certification and training. Moving your body, even for just a few minutes, can get the blood pumping in your body. #39;The heart begins to beat faster, delivering more blood and oxygen to working cells,#39; says Dr. Muth. This increases the release of hormones like endorphins, which not only help people feel good, but also reverses fatigue. 迭戈的家庭儿科医生、美国运动协会(American Council on Exercise)(这是一家提供健身认和训练的非盈利机构)医疗保健解决方案负责人纳塔莉#12539;穆特(Natalie Muth)称,久坐会让人感觉更加疲惫。活动一下身体,哪怕只有几分钟,也能够让血液注入你的身体。穆特称:“心脏开始加速跳动,向工作细胞输送更多血液和氧气。”这会促进内啡?等荷尔蒙的释放,不仅能让人感觉更舒,还能消除疲劳。 Ms. Malaythong says staying energized involves trial and error, perhaps tweaking the intensity of a weekly workout routine, trying to eat more nutritiously, staying hydrated and getting enough sleep. And she emphasizes the importance of moving throughout the day. She tells clients to climb stairs, do upper-body stretches, go for brisk 10-minute walks, or write the A#39;s with their big toe at their desks. #39;I encourage as much activity as they can handle,#39; she says. 马莱通表示,要想保持充沛的精力,需要不断试错,也许要调整每周例行锻炼方案的强度,设法吃得更营养,保持充足水分,获得充足的睡眠。她还强调了在一天中多活动的重要性。她让客户爬楼梯,做上身伸展运动,用10分钟做短时散步,或者用拇趾在办公桌上写字母。她说:“我鼓励人们尽可能地多活动。” /201309/258046

  

  I remember when I first looked up a patient on Google. It was my last day on the bone marrow transplant unit, back when I was an intern. As I stood before the patient, taking her history, she told me she had been a painter and suggested I look up her work on the Internet. I did, and I found her paintings fascinating. Even though our paths crossed fleetingly, she is one of the few patients I vividly remember from that time.我仍然清晰地记得我第一次谷歌搜索患者的经历。那是我在骨髓移植科实习的最后一天,我与一个患者闲聊,她告诉我她是个画家,并建议我去上网看看她的作品。我搜了搜,觉得她的画着实精。因此,虽然我与她只有短暂的接触,但她成为了令我印象最深的患者之一。Google has taught me other things, too, things that don#39;t come up during the routine history-taking or medication checks of my usual doctor-patient interactions. I learned recently, for example, that one of my patients had been an Olympic gold medalist and world-record holder in the 1960s. Knowing more about my patients as people helps build empathy.除了艺术作品,谷歌也曾带给我一些其他的信息,一些常规的医患交流(如询问病史、药史等)无法带来的东西。举个例子,几周前,我搜索发现我的一位患者在20世纪60年代曾是奥运会冠军和世界纪录保持者。这些信息帮助我更深入地了解患者,使我更容易与他们建立感情。Doctors do ;Google; their patients. In fact, the vast majority of physicians I know have done so. To my generation, using a search engine like Google comes as naturally as sharing pictures of our children or a recent vacation on a social networking site like Facebook. But it surprises me that more physicians don#39;t pause and think about what it means for the patient-doctor relationship.医生们确实会“谷歌”他们的患者,至少我认识的大部分医生都这么做。在我们这个年代,使用谷歌这类搜索引擎和在Facebook这类社交网站上分享子女或旅行照片一样,都是顺理成章的事儿。但是,让我感到吃惊的是,许多医生在“谷歌”他们的患者之前,从不停下来想想这种搜索将会给医患关系带来些什么。What if one finds something that is not warm and fuzzy? I recently about a case in which a 26-year-old woman went to a surgeon wanting to have a prophylactic double mastectomy, citing an extensive history of cancer in her family. However, she was not willing to undergo any work-up, and her medical team noted several inconsistencies in her story. When they searched online, it turned out she had set up multiple Facebook accounts soliciting donations for malignancies she never had. One page showed her with her head shaved, as if she had aly undergone chemotherapy. The surgeons immediately decided to halt her care.万一医生们搜到一些不那么温馨或失真的信息呢?我最近读到一个病例,说一个26岁的女士要求医生给她做预防性双侧乳腺切除手术,因为她的祖辈中很多人有患乳腺癌的病史。但是,这名女士拒绝接受任何检查,而且她的医疗团队注意到她关于家族史的叙述中也有几处自相矛盾的地方。当医生们在网上搜索这名患者时,他们发现她注册好几个Facebook账号,谎称自己有恶性肿瘤来募集捐款。在其中的一个页面上,她甚至贴出自己剃光头发的照片,装成进行过化疗的样子。此后,医生们立即停止了对这名女士的“治疗”。I was once taking care of a frail, older patient who came to the hospital feeling very short of breath. It wasn#39;t immediately clear why, but her breathing was getting worse. To look for accidental ingestions, I sent for a drug screen and, to my great surprise, it came back positive for cocaine. It didn#39;t make sense to me, given her age and the person lying before me, and I was concerned she had been the victim of some sort of abuse. She told me she had no idea why there was cocaine in her system.曾经有位虚弱的老年患者来我这里看病,她感觉自己呼吸特别困难。我们没能立刻探明原因,可她呼吸窘迫的问题却一天重过一天。为了查查她是否不小心摄入了什么毒物,我安排她进行了一次毒品筛查。让我大感意外的是,她的可卡因指标竟然呈阳性!对于一个像她这样年龄和身体状况的人来说,吸毒是无法想象的事儿,于是我担心她是否经受了某种虐待,但她告诉我她完全不知道这些可卡因是如何进入到身体内的。When I walked out of the room, a nurse called me over to her computer. There, on MugShots.com, was a younger version of my patient#39;s face, with details about how she had been detained for cocaine possession more than three decades earlier. I looked away from the screen, feeling like I had violated my patient#39;s privacy. I resumed our medical exam, without bringing up the finding on the Internet, and her subsequent hospital course was uneventful.当我走出诊室时,一个护士把我叫到了电脑前。在MugShots.com上,我看到了我的患者年轻时的照片和她三十多年前因为持有可卡因被拘留的细节。我将眼睛从屏幕上移开,顿时有一种侵犯了患者隐私的罪恶感。后来,我帮那位患者做完了剩余的检查,没提起在互联网上发现的她的那段历史。她接下来的留院治疗并没有出任何意外。I am tempted to prescribe that physicians should never look online for information about their patients, though I think the practice will become only more common, given doctors#39; — and all of our — growing dependence on technology. The more important question health care providers need to ask themselves is why we would like to.由于我们医生对科技的依赖越来越深,在我看来,“医生谷歌患者”的现象只会越来越普遍。但是,我仍然想强调:医生们绝不应该去网络上搜索关于患者的信息。更重要的是,作为医务工作者,我们应该反思:为什么我们总想去“谷歌”那些患者。To me, the only legitimate reason to search for a patient#39;s online footprint is if there is a safety issue. If, for example, a patient appears to be manic or psychotic, it might be useful to investigate whether certain claims the patient makes are true. Or, if a doctor suspects a pediatric patient is being abused, it might make sense to look for evidence online. Physicians have also investigated patients on the web if they were concerned about suicide risk, or needed to contact the family of an unresponsive patient. In my state, Massachusetts, doctors can also use a specialized database to track every pharmacy a patient took controlled drugs from — an especially useful tool when drug abuse is suspected. But if the only reason a doctor searches online is to gather personal information that patients don#39;t want to share with their physicians, then it is absolutely the wrong thing to do.在我看来,去网上搜寻患者“足迹”的唯一正当理由是出于安全考虑。举个例子,如果一个患者表现得疯疯癫癫,疑似有精神问题的话,去网上调查他可能会有助于确认他提供信息的真实性。或者说,如果医生怀疑一个儿科患者曾遭到虐待,在网上搜寻据会是一个理性的做法。医生们也可以在他们担心患者有自杀倾向或需要联系某位无正常反应的患者家属时,上网搜寻一些信息。在我所居住的马萨诸塞州,当患者被怀疑有滥用药物的行为时,医生们可以查询一个专业的数据库来追查患者取得管制类药物的各家药房。不过,如果一个医生上网搜索他的患者仅仅是为了查看一些患者们不愿分享的个人信息的话,这就是完全错误的。Recently, one of my primary care patients was back in clinic, with some worrisome news. In spite of increasing the dose of his medication, his panic attacks were getting worse. He had told me that as he saw his business success grow, so did his stress, and the frequency of his panic attacks.前几天,我的一个家庭保健病人又来到诊室,带来了一些令人担忧的消息。尽管用药剂量增加了,他的恐慌症却越来越严重。他告诉我,随着他的生意越做越成功,他的压力越来越大,恐慌症发作的频率也越来越高。I stepped out of the clinic to speak with my supervising physician. I related the patient#39;s history, telling him about the growing success of the patient#39;s business.我走出诊室,找到我的头儿,跟他说起这个患者的商界故事和生意上的成功。;What sort of business?; he asked. When I told him that I had forgotten to ask, he quickly flipped the window on the computer before us from an electronic medical record to Google and typed in the patient#39;s name.“什么样的生意?”上级问。当我说我忘记了问患者时,他立马在电脑上打开“谷歌”的页面并输进了患者的名字。But before he pressed return, he paused.但在按下“确认”键之前,他停住了。This was unusual — most doctors I know don#39;t pause. Then, with the cursor blinking before us, he pressed the backspace key, keeping it pinned until there were no more letters for the cursor to gobble up. And he proceeded to do what has worked for physicians for eons. He sat down next to the patient and asked.这很不寻常——我认识的大部分医生从不犹豫。然后,随着光标在屏幕上闪动,他按下了“删除”键,直到患者名字里的每一个字母在搜索栏被清除得干干净净。接着,他做了一件外科医生们已做了几个世纪的事儿:在患者身旁坐下来,问起他的故事。 /201409/329253。

  Overweight people will be paid to lose weight, under radical new Government plans unveiled today to tackle the escalating obesity crisis为了应对日益严重的国民肥胖危机,英国政府近日出台了一项新的激励计划,提出肥胖者减肥将得到奖励。Under the NHS-backed scheme, those who shed the pounds will be rewarded with cash or shopping vouchers.根据NHS(英国国民健康保险制度)的这个方案,那些减重的人将会获得现金或者购物券。Incentives could be higher or lower depending on the amount of weight a participant loses, although the amounts are still unclear.奖励根据减多少而有所浮动,尽管减多少尚未明确。However only those with a job will qualify - and employers will also be urged to offer incentives to staff who shed pounds.然而,该计划仅适用于有工作的人——政府也要求企业给予减肥员工奖励。Firms would receive tax breaks from the Government and would also some funding to set up slimming or exercise classes.企业将会获得政府给予的税收优惠和资金以用于开设减肥或健身课程。The move is part of a wider effort to ease the strain placed on the NHS by fat patients.为减轻肥胖病人带来的沉重负担,NHS做出了巨大的努力,该举动只是其中的一部分。More than two thirds of UK adults are clinically overweight or obese and the NHS spends #163;5 billion a year treating obesity-related illnesses.在英国,超过2/3的成年人都被临床诊断为超重,NHS每年花费50亿英镑治疗与肥胖相关的各种疾病。Under the new plans, NHS staff will also be urged to #39;set a national example#39;.该计划要求NHS员工为国民树立榜样。Access to unhealthy foods on NHS premises will be cut and staff will have their health and wellbeing #39;measured#39;.NHS办公地点将会减少供应不健康的食物,员工还将接受身体健康评估。Around 700,000 of the NHS#39;s 1.3 million staff are either overweight or obeseNHS130万名员工中约有70万名超重或者肥胖。NHS England chief executive Simon Stevens said earlier this year that staff must #39;get our own act together#39; before lecturing the public on cutting down on calories.NHS的英国首席执行官西蒙·史蒂文斯(Simon Stevens)在今年早些时候就曾说过,NHS的员工们在教化公众减少热量摄入前,必须率先“行动起来”。He said too many hospitals serve #39;chips and burgers#39; to both patients and staff - and the latter face being banned from eating junk food in hospital canteens to force them to set an example to patients.他说,许多医院都会给患者和员工供应“薯条汉堡餐”——而为了给患者树立榜样,员工们将被禁止在医院食堂吃垃圾食品。Mr Stevens said workplace schemes to encourage weight loss have been largely ignored - despite success abroad.史蒂文斯称以前在很大程度上都忽视了在工作场所推行减肥激励方案的重要性——尽管这在海外已卓有成效。He personally managed to lose nearly 3st thanks to a weight-loss incentive scheme at his previous job, the U.S.insurance firm ed Healthcare.他自己本人就成功地减掉过近20公斤,这完全得益于他工作的上一家公司,美国一家保险公司ed Healthcare所推行的减肥激励方案。Mr Stevens said the tax-payer funded NHS has led to a #39;blind spot#39; about the healthcare of employees.史蒂文斯说,员工的医疗保健对于由纳税人出资的NHS来说还是一个“盲区”。He explained: #39;Employers in many countries have developed voluntary schemes for their employees whereby, for example, you actually get cash back based on participation in Weight Watchers, or other type schemes.#39;他解释道:“许多国家的雇主都已经为其员工制定了自愿健康方案,如公司可以报销你参加慧俪轻体(Weight Watchers)或其它减肥计划的费用。Asked what sorts of rewards could be offered, he said: #39;It could be shopping vouchers, it could be cash, it could be prizes.#39;当被问到奖励形式都有哪些时,他说道:“可能是购物券,或者现金,也可能是奖品。”It is understood the NHS plans to #39;challenge#39; firms to bring in such schemes rather than offer them money.这也可以理解为,NHS打算“促使”企业采用上述方案而不是直接奖励钱。The NHS must also make a concerted effort to address the root causes of ill health - such as poor diets, alcohol consumption and smoking, a landmark report published today said,而NHS也必须齐心协力解决引发健康不佳的根源问题——如饮食不良、饮酒、吸烟等,今天发布的一项里程碑式报告中这样写道。The weight loss incentive scheme was announced as part of a wider shake-up of the healthcare system in England in the next parliament proposed by NHS bosses.NHS的管理者将在下一次议会中对英国医疗保健制度做一次大的整改,而宣布的这一减肥激励方案只是其中的一部分。Other measures include tax cuts for volunteers and #39;breaking down the boundaries#39; between GPs and hospitals.其它措施还包括为自愿减肥者减税,以及“打破普通科医生与医院之间的界限”。The report also includes plans to recruit an army of volunteers to help feed elderly dementia patients in hospital or care for them at home.这项报告还提出了招募志愿者的计划,志愿者们将在医院帮忙给老年痴呆患者喂饭或者直接上门去照顾他们。These members of the public would then get 10 per cent off their annual council tax bill – as much as #163;200 depending on where they live.而这些志愿者们将被减免10%的家庭税——差不多价值200英镑(合1963元),具体视她们的居住地而定。It does not yet specify how much voluntary work would need to be done to be entitled to this benefit or the exact tasks entailed.目前还没有详细说明到底志愿者为这一福利需要做多少工作以及具体工作内容是什么。 /201410/338487

  

  TAKE a look at your mobile device. Do you see oily fingerprints and lint on the touch screen? Dust and crumbs forming particulate frost in the corners? Is that a hair stuck at the screen#39;s edge?看看你的移动设备。看到触摸屏上油油的指印和细小的纤维了吗?还有灰尘与细屑在边边角角结成的霜状物?在屏幕的边缘是不是卡着一根头发?Because our electronics are constantly within our grubby grasp, they can get pretty gross. They are taken into public restrooms, handed to runny-nosed toddlers, passed around to share photos and pressed against sweaty skin in gyms. Repeated studies show what accumulates is germy nastiness worse than what is on the bottom of your shoe.因为我们的电子设备一直都被握在不怎么干净的手中,它们可能会变得非常脏。它们被带进公共厕所,被交给流着鼻涕的幼儿,被四处传看照片,被按在健身房中汗涔涔的肌肤上。许多研究表明,它们上聚积的细菌与秽物要比你鞋底上粘的还要多。;That devices can be a source of disease transmission is not a subject of debate anymore,; said Dr. Dubert Guerrero, an infectious disease specialist at Sanford Health in Fargo, N.D., and co-author of a study about the persistence of bacteria on iPads published in November in The American Journal of Infection Control.“那些移动设备可能成为疾病传播的源头,这已经不需要争论了,”杜伯特·古雷罗(Dobert Guerrero)是位于北达科他州法戈的桑福德医疗系统(Sanford Health)的一位传染病专家,去年11月他在《美国传染病控制》(American Journal of Infection Control)上联名发表了一篇关于iPad上细菌残留的研究。So it is a good idea to keep your devices clean, not only to keep from getting sick but also to maintain resale value when it#39;s time to upgrade. Companies like Best Buy, Target, Gazelle, Amazon, Verizon and ATamp;T all offer trade-in or cash-back programs, said Derek Meister, a technician for the Geek Squad, Best Buy#39;s repair and online support service.所以,保持你电子设备的清洁是一个好主意,这不仅会让你远离疾病,在更新换代时也能保住转卖的价值。百思买(Best Buy)提供维修与在线持务的技客小分队(Geek Squad)技师德里克·梅斯特(Derek Meister)指出,像百思买、塔吉特(Target)、Gazelle(美国移动设备回收公司——译注)、亚马逊(Amazon)、威瑞森(Verizon) 和美国电话电报公司(ATamp;T)都提供以旧换新或者返现务。;People don#39;t want any marks or grime on their devices,; Mr. Meister said, because like trading in a used car at a dealership, ;the better the condition, the more like new it is, the more money you get on your trade-in.;“人们不希望自己的电子设备上满是印子或污垢,”梅斯特说,因为就像交易二手汽车一样,“状态保持得越好,东西越像新的,你在以旧换新时收回的钱就越多。”A word of warning: Cleaning your device can be tricky, since you don#39;t want to damage it and manufacturers don#39;t give you much guidance. It can be done, however, if you#39;re careful and conscientious.但是有一点需要警惕:清理你的电子设备可能是件麻烦事,因为你并不想弄坏它,而制造商在这方面并没有给你太多的指导。但是,如果你小心谨慎的话,这是可以办到的。Dr. Guerrero and his colleagues found that regularly wiping down your device with a moist microfiber cloth was sufficient to eliminate many kinds of common bacteria. More enduring and dangerous bacteria like clostridium difficile (which can cause diarrhea or even inflammation of the colon) and flu viruses may require a sterilizing agent like bleach or alcohol, he said.古雷罗士与他的同事们发现,经常用一块湿润的超细纤维布擦拭电子设备,就足以擦掉很多种常见细菌。他表示,像艰难梭菌(它可以导致腹泻甚至是结肠炎)以及流感病毒这种存活更久、更危险的细菌,就可能需要像漂白剂或者酒精这样的消毒剂。This is a problem, since Apple on its website officially warns against using ;window cleaners, household cleaners, aerosol sprays, solvents, alcohol, ammonia or abrasives; to clean its products and advises instead to ;simply wipe the screen with a soft, lint-free cloth to remove oil left by your hands.; Other manufacturers offer similar advice or none at all.自从苹果公司(Apple)在网站上发出官方警告,请用户不要使用“窗户清洁剂、家具清洁剂、喷雾驱虫剂、溶剂、酒精、氨或者磨具”来清洁该公司的产品,而是建议“简单地用一块柔软的无纺布擦拭屏幕,来擦除你双手留下的油渍”,这就成了一个问题。其他的制造商提供类似的建议,或者根本对此没有任何建议。And yet, in the Apple Store, you#39;ll find the 32-percent isopropyl alcohol Clens wipes by Bausch amp; Lomb. Apple declined to explain the contradiction. Nevertheless, the wipes work great at cleaning grime, muck and marks off your device and they also disinfect. A Clens kit that includes three Clens wipes, a 3-ounce bottle of Clens cleaning spray and a cleaning cloth costs about .不过,在苹果商店里,你可以找到含32%酒精的士伦清洁擦拭巾(Clens wipes by Bausch amp; Lomb)。苹果并没有解释这种自相矛盾的说法。尽管如此,这种擦拭巾在清洁电子设备上的污垢、灰尘和印迹方面非常有用,而且同时能够消毒。一包清洁套装中包括三张清洁擦拭巾,一瓶3盎司的清洁喷剂以及一块清洁布,要价20美元左右。But it#39;s far cheaper to make your own alcohol and water solution. To clean his own mobile devices, Mr. Meister at the Geek Squad said he used a 1:1 ratio of 70 percent isopropyl alcohol and distilled water, which together cost less than at most grocery and drugstores. ;You want distilled water and purer alcohol so there are fewer chemicals or minerals left behind when the solution evaporates,; he said.但如果你自己用酒精和水调制清洁剂的话,就要便宜得多了。奇客小分队的梅斯特说他为了清洁自己的移动设备,会用1比1的比例把纯度70%的酒精与蒸馏水混合,在绝大多数杂货店和药店,这些东西加起来不会超过4美元。“使用蒸馏水和更纯的酒精,这样在清洁剂蒸发之后,残留的化学物质或者矿物质就会更少,”他说。Fill a spray bottle with the diluted alcohol, lightly moisten a lint-free, preferably microfiber, cloth (no paper towels) and gently wipe down the screen and case. Never spray directly onto the device. To clean corners and around ports, use lint-free foam rather than cotton Q-tips.把稀释过的酒精放到喷雾瓶中,轻柔地喷湿一块无纺布,超细纤维布的话更好(不要用纸巾),然后轻轻擦拭屏幕与机身。不要直接对着手机喷清洁剂。要想清洁角落与插口,不要用棉签,要用无纺泡沫材料。If you#39;re supergermophobic, you might consider purchasing an ultraviolet sanitizer. Violife makes a cellphone sanitizer about the size of a coffee can. Just pop your phone into the dock and replace the lid for ultraviolet light to zap pathogens. Verilux sells a sanitizing wand, which the company claims kills up to 99 percent of germs when waved over your electronics. This won#39;t improve the look of your device or maximize value at trade-in but it might spare you the sniffles or worse during cold and flu season.如果你有严重的洁癖,可以考虑购买一个紫外线消毒器。Violife制造的手机消毒器有一个咖啡罐大小,售价50美元。只要把你的手机放进机器中,再盖上盖子,让紫外线杀灭病原体即可。Verilux则以40美元的价钱出售一种消毒棒,该公司声称拿消毒棒扫过你的电子设备,就可以消灭99%的细菌。这并不会改善你手机的外观或者在以旧换新时将价值最大化,但这可以让你在寒冷的流感时节不会出现流鼻涕或者更糟糕的症状。Using a can of compressed air to blow around ports and between keys, on the other hand, will help maintain the look, performance and value of your device. This gets rid of dust and particles that can infiltrate and damage electronics. Another option is to buy a specialized air compressor like the DataVac Electric Duster, which lists for 0 and comes with all sorts of little attachments for cleaning out your devices#39; crevices and seams.另一方面,用一罐压缩空气来吹一吹插口四周与键盘空隙中的,将有助于保持你的电子设备的外观以及价值。这能吹走那些能渗进电子元件并造成损坏的灰尘与细屑。另一个选择是买一种特殊的空气压缩机,比如说DataVac电动除尘器,它售价100美元,附带各种小配件,可以用来清除电子设备上的缝隙与接口。;An air compressor gets things really clean and it#39;s environmentally good because you don#39;t have a little can to throw away after blowing air,; said Miroslav Djuric, chief information architect at ifixit.com, an online do-it-yourself community. He uses an all-purpose compressor he bought at Home Depot and fitted with an inflating needle (the kind used to inflate a basketball or a bike tire) to precisely direct the air flow.“一个空气压缩机能把东西清理得相当干净,而且它也很环保,因为在喷完空气之后,你不需要再扔掉一个小瓶子,”米罗斯拉夫·迪乌里克(Miroslav Djuric)说,他是ifixit.com的首席信息架构师,该网站是一个在线DIY社区。他所使用的是一个从家得宝(Home Depot)买来的通用压缩机,再装上一个气针(就是用来给篮球或者自行车轮胎打气的那种)来精确地控制空气的喷射。To repel germs, grease and pet hair from your laptop, there are antimicrobial and protective keyboard, trackpad and palm rest covers that are nearly invisible and washable. Moshi, NewerTech, iSkin and Protect Computer Products all make these covers for less than .要想摆脱你笔记本电脑上的细菌、油脂以及宠物毛发,可以考虑一种抗菌保护型保护罩,可将键盘、触控板和掌托覆盖住,它几乎是透明的,而且可以水洗。仕(Moshi), NewerTech, iSkin 以及Protect Computer Products 所出售的此类保护罩都不超过30美元。;We get so many computers damaged from kids spilling things on them,; said David Bensinger, owner of The Little Laptop Shop in Manhattan. ;At least people say it was their kids when they drop the computers off.;“我们收到过无数台电脑,都是因为孩子把东西洒上去而坏掉的,”大卫·本辛格(David Bensinger)说,他是位于曼哈顿的笔记本电脑小店(The Little Laptop Shop)的老板。“至少在电脑摔在地上的时候,他们会说这是他们的孩子干的。”Washable screen protectors for laptops, tablets and smartphones are available from manufacturers such as Boxwave, BodyGuardz, iSmooth and Moshi at a cost of to , depending on the size. They are easy to apply and reapply without unsightly bubbles or impaired visibility or functionality of touch screens.笔记本电脑、平板电脑和智能手机的可清洗屏幕保护膜在各家制造商都有出售,像是Boxwave、BodyGuardz、iSmooth以及仕,价格从5美元到40美元不等,视乎尺寸而定。它很易于安装及拆卸,不会产生阻碍视线的气泡,也不会影响触摸屏的可视度与灵敏度。Similarly, Ultra-Sleeves and Chef Sleeves are clear, hygienic and protective iPad and tablet covers. They enclose the entire device and are disposable. They are intended for people working in health care, construction, industrial or restaurant settings. These covers are also ideal for those who might have to share their devices with multiple people during the course of the day, like teachers or salespeople. A pack of 10 costs about .同样,Ultra-Sleeves和Chef Sleeves都提供干净、健康以及保护型的iPad以及其他平板电脑保护罩。它可以包裹住整个设备,而且是一次性的,适合那些在健康医疗、建筑、工业或者餐饮务行业工作的人。这些保护罩对于那些想要和很多人在工作时间共同使用电子设备的人来说也很理想,比如说教师与销售人员。一份含10个保护罩的套装价格大约是12美元。It#39;s up to you how obsessively you want to clean your mobile devices, but health and electronics experts advise wiping down your mobile device with a moist microfiber cloth at least daily for basic sanitation and upkeep.想要把你的电子设备清洁到什么程度,这完全取决于你自己,但是健康与电子器件专家建议,为了基本的卫生与保养,至少每天一次地使用湿润的超细纤维布来擦拭你的移动设备。Like your toothbrush, ;your mobile device is something you want to clean regularly,; said Dr. Guerrero, the infectious disease specialist. And it is probably not something you want to pass around the table.就像牙刷一样,“你的移动设备也是应当经常清洁的东西,”传染疾病专家古雷罗士说。而且,你也不应该在桌边让人四处传看你的手机。 /201410/331695

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