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2019年09月23日 09:37:54 | 作者:同城报 | 来源:新华社
An artificial intelligence that predicts the outcome of court proceedings may sound like a futuristic dream.人工智能预测法院诉讼结果可能听起来像是个遥不可及的梦想。But a new study claims to have developed an AI that predict the results of human rights trials with 79 per cent accuracy.但是一项最新研究指出,研发者已经开发出了一种预测人权审判结果的人工智能技术,其准确度达到了79%。The technology is the first to predict the outcomes of major international court trials by analysing case text using a machine learning algorithm, claim the researchers.研究人员表示,通过运用机器学习算法,研究国际先例的裁决文书,预测重要国际法院审判结果的技术尚属首例。The method was devised by researchers at University College London (UCL), the University of Sheffield and the University of Pennsylvania.这是伦敦学院大学、雪菲尔大学,以及宾夕法尼亚大学合作开发的项目。#39;We don#39;t see AI replacing judges or lawyers, but we think they#39;d find it useful for rapidly identifying patterns in cases that lead to certain outcomes,#39; explained Dr Nikolaos Aletras, who led the study at UCL Computer Science.伦敦学院大学计算机科学院的该研究负责人尼古劳斯·阿尔特拉斯士解释道:“人工智能不会取代法官或律师,但是我们认为人们会发现人工智能益处良多,它能够快速识别导致某种特定结果的案件类型。”#39;It could also be a valuable tool for highlighting which cases are most likely to be violations of the European Convention on Human Rights.#39;“它还十分利于找出哪些案件最有可能违反《欧洲人权公约》。”The researchers found that judgements by the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) are highly linked to non-legal facts, rather than directly legal arguments.研究人员发现,欧洲人权法院(ECtHR)的审判与非法律事件息息相关,而不是直接基于法律据。This suggests that the judges of the court are, in the jargon of legal theory, #39;realists#39;, rather than #39;formalists#39;.用法律理论的行话来说就是,法院的法官是“现实主义者”,而非“形式主义者”。 /201611/476465Samsung’s ambitions to rival Apple in the smartphone market suffered a deep setback after a series of fires in its flagship Galaxy Note 7 forced the South Korean giant to abandon the model in one of the most ignominious chapters in consumer electronics.三星(Samsung)在智能手机市场叫板苹果(Apple)的雄心遭到一个严重挫折,其旗舰手机Galaxy Note 7发生的一系列起火事故迫使这家韩国巨擘放弃这一型号,这件事已成为消费电子产品史上最不光的篇章之一。More than bn was wiped off the company’s market value amid growing fears that the safety issues around the Note 7 could damage the group’s reputation and have an impact on the group’s other consumer products.该公司的市值已蒸发了逾190亿美元,市场越来越担心,围绕Note 7的安全问题可能损害该集团的声誉,并对该集团的其他消费产品产生冲击。There have aly been some signs of contagion, with a slowdown in S7 sales this week, according to one network, which cautioned that it was too early to tell if there had been sustained damage to the Samsung brand.已经有一些蔓延迹象。一家网络运营商称,本周S7销售放缓,它告诫称,现在要判断三星品牌是否已受到持久损害还为时过早。“Samsung’s credibility is on the line,” said Bryan Ma, analyst at IDC. “Samsung needs to make sure that consumers can trust its brand or else other products [and future products] are at risk.”“三星的可信度岌岌可危,”IDC分析师Bryan Ma表示。“三星需要确保消费者能够信任其品牌,否则其他产品乃至未来产品将面临风险。”The decision to scrap the line, once viewed as an “iPhone killer”, came after the company was forced to make a second recall of the smartphone as photos of the devices ablaze shot across social media worldwide.决定放弃这款一度被视为“iPhone杀手”的手机之前,该公司被迫对其进行第二次召回,因为这款手机起火燃烧的照片在世界各地社交媒体上热传。Samsung thought it had solved the battery fire problems last month after US regulators ordered the first recall following 92 reports of batteries overheating. But the incidents continued, putting intense pressure on the group. After initially scaling back production earlier this week, it finally took the unprecedented step to kill it off.三星上月以为它已经解决了电池起火问题,此前美国监管机构在接到92份电池过热报告后下令其进行第一次召回。但起火事件仍接二连三发生,给该集团带来巨大压力。本周早些时候宣布缩减生产后,它终于采取了前所未有的淘汰举措。According to one person who has spoken to Samsung executives, problems with the phone appeared to have arisen from tweaks to the processor to speed up the rate at which the phone could be charged. That would suggest it was not an issue with the battery itself, as Samsung initially speculated, or the design of the phone, but with the underlying technology.曾与三星高管交谈的一名人士称,这款手机的问题似乎源自对处理器进行的调整,其目的是加快手机充电速度。如果是这样的话,问题就不是像三星最初推测的那样在于电池,也不是手机的设计,而是在于基础技术。“If you try to charge the battery too quickly it can make it more volatile. If you push an engine too hard, it will explode. Something had to give. These devices are miracles of technology — how much we can get out of that tiny piece of lithium-ion,” the person told the Financial Times.“如果您尝试对电池太快充电,可能会使其更加不稳定。如果你把一台发动机用过头,它会爆炸。有得就会有失。这些装置是技术奇迹——我们能够从这么一点点锂离子获得这么大电量,”上述人士对英国《金融时报》表示。Samsung was not available for comment, but insiders had previously said it would not comment before a thorough investigation had been conducted.记者联系不上三星请其置评,但内部人士曾表示,该公司在进行彻底调查之前不会表态。Shares in the South Korean company fell 8 per cent — their biggest percentage decline since October 2008 — as analysts warned that damage from the recall fiasco was likely to hit Samsung’s reputation as well as sales in coming months. That could be a boon to rivals such as Apple and Google, just as their new devices hit the market ahead of the crucial holiday sales season.这家韩国公司股价下跌8%,这是自2008年10月以来的最大百分比跌幅。分析师们警告称,召回失败的损害很可能会打击三星的声誉以及未来几个月的销售。这对苹果和谷歌(Google)等竞争对手可能是一个利好,因为他们的新款产品在关键的假日销售季之前进入市场。 /201610/471035

In an article on Monday, I reviewed the evidence behind coffee consumption and health in an effort to put to rest the idea that coffee is a “vice” or something we all need to cut back on.有人认为喝咖啡是一种“坏习惯”,需要努力改正。在周一的一篇文章中,我综述了有关喝咖啡与健康的据,以期澄清这些误解。We received many comments and questions from ers. In fact, we received so many that we thought it might be useful to respond to some of the most frequently discussed ones.对此,读者们发表了很多,也提出了不少问题。于是,我们决定从中挑出一些最有代表性的问题作答,或许能对大家有所助益。Are the same beneficial relationships seen with decaffeinated coffee?饮用无咖啡因咖啡对健康也同样有益么?Most studies did not include data on decaffeinated coffee, either because too few people drank it or because data were not available. The few studies that did, though, had differing results. With respect to cardiovascular disease, decaffeinated coffee did not seem to have the same protective effects as regular coffee. With respect to the one stroke meta-analysis, it seemed to be just as protective as regular coffee. In two breast cancer analyses, decaffeinated had the same nonrelationship as regular coffee. Decaffeinated coffee was also protective against lung cancer, not as protective against Parkinson’s disease, and protective against diabetes and overall mortality, but perhaps to a lesser extent than regular coffee.大多数研究都没有纳入无咖啡因咖啡的数据,这或许是因为喝这种咖啡的人太少,也可能是因为拿不到相关的数据。仅有少数研究纳入了此类咖啡的数据,但并没有得出一致的结果。无咖啡因咖啡似乎不像普通咖啡那样可以预防心血管疾病。一项关于中风的荟萃分析则表明,无咖啡因咖啡与普通咖啡一样具有预防效果。两项针对乳腺癌的分析显示,无咖啡因咖啡与普通咖啡均无甚作用。无咖啡因咖啡也能预防肺癌,但对帕金森氏症没什么效果;在预防糖尿病并降低整体死亡率方面,无咖啡因咖啡有一定的作用,但或许比正常咖啡稍弱。But for most studies, there just aren’t data available. The conclusion to take away: There’s less evidence overall for a potential benefit, but still, there’s no evidence of harmful associations.但大多数的研究都缺乏相关数据。我们的结论是:总体而言,能明无咖啡因咖啡潜在效益的据较少,不过,也没有据表明它有害。What constitutes a cup of coffee? 一杯咖啡指的是多大容量?Pretty much all studies defined a cup of coffee as an 8-ounce serving. That’s smaller than what I imagine most people drink. A grande-size coffee at Starbucks (what is called simply “large” at most other coffee houses) is 16 ounces.几乎所有的研究都将一杯咖啡定义为8盎司(约合227克)的一份。我想这大概比大多数人平时喝的一杯要少些。星巴克(Starbucks)里的大杯(grande-size)咖啡是16盎司(约合454克)。Are the same benefits seen with tea?喝茶也像喝咖啡同样有益么?The literature on tea is about the same size as that for coffee, and reviewing it thoroughly would take more time than is appropriate for this column. However, a number of studies I reviewed did include tea in analyses, and those I can present here. People who drank more tea had a lower risk of Parkinson’s disease and of cognitive decline. Black tea had a potential protective effect against diabetes, but it was not statistically significant. Green tea had no relationship to the development of diabetes.有关茶的文献与关于咖啡的同样多,要将它们彻底查阅一番需要耗费很多时间,就本专栏而言似乎无需如此大费周章。不过,在我之前综述的研究中有一些确实也将茶纳入了分析,下面我就简单地介绍一下。喝茶较多的人患帕金森氏症以及认知功能减退的风险均较低。红茶或可预防糖尿病,但其不具备统计学显著性意义。绿茶与糖尿病的发生无相关性。If we think there’s enough interest in tea, though, we could devote a future column to the evidence on that beverage.然而,如果有很多人都对茶感兴趣的话,我们可以在未来的某一期专栏里讨论关于该饮料的科学据。Is the benefit from caffeine or from some other element in coffee?喝咖啡有益健康,是因为咖啡因还是咖啡中含有的其它成分的缘故?It’s not known. I also don’t think it’s necessarily the same protective effect in each disease. I think that for many of the neurological issues, it could be caffeine acting as a stimulant in the brain. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that decaffeinated coffee doesn’t seem to be as protective, yet tea is. In some of the other diseases, though, the same benefits aren’t seen from other caffeine-containing beverages. No one is arguing that diet soda consumption is associated with less of a chance of getting cancer. Additionally, some protective effects are seen with decaffeinated coffee as well. It’s likely, therefore, that something else could be at work. We don’t know what, though.目前还不清楚。我认为,对不同疾病起预防作用的成分未必相同。比如,对于神经系统上的许多问题,可能是咖啡因在发挥大脑兴奋剂的作用。我的这个假设是有事实依据的:咖啡和茶都可以预防这些问题,而无咖啡因咖啡却无此功效。但是,对于别的一些疾病,饮用其它含咖啡因的饮料却未显示出同样的效益。从没有人提出饮用无糖汽水与患癌症的几率减少相关。此外,无咖啡因咖啡也同样可以预防某些疾病。因此,很可能还有别的东西在起作用,只不过我们还没有明确那具体是什么。What about high blood pressure or cholesterol?那么,喝咖啡对高血压或胆固醇有什么影响么?A 2005 meta-analysis found that in randomized controlled trials caffeine was associated with an increase in blood pressure. When that caffeine was from coffee, however, the blood pressure effect was small. A 2011 study found that caffeine intake could raise blood pressure for at least three hours. Again, though, there wasn’t a significant relationship between long-term coffee consumption and higher blood pressure. A 2012 meta-analysis of 10 randomized controlled trials and five cohort studies could find no significant effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure or hypertension.2005年的一项荟萃分析发现,在随机对照试验中,咖啡因与血压升高相关。但是,当咖啡因来源于咖啡时,对血压的影响却很小。2011年的一项研究发现,摄入咖啡因的升血压效果至少可持续三个小时。但长期饮用咖啡与较高的血压之间依旧没有显著相关性。2012年的一项荟萃分析纳入了10项随机对照试验和五项队列研究,结果发现饮用咖啡对血压或高血压并无显著影响。And, as has been reported in The New York Times, two studies have shown that drinking unfiltered coffee, like Turkish coffee, can lead to increases in serum cholesterol and triglycerides. But coffee that’s been through a paper filter seems to have had the cholesterol-raising agent, known as cafestol, removed.但是,正如《纽约时报》杂志(The New York Times)曾经报道的,有两项研究表明,饮用未过滤咖啡(如土耳其咖啡)可导致血清胆固醇和甘油三酯增加。但是,用滤纸过滤咖啡似乎可以去除掉升胆固醇的物质——咖啡醇。High blood pressure and high cholesterol would be of concern because they can lead to heart disease or death. Drinking coffee is associated with better outcomes in those areas, and that’s what really matters.高血压和高胆固醇会引起人们的重视,是因为它们会导致心脏病甚至死亡。而喝咖啡对这些问题都有益处,这才是问题的关键所在。Some ers were upset that I neglected to mention some of the deleterious effects of caffeine. What about jitteriness and mood changes?我忘了提及咖啡因的有害影响,这让一部分读者感到不满。那么,喝咖啡与神经过敏和情绪变化之间有什么样的关系?I want to reiterate that the point of the piece was not to tell people to drink coffee. As I said in my recent article on food recommendations, I don’t think there is much value in preaching or judging what others eat or drink. Moreover, this evidence is epidemiologic, that is, based on observations of patterns. I don’t want to fall prey to the mistake of recommending we change our eating behavior without evidence from randomized controlled trials.我想重申的是,本文的论点并非是要劝告大家都去喝咖啡。正如我在最近的一篇关于饮食建议的文章中所说,我认为对别人的食物和饮料指指点点说教评判没什么意义。而且,以上提出的都是流行病学据,也就是说,它们都是从观测研究中发现的模式。在获得来自随机对照试验的据之前,我可不想轻易建议大家改变当前的饮食行为,因为这种建议有可能是错误的。The point of the article was to show that there’s no evidence that coffee is bad for the average person. Data do not support the idea that we are drinking “too much.” Coffee does not appear to be associated with poor health outcomes — the opposite is true. In light of this, we should stop telling everyone to avoid it, or judging others for drinking it. We should also stop feeling guilty or feel we need to consume less.本文只是想要指出,尚无据表明咖啡对普通人有害。有人觉得我们喝咖啡“过多”,但现有数据并不持这一观点。咖啡与损害健康无相关性——事实上,恰恰相反。有鉴于此,我们不应该再阻止大家喝咖啡,或者对喝咖啡的人指手画脚,也无需再因为自己爱喝咖啡而感到羞愧或者认为自己应该克制。That is, unless it’s not making you feel well. As I also said before, individual trial and error is likely necessary when it comes to nutrition. Some people need to avoid caffeine for medical reasons, and they should. If coffee makes you feel bad, or makes it hard for you to sleep, or renders you a less likable person — then by all means feel free to cut back or stop.当然,要是喝咖啡会让你感觉不舒就另当别论了。我之前也说过,在涉及到营养问题时,可能有必要根据个人的具体情况来一番试错。有些人因为医学上的原因不能摄入咖啡因,那么他们就不应该喝咖啡。如果喝咖啡会让你感觉不舒,令你难以入睡,或者会让你变成一个不太讨人喜欢的人,那么,你也尽可以少喝或者不喝咖啡。But if you like it, then by all means enjoy it.但是,如果你喜欢咖啡,那就随心所欲地享用吧。 /201508/396141

过个“绿色”情人节!Forget an extravagant bouquet of roses or an exquisitely packaged box of chocolates this Valentine's Day.If you want to be a good lover, start thinking about the impact your romance has on the environment.Campaigners say the traditional tokens of affection exchanged on February 14 should be ditched because they damage the planet.Instead, couples should be striving to "enjoy a greener romance" - at least according to a pressure group in Wales.Waste Awareness Wales is promoting e-cards to try to reduce the waste caused by the 13 million Valentine's cards bought in Britain each year.Couples are also being urged to make their own cards from left-over wrapping paper.Other advice includes buying flowers planted in a pot instead of a bunch of cut ones. Those who insist on buying chocolates are urged to buy ones with the least packaging.Better presents than those involving packaging are "waste-free" gifts such as theatre tickets.People wishing to cook a romantic meal are advised to check the quantities of food required for their recipe so they do not waste food by making too much. They are also urged to compost any peelings.Give organic chocolate is another environmental-friendly choice.Giving organic chocolate helps you to "go green" and stay healthy. Organic chocolates are free of pesticides and are farmed in a sustainable way. Also, scientists have proven that organic chocolate, especially dark chocolate, has many health benefits, including helping your heart and boosting serotonin levels. 今年情人节送什么?大束玫瑰和精美的盒装巧克力还是算了!如果想做个好情人,那就先想想你的浪漫会不会危及环境吧。环保活动人士称,传统的情人节礼物应该被抛弃,因为它们会危害环境。情侣们应尽量“享受绿色浪漫”——至少威尔士的一个压力集团这样认为。为了减少纸质贺卡造成的废弃物,“威尔士环保意识”组织目前正呼吁人们用电子贺卡传情。每年情人节,英国都要消耗1300万张纸质贺卡。该组织还号召情侣们用剩下的包装纸自制贺卡。其它建议还有:用盆栽植物取代花束;非要买巧克力的可以买外包装最简单的那种。“无废弃”礼物比带包装的礼物好,比如戏票。想做情人节浪漫大餐的人可以事先估计好所需要的食物量,以免造成浪费。果皮、蔬菜皮可以用作肥料。赠送有机巧克力也是一个环保的选择。送有机巧克力环保又健康。有机巧克力(指巧克力豆)在种植中不使用杀虫剂,采用的是可持续种植技术。此外,科学家已明,有机巧克力(尤其是黑巧克力)对健康有很多益处,它能够保护心脏和提高(血液中的)复合胺水平。 /200803/31797

A China-made wearable robot that can assist disabled people with walking is expected to enter the market in one to two years, according to its developer.我国已自主研发出一款可以帮助残疾人行走的可穿戴机器人,其研发方称,该款机器人有望在一两年内投入市场。The Fourier X1, developed by Chinese technology startup Fourier Intelligence, was unveiled to the public in Shanghai last month.Fourier X1机器人由我国科技初创企业傅利叶智能研发,于上个月在上海正式对外发布。Gu Jie, chief executive officer of Fourier, said that the Fourier X1 weighed 20 kg and applied industrial design into the exoskeleton. It can assist with walking for people who have had a stroke or spinal cord injuries. The robot has four batteries inside that enable it to walk for seven hours.公司首席执行官顾捷表示,Fourier X1重20公斤,外骨骼采用工业设计,可帮助中风或脊髓损伤的人行走。该款机器人内置4块电池,可行走7小时。He said that the company aimed to make the robot more affordable than foreign models such as Israel-made ReWalk and Japanese-made Cyberdyne currently on the market.他表示,该公司旨在使该机器人相比起目前市场上其它的外国机器人--如以色列研发的ReWalk、日本研发的Cyberdyne,要更加实惠。Prices of the Fourier X1 robots are expected to be at least a third cheaper than similar foreign models, which are sold between RMB600,000 and RMB1m each.目前,国外同类产品的单套售价为60-100万元,预计Fourier X1的价格至少比其便宜1/3。Gu said the company was working to test and improve the robot#39;s various functions such as sitting, standing, walking and climbing stairs.顾捷称,公司正在测试和改进其坐、站、行走、上下楼梯等多种功能。 /201704/502372

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