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2019年12月13日 17:19:27来源:中华指南

  • How do you improve at any sport? You train, train, train.你怎样才能在体育运动方面有所提高呢?你不停地锻炼。But how you train is just as important as how much.但是你怎样锻炼与锻炼量的多少同样重要。Armed with the science of exercise physiology, todays olympic-class coaches design sophisticated programs for their athletes.以运动生理学为指导,今天奥林匹克级别的教练为他们的运动员设计了一系列复杂的程序。A muscle is like an engine, and the fuel it runs on is the chemical ATP.肌肉就像一个引擎,它的;燃油;是化学物质三磷酸腺苷,Our bodies have three separate systems for creating thisfuel however.我们身体有3个制造这种“燃油”的独立系统。Exercise physiologists pay close attention to howan athletes ATP is produced.运动生理学家门密切关注了一个运动员三磷酸腺苷是怎样形成的。The phosphocreatine system gives an athlete lots of ATP very fast, but its only good for aboutten seconds before it needs to recharge.磷酸肌酸系统能够非常快的为运动员提供许多三磷酸腺苷,但是在再次补给之前,这中物质只能持续大约十秒钟。The second system, called glycolysis, provides a moresteady supply, but too much glycolysis can make the muscles inefficient.第二系统,称为醣酵解,能够提供更稳定的供应。但是过多的醣酵解会让肌肉效率低下。The third system, calledaerobic metabolism, burns fats and sugars to make ATP.第三系统,叫做有氧代谢,燃烧脂肪和糖分来制造三磷酸腺苷。Aerobic metabolism is best for long termendurance, but its slow to get going, and, like the other systems, it also runs out of steam.有氧代谢有利于长期的耐力训练,但是它的反应比较慢,而且就像其他的系统样,它同样会很快的筋疲力尽。Olympic trainers take these systems into account.奥林匹克教练考虑了所有的这些系统。A long-distance runner should use aerobicmetabolism for as much of her ATP as possible.长跑运动员应该尽可能的像运用三磷酸腺苷那样来运用有氧代谢。To ensure this, shell be tested on a tmill tomeasure her threshold of aerobic metabolism.为了确保这样,她将会在跑步机上来测量她的有氧运动的极限。The trainer then develops a training program which will increase it.然后教练研发了可以增加有氧代谢的运动程序。On the other hand, a weight lifter should use his phosphocreatine system, which provides maximum ATP in short bursts of time.另一方面,举重运动员可以运用磷酸肌酸系统,它能够在较短的爆发时间内提供最大值的三磷酸腺苷。His work-outs will build up the enzymes of this system, as well as build up his muscles.由此将会增加这个系统的酶,也能够重塑他的肌肉。Thats just one way athletes can get a boost from the science of exercise physiology.这就是一个运动员从运动生理学上获得提高的路径之一。 201409/326983。
  • Most flies dont havethe ability to hear.大多数蝇类其实并没有听觉能力。Certain parasitic flies have a hearing system that is so exact inpinpointing a sounds origin that it rivals the exceptional ears of owls and cats.然而寄生蝇却拥有能够与猫头鹰和猫媲美的听觉系统,可以精确定位声音来源。This flys superb hearing surprised scientists because its tiny body is too small to use the same kindof hearing system that larger animals use.寄生蝇的这种超强听力让科学家十分吃惊,因为它的身躯太小,按常理来说应该无法像较大型动物那样使用同样的听觉系统。And yet they discovered that the fly was using its hearing to locate the chirps of crickets in order to then deposit parasitic larvae onto the cricketsbodies.但是科学家们发现,寄生蝇可以通过自己的听觉定位蟋蟀的叫声,然后将寄生卵注入其体内。What they found was unlike any other known ear structure, this flys eardrums are connected bya bridge of stiff material.科学家们发现寄生蝇的耳朵结构与其他生物不同,它们的耳膜由一种硬质材料链接。Vibrations that travel between the two eardrums enable the fly to pinpointthe origin of a sound as accurately as any other sound system we know of.耳膜间的震动使寄生蝇能够定位声音来源,其效果堪比我们知道的任何其他声音系统那样精确。And whats more, this flys exceptional hearing system is influencing microphone and hearing aidtechnology.不仅如此,寄生蝇超凡的听觉系统对扩音器和助听技术也能产生影响。For instance, it could lead to hearing aids that hide within a persons ear canal and yetare able to gather sound primarily from the direction the listener is facing.比如,科学家可以借此研制出放在人类耳朵的助听设备,使其能够接收听者所面对方向的声音。 /201406/302919。
  • Books and Arts; Book Review;The young and the restless;文艺;书评;年轻与焦躁;British and American fiction gets off to a promising start in 2010;2010年英美小说闪亮开篇;The Unnamed. By Joshua Ferris.《莫名》,作者约书亚·费里斯。VLADIMIR NABOKOV, who liked to observe other people, once declared that “professional book reviewers are veritable bookmakers”. They gleefully declare whos in, whos out, and ask: “Where are the snows of yesteryear?” Hot young novelists, many believe, are meant to follow a predictable script. First, burst onto the scene with some bold, voice-of-the-generation debut—preferably with a comely author photo. Then, years later, deliver to the expectant public a sophomore effort that is, alas, disappointing. Critics favour lamenting squandered promise to praising yet another fine book from someone with unlined skin.喜欢他人的费拉迪米尔·纳科夫曾经宣称“专业书评家是名副其实的庄家”,他们兴致勃勃地宣布谁是入时的,谁是落伍的,并问出“去年的雪在哪里?”这样的问题。许多走红的青年小说家都被认为是循着老套的模子走出来的。首先,在文艺界以大胆表露情感,代表时代之声的形象如惊雷般亮相出场——最好再有着英俊的长相。接着,在数年之后向期待中的大众呈上他一个黄毛小子呕心沥血的成果,然而,却只不过是令人失望的作品。批评家们倒也热衷于哀叹对于某位青年才俊又一部好作品尽溢美之词的许诺又无法兑现了。Not all writers oblige. Occasionally, a well-known name, such as Peter Carey, an Australian, will go through a fallow period only to enjoy a return to form (see article); a rare few, having written a debut of note, then go on to pen an even better second book.并非所有作家都是被迫写作的。间或也有像澳大利亚著名作家皮特·凯里这样的人,他将休笔一段时间,而这仅仅是为了调整自己的状态;极少有作家在完成一部佳作后还会继续创作另一部超越性的作品。Joshua Ferris became an international success in 2007 with “Then We Came to the End”, a smart and breezy satire of office life in an advertising firm. Told in the collective first person, it was a stylish rendering of workplace ambivalence in the wake of the dotcom bust. (“We were delighted to have jobs. We bitched about them constantly.”) It wasnt perfect, but it was fresh, with pages that turned freely and unpretentiously. At 32, Mr Ferris—gracious, photogenic, based in Brooklyn—was anointed a writer to watch.约书亚·费里斯在2007年因《当我们来到尽头》一书而享誉世界。在这本书中,他用富有智慧的语言及轻松愉快的笔调嘲讽了一个广告公司的办公室生活。全书用第一人称的口吻,生动的描述了在网络经济崩溃中觉醒的人们在工作场所的矛盾心理(我们为有一份工作而感到高兴,然而也时常抱怨)。这部作品并不完美,但体裁新颖,文风自在狂妄。在费里斯先生32岁的时候,他居住在布鲁克林,和蔼,上镜,就像上帝为我们挑选的作家。Readers have not had long to wait for “The Unnamed”, his second novel. Anyone keen on another comedy of manners will be disappointed. So too will those who hoped to write off Mr Ferris as a victim of literary hype.他的第二本书《莫名》并没有让读者们等太久。但那些期待着又一部风尚喜剧的人将会大失所望,同样会失望的还有那些希望费里斯先生被扼杀在文学炒作中的人。From the opening page, he makes it plain that this is a very different book. “It was the cruellest winter. The winds were rabid off the rivers. Ice came down like poisoned darts…They were waiting for him. They didnt know they were waiting for him.” The novel seizes ers by the lapels with a story that feels serious and mysterious. Tim Farnsworth, a successful Manhattan lawyer in his 40s, returns home one night and declares to his wife, Jane, “Its back.” Whats back? A strange, unknown disease—one that compels the hero to walk helplessly, incessantly, until he drops from exhaustion. After a reprieve, Tim is once again a victim of his wayward body, “the frightened soul inside the runaway train of mindless matter, peering out from the conductors car in horror.”在第一页作者就向我们展示了这本书的与众不同。“这是一个严酷的冬天。狂风卷过河面,冰屑像浸了毒的飞镖落下……他们正等着他。然而他们却并不知道。”小说开篇就用一种紧张神秘的气息抓住了读者。40多岁的缇姆·法恩斯沃思是曼哈顿有名的律师,一天晚上他回到家郑重地告诉妻子简说:“它又来了。”什么又来了?那是一种奇怪的不为人知的疾病——它让我们的主人公无助、不停地行走,直到精疲力竭。短暂的间歇之后,缇姆又会成为他失控身体的受害者,“他的躯体就像无缘由失控的列车,他的灵魂惊恐的向这车外望着。”Tim is otherwise “horse-healthy” and content, a self-assured workaholic, devoted husband and father to a teenage daughter. But in a flash he is uncontrollably off, leaving his wife to find him passed out in a municipal parking place, a hospital or behind some chemists shop in the middle of the night. “Was she up for this?” Jane asks herself. These spells last for months at a time, and caring for him is a full-time job. But Jane has no choice: he could die out there. So she s survivalist manuals, prepares his pack (a first-aid kit, snacks, GPS, a poncho—to carry at all times), and then waits for the call to pick him up. The only alternative is to tie him to the bed and ignore his screams.缇姆原本是一个健康,满足,自信的人,他醉心于工作,是一个衷心的丈夫,一个十几岁女孩的父亲。但是突然间他无法控制的想要走路,他的妻子三更半夜找到他时他出没在政府的停车场,医院,或者在一些药店的后面。“我要这么做吗?”简问自己。缇姆的病每次发作长达几个月,照顾他成了简的全职工作。但是简没有选择:他这样下去会死的。于是她阅读生存手册,为缇姆准备背包(一套急救装备,零食,全球定位系统,一件斗篷——时刻都带在缇姆身边),然后等电话去接他。除此之外就只能把他绑在床上,任由他叫喊了。Doctors around the world have no idea what the problem is. Tim, alone in his mutinous body, is left wondering whether the trouble is in his head. Readers wonder about this too. Here Mr Ferris achieves a clever balance: Tim behaves strangely, but isnt that natural for anyone who loses the life he understood? Isnt madness inevitable when suffering from something no one can explain? A subplot about a murder trial, which yields a haunting exchange between Tim and a possible suspect on a bridge at night, raises more questions about his mental stability. Yet Jane stops speculating that her husband might be crazy after she goes through the menopause. She could only imagine how infuriating it would be if a doctor insisted her hot flushes were “all in her head”.所有的医生都束手无策。缇姆的灵魂独自留在他失控的身体里,思考着是否他的大脑真的出了问题;读者们也在思考。在这里作者费里斯先生很高明的设置了两个难以抉择的判断:缇姆的行为是怪异的,但当一个人失去了他所能理解的生活时这不又是正常的吗?小说中有一个关于一起谋杀案的审判的次要情节,在审判过程中,缇姆在一个晚上同本案的嫌疑犯在一座桥上进行了一场令他难忘的交易,这也使他的精神状况越发不稳定。而此时简在经过她的更年期后也不再猜测丈夫可能患上了精神病。她能想象的到如果医生坚持说她的潮红症状都是她想出来的那将会是一件多么令人恼怒的事情。Mr Ferris keeps his prose direct and uncluttered, with only occasional flourishes (Tims feet “were like two engorged and squishy hearts”; a diners “fluorescent brutality” is “the national colour of insomnia and transience”). His fondness for his characters sometimes veers towards the sentimental. Still, he exercises a mature writers restraint, content to leave questions unanswered. He also has a fine ear for speech, and a good sense of what feels real, even when chronicling the surreal.费里斯先生的散文依旧简洁明快,偶尔也会迸发出奇特的灵感(缇姆的双脚“就像两颗饱满、湿软的心脏”;一位用餐者的“野蛮行为散发的荧光”是“失眠症和暂时性的名族色”)。他热爱自己笔下的人物,但不见得完全受感情的配,他依旧会运用成熟作家的控制力,遗留一些未给出的问题。他还可以清醒地聆听演讲,对真实的事物有着良好的感受力,即使是在将超现实的事情载入编年史的时候。Mr Ferris insists that “The Unnamed” is not a work of magical realism, but of “realist magic”. By inventing an incurable disease, he can meditate on its impact—on a marriage, on a career, on a characters self-esteem—without dragging in the baggage of a familiar illness. This also amplifies the horror, leaving ers just as perplexed about what is afflicting Tim. Is this a physical or mental problem? Can a line be drawn between the two? In the last third of the book, Tim gives himself over to his need to walk. Raving and deteriorating, he lets his legs take him across the country, living a hobos life without possessions or attachments (“To own something was to keep it on his back or risk losing it forever”). Yet Tims dilemmas still feel real and his needs sympathetic. How does he go on? How does anyone?费里斯先生坚持《莫名》并不是一部“魔幻现实主义”的作品,而是一部“现实魔幻小说”。他能够通过创造一种难以治愈的疾病来思考它对于婚姻,事业或者主人公自尊心的影响——而不是通过某种司空见惯的疾病。也正是这样,小说又加深了它带来的恐惧感,使读者对缇姆痛苦的原因困惑不解,到底是生理的还是心理的问题呢?这两者之间能不能画出一条分界线?在小说后三分之一的部分,缇姆放弃了一切去满足自己行走的需要。他任由自己的双腿穿越整个国家,咆哮着,病情不断恶化,他过上了流浪者的生活,没有财产,没有携带任何附属装置(“拥有某物就是一直将他背在背上或者冒着永远失去它的危险”)。但缇姆的困境始终可以被真实的感知,并且他需要人们的同情。他会怎么样?其他人呢?This is a story about a man with a walking problem, but it is also a larger tale about struggling with uncertainty. Scattered throughout the novel are some odd events: blizzards, floods, fires, dying bees. Mr Ferris is reminding us of how little we know about the world we live in, and how little we know about ourselves within it, and yet we persist. This is not to say that Tims walking is some clunky metaphor. Mr Ferris is wise enough not to teach a lesson. Rather, he has teased ordinary circumstances into something extraordinary, which is exactly what we want our fiction writers to do.这是一个关于行走强迫症患者的故事,更是一部描述了于不确定中的挣扎的作品。小说中充斥着古怪的事件:暴风雪、洪水、大火、垂死的蜜蜂。费里斯先生让我们意识到我们对于我们生存之世界及我们自己是多么的不了解,然而我们仍旧存在。这并不是说缇姆的行路癖是一个拙劣的隐喻,菲尔斯先生有足够的智慧使他的作品不流于说教。相反地,他把一些平常的事件夸大并进行了嘲讽,而这也正是我们期待着作家做的。 /201305/238397。
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