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惠州市医院治疗睾丸炎多少钱久久报惠州割包皮费用

2019年09月19日 04:39:56
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惠城区治疗包皮包茎哪家医院最好WASHINGTON — In an investigation involving guns and drugs, the Justice Department obtained a court order this summer demanding that Apple turn over, in real time, text messages between suspects using iPhones.华盛顿——今年夏天,在一起涉及和毒品的调查中,美国司法部获得了法院命令,要求苹果(Apple)实时提交使用iPhone的嫌疑人之间的短信。Apple’s response: Its iMessage system was encrypted and the company could not comply.苹果的回应是:iMessage系统是加密的,所以公司无法提交。Government officials had warned for months that this type of standoff was inevitable as technology companies like Apple and Google embraced tougher encryption. The case, coming after several others in which similar requests were rebuffed, prompted some senior Justice Department and F.B.I. officials to advocate taking Apple to court, several current and former law enforcement officials said.在此之前的多个月里,政府官员就不断发出警告:随着苹果、谷歌(Google)等科技公司开始采用更加严格的加密方案,这种僵局是不可避免的。一些现任和前任执法人员表示,在此案发生之前,还有其他几次类似的要求也遭到拒绝,导致司法部和联邦调查局(FBI)的一些高级官员主张把苹果公司告上法庭。While that prospect has been shelved for now, the Justice Department is engaged in a court dispute with another tech company, Microsoft. The case, which goes before a federal appeals court in New York on Wednesday and is being closely watched by industry officials and civil liberties advocates, began when the company refused to comply with a warrant in December 2013 for emails from a drug trafficking suspect. Microsoft said federal officials would have to get an order from an Irish court, because the emails were stored on servers in Dublin.虽然此事被暂时搁置到一边,司法部却正在与另一家科技公司微软(Microsoft)对簿公堂。位于纽约的一家联邦上诉法院本周三将审理该案,行业人士和公民自由权益提倡者正在密切关注。该案的起因是2013年12月,法院开出一份搜查令,要求微软提供一名贩毒嫌疑人的电子邮件,但微软拒绝从,表示联邦官员必须获得爱尔兰法院的命令,因为那些邮件储存在都柏林的务器里。The conflicts with Apple and Microsoft reflect heightened corporate resistance, in the post-Edward J. Snowden era, by American technology companies intent on demonstrating that they are trying to protect customer information.政府与苹果和微软之间的这些冲突,反应了企业在“后爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)时代”施加的阻力有所加大,因为美国科技公司想要表明,自己在努力保护用户的信息。“It’s become all wrapped up in Snowden and privacy issues,” said George J. Terwilliger III, a lawyer who represents technology companies and as a Justice Department official two decades ago faced the challenge of how to wiretap phone networks that were becoming more digital.“这些事都演变为围绕着斯诺登和隐私问题,”代表科技公司的律师乔治·J·特威利格三世(George J. Terwilliger III)说。他二十年前在司法部任职,当时电话网络正变得日益数字化,因此他曾面临如何窃听的挑战。President Obama has charged White House Homeland Security and cybersecurity officials, along with those at the Justice Department, the F.B.I. and the intelligence agencies, with proposing solutions — some legislative, some not — to the technology access issue. They are still hashing out their differences, according to law enforcement and administration officials.奥巴马总统让白宫的国土安全和网络安全官员,连同司法部、联邦调查局及各情报机构的官员一起,提出一些方案——部分涉及立法,部分不涉及——来解决从科技公司获得信息的问题。根据执法官员和奥巴马政府内部人士的说法,目前他们还在努力消除彼此间的分歧。Some Justice and F.B.I. officials have been frustrated that the White House has not moved more quickly or been more outspoken in the public relations fight that the tech companies appear to be winning, the law enforcement officials said, speaking only on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to discuss the private conversations.多名执法官员表示,司法部和联邦调查局的一些官员感到不快,他们觉得白宫行动太慢,在公关大战中不够慷慨陈词,似乎被科技公司占据了上风。由于没有获得私下讨论的许可,这些官员不愿具名。The White House, after months of study, has yet to articulate a public response to the argument that a victory in the Microsoft case would provide authoritarian governments, particularly the Chinese and Russians, with a way to get access into computer servers located in the ed States.有人提出,如果微软这次败诉,那么极权政府——尤其是中国和俄罗斯——就可能会获得一条途径,从位于美国的计算机务器上取得信息。白宫已经研究了数月之久,但尚未公开阐明对这种观点的回应。“Clearly, if the U.S. government wins, the door is open for other governments to reach into data centers in the U.S.,” Brad Smith, Microsoft’s general counsel, said in a recent interview. Companies and civil liberties groups have been sending in briefs of their own, largely opposing the government’s surveillance powers.“很显然,如果美国政府获胜,大门就会敞开,其他国家的政府就可以从美国的数据中心获取数据了,”微软的总法律顾问布拉德·史密斯(Brad Smith)在近期的一次采访中说。公司和公民自由组织在散发自己的宣传资料,主要是表示反对政府掌握监视的权力。At issue are two types of encoding. The first is end-to-end encryption, which Apple uses in its iMessage system and FaceTime, the conversation system. Companies like Open Whisper Systems, the maker of Signal, and WhatsApp have adopted such encryption for stand-alone apps, which are of particular concern to counterterrorism investigators.问题关乎两种类型的编码。一种是端到端加密,苹果公司在iMessage和视频聊天务FaceTime中就使用了这种方式。Signal所属的Open Whisper Systems公司和WhatsApp在单独的应用上也采用了这种加密方式,而此类应用是反恐调查人员尤其关注的一个问题。With Apple, the encryption and decryption is done by the phones at either end of the conversation; Apple does not keep copies of the message unless one of the users loads it into iCloud, where it is not encrypted. (In the drug and gun investigation this summer, Apple eventually turned over some stored iCloud messages. While they were not the real-time texts the government most wanted, officials said they saw it as a sign of cooperation.)在苹果公司,加密和解密都是由其中一方的通话手机来进行的。苹果没有相关讯息的备份,除非一方用户将其上传到不加密的iCloud上。(在今夏那起毒品和调查中,苹果最后还是移交了存储在iCloud上的部分讯息。尽管它们不是政府最想要的实时短信,但官员表示,他们认为这是合作的标志。)The second type of encoding involves sophisticated encryption software on Apple and Android phones, which makes it all but impossible for anyone except the user of the phone to open stored content — pictures, contacts, saved text messages and more — without an access code. The F.B.I. and local authorities oppose the technology, saying it put them at risk of “going dark” on communications between terrorists and about criminal activity on city streets. The American military is more divided on the issue, depending on the mission.第二种编码涉及苹果和Android手机上的复杂的加密软件。有了它们,除手机用户外,任何人在没有访问码的情况下几乎都不可能打开存储内容,如照片、联系人、保存下来的短信等。FBI和地方当局反对这项技术,称它让自身面临对通讯信息一无所知的风险,而相关通讯会涉及恐怖分子,以及街头犯罪活动。美国军方在这个问题上则存在一定的分歧,具体情况视任务而定。Officials say a court fight with Apple is still an option, though they acknowledge it would be a long shot. Some object that a legal battle would make it harder for the companies to compromise, the law enforcement officials said. They added that Apple and other companies have privately expressed willingness to find common ground.官员称,与苹果对薄公堂依然是选择之一,但他们承认,成功的可能性很小。执法官员称,一些人持反对意见,认为打官司会导致科技企业更难妥协。他们还表示,苹果等公司私下里表示愿意寻找共同点。Apple declined to comment on the case for this article. But company officials have argued publicly that the access the government wants could be exploited by hackers and endanger privacy.苹果拒绝为本文该案。但公司领导层曾公开表示,政府希望获得的访问权限可能会被黑客利用,危及隐私。“There’s another attack on our civil liberties that we see heating up every day — it’s the battle over encryption,” Tim Cook, the company’s chief executive, told a conference on electronic privacy this year. “We think this is incredibly dangerous.”“我们看到,又一场针对公民自由的攻击每天都在升温,它就是围绕加密展开的斗争,”苹果首席执行官蒂姆·库克(Tim Cook)在今年的一次有关电子隐私的会议上说。“我们认为这种情况极其危险。”Echoing the arguments of industry experts, he added, “If you put a key under the mat for the cops, a burglar can find it, too.” If criminals or countries “know there’s a key hidden somewhere, they won’t stop until they find it,” he concluded.接下来,他重复了行业专家的观点,“如果为了给警察行方便而把钥匙放在门垫下,那么窃贼也能找到。”如果罪犯或某些国家“知道有一把钥匙藏在某个地方,那么他们不找到钥匙是不会罢休的,”他总结道。The Microsoft case centers on whether the fact that data is stored around the world relieves American firms of turning it over. The government, which won in Federal District Court, has argued in its brief to the appeals court that where the data is stored is irrelevant because the company still has control of email records. The White House declined to comment because the case is in litigation.微软一案的核心是,数据存放在世界各地这个事实,是否能免除美国公司移交数据的责任。在联邦地区法院胜诉的政府在给上诉法院的案情摘要中称,数据存放在哪里无关紧要,因为微软依然控制着电子邮件记录。因为案件正在诉讼过程中,白宫拒绝置评。“People want to know what law will be applied to their data,” Mr. Smith of Microsoft said. “French want their rights under French law, and Brazilians under Brazilian law. What is the U.S. government going to do when other governments reach into the U.S. data centers, without notifying the U.S. government?”“大家想知道他们的数据会适用什么法律,”微软的史密斯说。“法国人希望用法国的法律保护自己的权利,巴西人希望用巴西的法律。假如其他国家的政府无需通知美国政府就能进入美国的数据中心,美国政府会怎么做?”Chinese firms aly have plans to build facilities on American soil that would store electronic communications, so the question may be more than hypothetical. In its brief, Microsoft argues that Congress will ultimately have to weigh in on the issue, since it is as much a political matter as a legal one: “Only Congress has the institutional competence and constitutional authority to balance law enforcement needs against our nation’s sovereignty, the privacy of its citizens and the competitiveness of its industry.”中国公司已经打算在美国境内修建设施,用以存放电子通讯信息,所以这个问题并非凭空想象。在案情摘要中,微软认为国会最终将不得不介入此事,因为这既是一个政治问题,也是一个法律问题:“只有国会拥有相应的制度能力和宪法权力来平衡执法需求与国家主权、公民隐私和业界竞争力之间的关系。” /201509/397738惠州尿道炎怎样治Chinese Steelyard-Gancheng杆秤The steelyard is a Chinese invention.As early as 200 B.C.,China be-gan to make a scale of this type big enough to weigh several hundred pounds. The steelyard consisted of the following parts: an arm, a hook, lifting cords and a weight.The arm or beam measured about l.5 metres long, graduat-ed with the weight units- jin and liang*. The hook, hanging from one end of the arm, was used to lift up the object to be weighed. Hanging from the other part of the arm was the freemoving weight, attached on a looped string. On the arm was fixed one, two or three lifting cords, placed much closer to the hook than to the other end. Anything to be weighed should be picked up by the hook, while the weigher lifted up the whole steelyard, holding one of the cords.He then slided the weight left or right until he found a perfect balance of the beam. He then the weight from the graduation mark on which the weight-string rested.杆秤是中国发明的历史最悠久的一种衡器。早在公元前200年前,已有了各种规格的杆秤砣,大的足以称重几百斤的物品。杆秤由木制的秤杆、金属秤砣、提绳等组成。秤杆长约1.5米,上面标有斤两刻度的星点。秤杆的一端悬挂着秤钩,用来吊起要称重的物品。秤杆上还挂有一个自由移动的秤砣。在靠近秤钩的一端固定了一到三个提绳。称重时必须用秤钩勾起物品,称重人提着提绳举起整杆秤,并将秤砣左右滑动直到完全平衡,然后根据秤砣上的绳子所在的星点位置读出重量即可。This kind of steelyard is still in widesp use at market gatherings in China.They may be made in varying sizes working by the same principle, with the large ones to weigh food grain in bulk, pigs or sheep or their carcasses, and medium-sized ones for smaller transactions. There is also a miniature steelyard only about one third of a metre ( about i foot)long,graduated with liang and qian,**.Used to weigh medicinal herbs and silver or gold, it first appeared about l,000 years ago.至今在中国的集市上仍然广泛使用杆秤。尽管大小不同,原理都是一样的。大的用来称粮食、牲畜等,中等的用来称稍小的物件。还有一种只有普通杆秤的三分之一长的小杆秤,上面的星点刻度是“两”和“钱”,是用来称中草药或金银的。这种小杆秤最早出现于1000多年前。The steelyard is more convenient than the platform scale. Not only can it be carried around easily, but there is also no need for a whole set of weights.Corre-sponding to the lifting cords are different sets of graduation marks on the arm for different measuring ranges.杆秤和台秤相比更加方便,因为它易于携带,也不需要一整套的秤砣,不同的重量范围取决于秤杆上不同的提绳。It is perhaps worthwhile to mention that the equal-armed platform scale ap-peared in China earlier than the steelyard with a sliding weight. A scale of the for-mer description with a complete set of weights was discovered lately from a tomb near Changsha, Hunan Province, which dates back to the Warring States Period. It is in size similar to those in use today and its component parts are found to be in good proportions.还值得一提的是,在中国天平秤比杆秤出现得更早。在湖南长沙出土的天平带有一整套的秤砣,据考为战国时期所造。它的大小和目前使用的天平大小接近,组件比例合适。* One Jin, equals 500 grams or about l.1 pounds; it used to be divided into 16 liang , but now 10 lian,g .* 一斤相当于500克或1.1镑,古代一斤是16两,而现在是10两。** A qian is orie-terith of a liang.*一钱为1/10两。 /201512/410727Researchers have developed a method to activate electronic implants in the body and eliminate bacterial infections using a wireless signal。研究者已经开发了一种运用无线信号激活人体中电子植入物来消除细菌感染的方法。When triggered by remote technology, the gadget delivers heat to infected tissue。当通过远程技术触发时,那个小装置就向被感染的组织传递热量。And it could lead to technologies that enable drugs and treatment to be delivered to patients at the press of a button。一旦按下按钮,它就能够通向保药物和治疗传递给病人的技术。The technology was developed by researchers at Tufts University in Massachusetts and the University of Illinois。这种技术是由美国马萨诸塞州的塔夫茨大学和伊利诺斯大学的研究者开发的。Mice were given electronic implants that, when a signal was sent, heated up to treat tissue that was infected with staphylococcus, or staph, which can cause minor skin abscesses or life-threatening infections of the blood。当信号发出,小白鼠体内的电子植入物就通过加热来治疗被葡萄球菌感染的组织,这种被感染的组织可能会引发轻微的皮肤脓肿或者威胁生命的血液感染。Tissues collected from the mice 24 hours after treatment showed no sign of the infection, while the device dissolved in 15 days, proving it can not only treat infections but also be disposed of easily。在治疗之后24小时内从小白鼠身上收集到的组织已经没有感染的迹象了。这个装置在15天内自动降解,这也明它不仅能够治疗感染,同时也是很容易处理的。The research, which also eliminated E. coli bacteria, was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences。这个同时也消除了大肠杆菌的研究被发表在美国国家科学院的会刊上。Each device, made of silk and magnesium, harmlessly dissolved in the animals after the tests。每个设备都是由丝和镁制成,在实验结束后会自动降解,对动物的身体没有伤害。 The heating device in the implants has a resistor and power-receiving coil made of magnesium, and the magnesium is wrapped in #39;packet#39; of silk, keeping it safe and controlling its dissolution time。植入物中的加热设备有一个电阻器和一个电力接收线圈,线圈是由镁制成的,而镁的外表又包裹了一层丝,这样既保了安全又控制了其降解的时间。The ability of the device to dissolve is important, as it means such implants would not need to be removed。这个装置的自动降解能力是十分重要的,因为这意味着这种植入物不会再需要另外移除。Implantable medical devices normally use non-degradable materials that have limited operational lifetimes and must eventually be removed or replaced。植入式医疗设备通常使用的都是不可降解的材料,它们的的使用寿命有限,而且最终必须移除或者重置。But these new wireless therapy devices can handle the surgical process, and can then dissolve in minutes or weeks, depending on the time needed。但是这些新式的无线治疗设备可以处理手术过程,而且能够根据需求时间在几分钟或者几周内自动降解。;This is an important demonstration step forward for the development of on-demand medical devices that can be turned on remotely to perform a therapeutic function in a patient and then safely disappear after their use, requiring no retrieval,; said senior author Fiorenzo Omenetto, professor of biomedical engineering at Tufts School of Engineering。资深作家菲奥伦佐-托——塔夫茨大学工程学院生物医学工程的教授说道:“对于需求式医疗设备的发展,这是重要的一步进展。需求式医疗设备能够在病人身上远程操作治疗功能,而且治疗完成后能够安全降解,不需要再取出来。”;These wireless strategies could help manage post-surgical infection, for example, or pave the way for eventual Wi-Fi drug delivery.;“比如,这些无线战略可有助于处理术后感染或者为最终的无线药物传输铺平道路”。 /201508/393317惠阳区妇幼保健人民中医院看男科好吗

惠州医院包皮手术怎么样惠州那家医院治疗前列炎最好广东惠州治疗睾丸炎哪家医院最好When Samantha Du returned to her native China in 2001 with a mission to build a pharmaceuticals company, the move seemed like a terrible mistake. 当2001年杜莹(Samantha Du)带着创建一家制药公司的使命回到祖国时,她的举动似乎像是一个可怕的错误。 She had left behind a comfortable life in the US where she spent the previous 12 years, first as an academic scientist and later in roles of rising seniority at Pfizer. Back in China, she felt like an alien in her own country as she tried to start her venture. 她放弃了在美国的优渥生活。她在那里已经生活了12年,先是读士,后来在辉瑞(Pfizer)工作,期间不断获得晋升。回到中国,当她设法自己创业时,她反倒感觉自己像一个外国人。 The nadir came during a business meeting in which the refreshments came in the form of hard liquor. She recalls: “Everyone drank until they fell asleep. Then they woke up and signed the contract. While they were sleeping I left the room and cried. I had left a great career and a big house in rural Connecticut. Now here I was negotiating with drunk people.” 最糟糕的时刻是在一次商务会谈期间——提神饮品只有烈性酒。她回忆道:“每个人都喝到睡着。醒来之后,他们就把合同签了。在他们睡着时,我走出房间哭了一场。我舍弃了一份很有前途的事业,还有恬静的康涅狄格州的大房子。现在,我却在和一群醉汉谈判。” Several times she came close to quitting but was dissuaded by business partners. Fifteen years later, her persistence appears to be working. As, first, chief scientific officer of Hutchison China MediTech and now chief executive of Zai Lab, she is prominent among a wave of biotech entrepreneurs aiming to modernise China’s pharma industry and make the country a force in drug development. 好几次她都差点放弃,但是被合伙人劝止住。15年后,她的坚持似乎正在带来回报。她先是担任和黄中国医药科技(Hutchison China MediTech)首席科技官,现在任生物科技公司再鼎医药(Zai Lab)首席执行官。在一批有志于推动中国医药产业现代化并使中国在药物开发领域崭露头角的生物技术创业者中,她是突出的一员。 Most of them are “sea turtles” — the name given to Chinese professionals trained in the west who have returned home armed with qualifications and experience. All nine of Zai Lab’s top management studied at US universities. They have been drawn home by rapidly improving opportunities in China’s life science sector as Beijing pumps resources into its quest for a more innovative, high-value economy. 他们大都是“海龟(归)”——在西方深造过,带着文凭和经验回国的专业人才。再鼎医药的9名高管全都曾在美国大学里深造过。随着北京方面投入大量资源、寻求将中国经济打造得更具创新性和高附加值,中国生命科学领域的机遇快速增多,将他们吸引回国。 After a PhD in biochemistry at the University of Cincinnati, Ms Du joined Pfizer as a research scientist and ended up in charge of licensing some of the US group’s drugs around the world. She had not thought about leaving until a call came from Hutchison Whampoa, the holding company of Hong Kong tycoon Li Ka-shing, inviting her to head a new pharma enterprise. “They said, ‘You have aly achieved so much in the US. Why not come back and do something for China?’” 在美国辛辛那提大学(University of Cincinnati)获得生物化学士学位后,杜莹加入了辉瑞担任研究科学家,最终做到主管该公司部分药物在全球的授权工作。她从未想过离开辉瑞,直至接到来自和记黄埔(Hutchison Whampoa)——香港大亨李嘉诚(Li Ka-shing)的控股公司——的一个电话,邀请她掌舵一家新的制药公司。“他们说,‘你在美国已经取得这么多成绩。为什么不回来为中国做些事呢’?” With the resources of one of Asia’s richest men behind her, she criss-crossed China looking for assets to build a company around. It did not prove an easy task. Instead of hidden scientific gems, Ms Du found a domestic industry more interested in eking out margins from cheap generic drugs than investing in research and development. “The mindset was all about trading rather than innovation,” she recalls. 在这位亚洲富豪的雄厚资源持下,她遍访中国各地,寻找成立一家公司所需的各种资产。事实明,这并非一项简单的工作。杜莹发现,相较于投资研发、发现隐藏的科学宝藏,国内医药产业对于从廉价仿制药中赚取利润更感兴趣。“大家在想的都是如何进行交易,而非创新,”她回忆道。 Gradually, however, China MediTech, or Chi-Med, began building its own Ramp;D capabilities in partnership with western drugmakers including Eli Lilly and AstraZeneca. The company floated on London’s Aim stock market in 2006 and is planning a dual listing on Nasdaq this month as it pushes two cancer drugs through late-stage trials, with five other products in earlier studies. 然而,逐渐地,和黄医药开始与礼来(Eli Lilly)和阿斯利康(AstraZeneca)等西方制药商合作,建立自主研发能力。2006年,该公司在伦敦交所的第二板交易市场(AIM)上市,并计划本月在纳斯达克(Nasdaq)完成第二上市。该公司有两种抗癌药物正在进行后期临床试验,另外还有5种产品处于早期研究阶段。 Ms Du left Chi-Med in 2011 to take charge of Chinese healthcare investments for Sequoia Capital, the Silicon Valley venture capital firm, before founding Zai Lab in 2013. The company has licensed experimental treatments from big pharma partners including Sanofi and Bristol-Myers Squibb, but Ms Du’s long-term focus is on developing homegrown drugs. Zai in January raised 0m in private finance from Sequoia and other big international investors and recently opened an Ramp;D base in Shanghai. “We want to be the first Chinese biotech company with global standing,” says Ms Du. 杜莹于2011年离开和黄医药,之后加入硅谷风险投资公司红杉资本(Sequoia Capital),负责在华医疗投资业务,在2013年创立再鼎医药。再鼎医药从赛诺菲(Sanofi)和百时美施贵宝(Bristol-Myers Squibb)等大型制药商伙伴那里,获得了一些处于临床试验阶段的药物的授权,但杜莹的长期目标在于研发本土药物。今年1月,再鼎医药从红杉资本及其他大型国际投资机构处筹集了1亿美元,并于近期在上海设立了研发基地。“我们希望成为中国首家享誉全球的生物技术公司,”杜莹说。 She is hardly alone in that ambition. BeiGene, a company founded by Xiaodong Wang, former professor of biomedical science at the University of Texas, last month raised 8m on Nasdaq to accelerate development of four promising cancer drugs. 拥有此等雄心的人不止她一个。前德克萨斯大学(University of Texas)生物医学教授王晓东创办了生物科技公司百济神州(BeiGene),该公司上月在纳斯达克筹得1.58亿美元,用于加快4种很有前景的抗癌药物的研发。 Perhaps the most successful “sea turtle” in China’s life science sector is Ge Li, who earned his doctorate at Columbia University and became a biotech entrepreneur in the US before returning home to found WuXi AppTec 15 years ago. The company has since become the biggest Chinese contract research organisation, performing Ramp;D and manufacturing for many of the world’s biggest pharma groups. 中国生命科学领域最成功的“海龟”,或许要数在哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)获得士学位的李革。他在美国时已是一名生物技术创业者,15年前回国创办了无锡药明康德(WuXi AppTec)。该公司如今已成为中国最大的研发外包机构,为许多世界顶级医药集团提供研发和生产务。 About 5 per cent of WuXi AppTec’s 10,000-strong workforce was trained overseas. 在药明康德的1万多名员工中,约5%曾在海外深造。 Among them is Hongye Sun, who studied at Harvard and spent a decade with a Californian biotech company before being lured back to run WuXi’s genomic sequencing business. Mr Sun says the biggest difference with the US is the speed of decision making. 孙洪业就是其中之一。他曾就读于哈佛大学(Harvard),在加州一家生物科技公司工作过10年,后来被吸引回国,负责药明康德的基因组测序业务。孙洪业说,这里与美国最大不同在于决策的速度。 “In America it felt like I needed 60 meetings to get something done, whereas here I need four.” “在美国感觉需要开60次会议才能搞定的事,在这里只需要开4次会。” WuXi AppTec has tried to harness the vigour of Chinese business culture while importing the quality standards learnt by its top scientists in the west. “We have 15 minutes of compliance training every morning,” says Mr Sun. “We tell our people, ‘We cannot afford a single mistake because if something goes wrong it could ruin the company in a day’”. 药明康德试图在利用中国商业文化活力的同时,引入公司顶级科学家在西方学到的质量标准。“我们每天上午要进行15分钟的合规培训,”孙洪业说,“我们告诉员工,‘我们一丁点儿错误都无法承受,因为如果出现错误,就可能让公司毁于一旦’。” While returnees are leading the development of China’s biotech sector, they are increasingly drawing from an expanding local talent pool to build their businesses. China overtook the US in 2008 as the world’s biggest producer of PhDs, and the number has continued to grow rapidly. 虽然海归们引领着中国生物技术行业的发展,但他们正日益从不断扩大的本土人才库中发掘人才,来发展自己的业务。2008年,中国超过美国成为世界培养士最多的国家,而中国士的数量还在继续快速增长。 Critics question whether the increasing volume is matched by quality. Mr Sun says standards at the top Chinese universities are high, with fierce competition for entry. But he concedes that locally trained scientists can be too deferential. 批评人士质疑,在数量增加的同时,中国士的素质是否跟得上。孙洪业说,中国顶尖高校的标准很高,入学竞争非常激烈。但他也承认,中国本土培养的科学家过于恭顺。 “I tell employees to argue with me and call me by my name, not my title. I tell them, ‘If you use my title, you are less likely to tell me the truth’.” “我告诉员工可以跟我争论,直呼我的名字,而不是我的头衔。我告诉他们,‘如果你们叫我的头衔,就不太可能跟我说实话’。” With soaring numbers of scientists, rising investment in Ramp;D and growing demand for medicines from an ageing population, China has all the ingredients for growth in its biotech sector. Ms Du and others like her are aiming to replicate the success of US companies such as Genentech and Amgen, which suddenly appeared in the 1980s to become forces in global pharma. 中国生物技术行业增长的条件已经全部具备:科学家数量激增、研发投资增多、日益老龄化的人口对药品的需求日益增长。杜莹与其他像她一样的创业者的目标是,复制像基因泰克(Genentech)和安进(Amgen)等美国公司那样的成功,这两家公司在上世纪80年代横空出世,迅速在全球制药行业崭露头角。 As a service provider to local and foreign companies alike, WuXi AppTec is well placed to assess progress. Steve Yang, the company’s chief operating officer and a veteran of AstraZeneca, Pfizer and the University of California, urges caution. 药明康德同时为国内、外制药公司提供务,应该有资格评估中国在制药领域取得的进展。但该公司首席运营官杨青(Steve Yang)呼吁保持谨慎。杨青毕业于加州大学(University of California),曾在阿斯利康、辉瑞担任高管。 “There is a group of Chinese companies that are well positioned, but how many years did it take for the world to appreciate Genentech? It took decades. The race is on, but it’s still very early.” “现在有不少中国企业发展势头很好,但基因泰克用了多少年才获得全世界的认可?几十年。中国已经加入竞赛,但输赢还远未见分晓。” /201603/431236惠州那个医院可以割包皮

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