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2018年12月12日 14:20:20 | 作者:中华时讯 | 来源:新华社
Microsoft#39;s Surface tablet is, for now, aptly named. We know what the product looks like, but don#39;t know how it will perform, or sell, until it gets into consumers#39; hands. Reviewers can only debate the features (USB port; kickstand; thin keyboard; whoop-de-doo) and analysts will resort to new forms of bet-hedging (;execution will be key;).眼下来看,微软(Microsoft)Surface平板电脑的名字很贴切。我们知道产品长什么样,但在它到消费者手中之前,我们不知道它的性能或销量如何。者只能辩论各种功能(USB接口;架;薄键盘;诸如此类),而分析师将求助于可进可退的新套话(;执行将是关键;)。And the tablet has to perform beautifully because of an ugly catch 22: mobile devices become popular with consumers largely because of the available applications, but app developers only work on devices that are popular with consumers. The fact that it will run Microsoft Office#39;s software suite, with which cubicle dwellers worldwide are sentenced to spend their days, does not mean Surface can crack this problem.这款平板电脑必须有出色的表现,原因在于一对可恶的矛盾:一方面,移动设备能否受到消费者欢迎,在很大程度上要看可获得的应用程序有多少;另一方面,应用开发者只针对人气较高的设备开发应用。虽然Surface将运行全世界白领员工不得不使用的微软Office套装软件,但这并不意味着这款平板电脑能够解决上述矛盾。Pricing will also be crucial. Microsoft#39;s Lumia smartphone, released with Nokia, proved that a solid product with differentiating features can still struggle with consumers, especially if it is too dear. Microsoft, because it is making the Surface under its own brand, will have complete control of price. So far, it has said only that prices will be ;competitive; with existing products. Why not discount aggressively, to break open the market? Assuming a 0 cost for the lower-end Windows RT version, the company could sell 10m of them at 0 (a big discount over the cheapest iPad) while sacrificing all of 4 per cent of pre-tax income.定价也将很关键。微软与诺基亚(Nokia)合作打造的Lumia智能手机表明,有着与众不同功能的优秀产品,仍有可能难以获得消费者的青睐,尤其是如果这款产品很贵的话。由于微软借助自己的品牌推出Surface,因此该公司对定价有着完全的控制权。迄今微软仅表示,Surface的价格与现有产品相比将;具有竞争力;。为什么不推出咄咄逼人的折扣来打开市场呢?假设低端Windows RT版本的成本是400美元,那么微软能够以300美元(比最便宜的iPad还便宜很多)的价格销售1000万台,同时牺牲全部4%的税前利润。Consumers tend to equate price and value, and Microsoft has a fledgling brand to protect. More important, Microsoft must consider the global PC makers, from Hewlett-Packardto Lenovo. They will not make Windows tablets if they are competing against a subsidised Surface. Microsoft will have to think carefully before alienating the partners who have helped make their software franchise one of the most profitable businesses of all time.消费者往往把价格和价值等同起来,而微软也需要保护初生的Surface品牌。更重要的是,微软必须考虑从惠普(Hewlett-Packard)到联想(Lenovo)的全球个人电脑(PC)制造商。若要与得到补贴的Surface展开竞争,他们将不会生产Windows平板电脑。在疏远那些让微软软件成为史上盈利最丰厚行业之一的合作伙伴之前,微软需要三思而行。 /201206/187653In the home of the future, you can skip the keys. Just tap your phone, and presto, your door swings open.在未来的家中,你不再需要钥匙了。只需轻点手机,转眼间就能打开家门。A new company with a high-powered designer is the latest one hoping to take that vision to the masses. That company, August, introduced its version of the so-called smart-lock to the public last week.一家名叫August,拥有超强设计师的新公司正希望把这幅愿景带给大众。上周,该公司向公众推出了自己的智能锁产品。The lock is the brainchild of CEO Jason Johnson and renowned designer Yves Béhar, who also designed the Jawbone fitness tracker and led the design for the One Laptop Per Child project. August hopes to win the hearts of early adaptors and bring more people to the smart home market, with a design that emphasizes sleek aesthetics and ease-of-use.这种智能锁是首席执行官杰森o约翰逊和知名设计师伊夫o贝哈尔的杰作,后者还设计过Jawbone健身追踪器,也是“每个孩子一台笔记本”(One Laptop Per Child)项目的总设计师。公司希望凭借这款造型优美,使用便利的产品,赢得早期用户的青睐,并带动更多人进入智能家居市场。While people may like the idea of smart homes, according to research firm IHS, only 5.6 million smart platforms have been installed globally. But the number is expected to rise to 44.6 million by 2018.研究公司IHS表示,尽管人们可能喜欢智能家居这个理念,但全球目前只安装了560万套智能平台。不过到2018年,这个数字有望升至4460万。Smooth and round, August’s lock has the heft of a medallion or a gilded hockey puck and allows users to unlock their doors by using their phones. Customers can also let in a babysitter or a maid by issuing them a temporary wireless key.August智能锁光滑圆润,重量相当于一枚奖章或一个镀金冰球,用户可以通过手机开门,还能给保姆或家政人员一把临时的无线钥匙。“We’re approaching it as a consumer product rather than a piece of technology” says Béhar.贝哈尔称:“我们将其作为消费产品而不是一项技术来开发的。”The lock, which uses Bluetooth, fits smoothly over an old-fashioned door with the help of two screws and some wing flaps so customers can retrofit their doors without altering the appearance. Users open the door by holding their phone app up to the lock or tapping a button on their phone screen.只需两颗螺丝和几个合页,就能轻松地这把使用蓝牙技术的锁安装在老式门上,而无需改变房门外观。用户把手机上的应用对准这把锁,或是按一下屏幕上的按键就能开门。Skeptics have raised concerns about how well August locks, which cost 9, can hold up under security attacks. Registering for the app requires two layer authentication. But during a recent product demo, the process was slightly buggy and difficult to enter email addresses for Android phones. Johnson defended the company’s security by pointing out there’s also two layers of encryption on the lock.对于这款售价249美元的锁,持怀疑态度的人担心它能否很好地抵挡安全攻击。注册这款应用需要两层认。但在近期举办的一个样机展示会上,这个注册流程并不那么顺畅,而且在安卓手机上输入电子邮件地址时颇有困难。约翰逊则大力夸赞产品的安全性能,指出该锁还有两层加密系统。August has raised over million in venture capital funding for their lock, one of the early forays into the world of smart home security. It faces a lot of competition from both well-established brands and start-ups. Yale has its own line of smart locks while Kwikset released its smart-lock, Kevo, last year. Meanwhile, start-up Goji plans to release a sleekly designed smart-lock that will take pictures of people who knock on your door and sends it to your door. This lock is August’s first product, but they don’t seem too worried about the competition.作为智能家居安全领域的早期产品,August公司已为这款智能锁募集了超过1000万美元风投。不过它正面临来自知名品牌和初创企业的激烈竞争。耶鲁公司(Yale)就有自己的智能锁产品线,Kwikset公司去年也推出了自己的智能锁Kevo。同时,初创公司Goji正计划推出一款设计时尚的智能锁,它能拍下敲门人的照片再发到用户手机上。本文开篇所提到的这款锁是August公司的首款产品,但该公司似乎并不太担心激烈的市场竞争态势。“We’d love to see other people enter this market,” says Johnson. “It helps us if more people start using smart locks.”约翰逊称:“我们很乐意看到其它公司进入这个市场。如果更多人开始用智能锁,这对我们来说是件好事。”Johnson envisions a world where keys are unnecessary, and speaks of them as jagged and ugly.约翰逊希望未来世界不再需要钥匙,在他看来,锯齿状的钥匙十分丑陋。“We’re about changing the way you interact with your home.,” he says. “We have keyless cars, why not keyless homes?”他说:“我们会改变你和家互动的方式。已经有无钥匙汽车了,为什么不能有无钥匙之家呢?”Johnson won’t go into further specifics about August’s long-term vision, but he did say in less than 90 days, August will be unveiling and shipping a new and complementary product.约翰逊不愿进一步透露公司的长期愿景,但他表示,在不到90天后,该公司就将向市场推出一款全新的补充产品。 /201411/341200

How do you get from zero to billion in revenue in five years?如何在五年内使公司收入从零达到10亿美元?Google (GOOG) did it by organizing the world#39;s information.通过组织全世界的信息,谷歌(Google)做到了。Facebook (FB) did it by making the world more open and connected.通过让这个世界更开放和联系更密切,Facebook也做到了。A hyper-growth trajectory, you might assume, requires a world-changing idea, brilliant programmers, and a Silicon Valley address.你可能认为,这种超速增长需要能改变世界的创意、头脑聪明的程序员和一个位于硅谷的办公室。Not necessarily. Hamdi Ulukaya borrowed million to buy an 85-year-old factory in upstate New York, came up with a new recipe for an ancient product and took on Fortune 500 giants in a consumer category that most experts figured was locked up.其实不一定。哈姆迪#8226;乌鲁卡亚借了100万美元,买下了纽约北部一家有85年历史的工厂,并找到一种传统产品的最新秘方,然后就开始在大多数专家认为已经饱和的消费市场向《财富》美国500强公司(Fortune 500)发起了挑战。Five years after selling the first case of his Greek-style yogurt, Chobani, in October 2007, Ulukaya reached billion in annual revenue. This kind of growth is unheard of, particularly for a startup, in the packaged-goods business—and rare in the tech world.2007年10月,乌鲁卡亚卖出了第一箱乔巴尼(Chobani)希腊酸奶。五年后,这家公司的年收入达到了10亿美元。这样的增长速度前所未闻,尤其是对于包装商品行业的一家初创公司来说——即使在科技行业,这也非常罕见。But Ulukaya has landed in the league of tech#39;s fastest-growing companies--and can claim something that Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg and Google#39;s Sergey Brin and Larry Page cannot: He owns 100% of his startup.但乌鲁卡亚确实成功实现了科技行业增长最快的公司所创造的奇迹,而且有一点连Facebook创始人马克#8226;扎克伯格和谷歌创始人谢尔盖#8226;布林与拉里#8226;佩奇都要自叹弗如:乌鲁卡亚拥有这家公司100%的所有权。On Saturday night in Monte Carlo, Ulukaya, 41, was named Ernst amp;Young#39;s World Entrepreneur of the Year, copping the grand prize in a competition that pitted him against 48 entrepreneurs whom Eamp;Y designated tops in their own countries. Ulukaya#39;s win was a surprise only because many of the 1, 000 attendees at the professional services firms#39; annual confab guessed that the judges—successful entrepreneurs from across the globe—wouldn#39;t bestow the top award on a U.S. founder. But Ulukaya, who emigrated from Turkey to America at 22, impressed the judges and everyone else with his up-from-nothing success story.一个周六的晚上,41岁的乌鲁卡亚从安永会计师事务所(Ernst amp;Young)挑选出的48名企业家中脱颖而出,在蒙特卡洛获得安永年度全球企业家奖(World Entrepreneur of the Year)。安永挑选的候选人都是在各自国家出类拔萃的企业家。乌鲁卡亚的成功之所以令人吃惊,是因为参加会议的1,000名与会者中,有许多人猜测,由来自各国的成功企业家组成的评审团不会把这个奖项授予美国创业者。而22岁从土耳其移民至美国的乌鲁卡亚凭借其手起家的成功故事打动了评审和所有人。Over breakfast in Monte Carlo last Thursday, Ulukaya told me about growing up in a tiny village in eastern Turkey, working on his father#39;s dairy farm and moving to the U.S. hoping to learn English and go to business school. New York City#39;s hubbub overwhelmed him. So he moved upstate, took some classes at the Albany branch of the State University of New York, and started a wholesale feta cheese business called Euphrates.最近在蒙特卡洛的早餐期间,乌鲁卡亚跟我讲述了他在土耳其东部一个小村子里的成长故事,他在父亲的奶牛场工作的经历,以及为了学英语和读商学院而来到美国的过程。纽约市的喧哗令他不知所措。于是他搬到了北部,在纽约州立大学(State University of New York)奥尔巴尼分校攻读了几门课程,并创办了一家名为Euphrates的公司,做羊奶酪批发生意。Everything changed one day, a decade later, when Ulukaya opened a piece of mail that said: ;Fully equipped yogurt factory for sale.; Defying the advice of cautious friends and advisers, he borrowed just over million from the SBA and Key Bank (KEY) to buy the Breyer#39;s yogurt factory that plant Kraft Foods#39; (KFT) was shuttering. He recruited four workers from the plant and a ;yogurt master; from Turkey and started work on creating the best-tasting, highest-quality yogurt.乌鲁卡亚的人生在十年后的一天被彻底改变。那一天,他打开一封信,里面写道:“出售设备齐全的酸奶厂。”虽然朋友和顾问都提出了谨慎的建议,但他依然从SBA和Key Bank贷款100万美元,买下了卡夫食品公司(Kraft Foods#39;)正准备关闭的布雷耶酸奶厂。他从工厂里挑出四名员工,并从土耳其聘请了一名“酸奶大师”,开始创造最美味、最高品质的酸奶。Ulukaya has no serious business training, no corporate role models (;I never worked for anyone except my father.;) and no investors except for himself. So it#39;s natural that Chobani#39;s strategy is based on instinct—the founder-CEO#39;s. The organization is flat—;no layers,; Ulukaya says. He employs 3,000 people in New York State and Idaho and at a dairy he bought in Australia. His corporate motto: ;Nothing but good.; From the start, Ulukaya has allocated 10% of Chobani#39;s after-tax profits to philanthropy. Chobani#39;s foundation is small but growing rapidly.乌鲁卡亚没有接受过正规的商业培训,也没有可以学习的创业榜样(“除了我父亲,我没有给任何人打过工。”),而且除了他自己,没有任何投资人。所以,乔巴尼的策略自然是依靠公司创始人兼CEO的直觉。公司实行扁平化的组织结构——“没有层级,”乌鲁卡亚说。现在,公司在纽约州和爱达荷州,以及他在澳大利亚收购的一家乳品公司,共拥有3,000名员工。他的公司口号是:“只要好的。”从一开始,乌鲁卡亚就将公司10%的税后利润投入到慈善事业当中。乔巴尼的基金会虽然规模很小,但却发展迅速。A billionaire at least on paper, Ulukaya says he longs to inspire other entrepreneurs to do some version of what he#39;s doing—that is, make real stuff in real America. ;I want to help bring entrepreneurship back to small towns, or else wealth will be only on the coasts,; he says.如今,乌鲁卡亚已经是理论上的亿万富翁,他表示自己希望能激励其他创业者去做类似的事情——在真实的美国创造实在的事物。他说:“我希望帮助创业者们回到小城镇,否则财富将全部集中在海岸城市。”As for the glamorization of the tech and social-media crowd, he adds, ;Who says you have to be a certain way to be a cool entrepreneur?;至于科技和社交媒体的光环,他补充说:“谁说必须要走某一条特定的路才能成为出色的创业者?” /201307/246283

Odds are, you’re ing this article when you’re supposed to be working.你在阅读这篇文章的时候,很可能正是你应该在工作的时候。A new study from Kansas State University suggests that we spend even more time than previously thought aimlessly browsing the Internet during our office hours.据堪萨斯州立大学的一项新调查显示,我们在办公时间内花在漫无目的浏览网页上的时间比我们预想的还要多。“Cyberloafing” — wasting time at work online — takes up as much as 80 percent of the time people spend online at work, according to the data collected by Joseph Ugrin, an assistant professor at Kansas State, and John Pearson, an associate professor at Southern Illinois University. The results were published in the latest issue of the journal Computers in Human Behavior.根据堪萨斯州立大学副教授约瑟夫#8226;乌格林和南伊利诺伊大学副教授约翰#8226;皮尔逊所收集的数据,“网上闲逛”——上网工作时浪费时间——占据了人们网上办公高达80%的时间。研究结果将刊登在《计算机在人类行为中的应用》杂志最新一期上。Their results also suggest that traditional work guidelines surrounding Internet use are not enough to police worker behavior, and that if companies really want to scale back the amount of time their employees spend surfing the Web, they must “consistently enforce” sanctions to uphold their cyberloafing policies.研究结果还表明,用规范互联网使用的传统工作守则来管辖员工的行为已经远远不够了,如果公司真想减少员工上网浏览网页的时间,就必须“始终如一地执行”相关处罚措施,以保网上闲逛政策的实施。;We found that for young people, it was hard to get them to think that social networking was unacceptable behavior,; Ugrin said. ;Just having a policy in place did not change their attitudes or behavior at all. Even when they knew they were being monitored, they still did not care.;乌格林说道:“我们发现很难让年轻人觉得(上班时间)上社交网络是不良行为。仅是制定出相关政策根本不能改变他们的态度或行为。即使他们知道自己的行为被监控,他们也会若无其事。”Then again, not necessarily all ;cyberloafing; can be measured as a net loss for businesses. A 2011 study found that in certain fields, when people spend time casually browsing the Web at work, they actually end up being more productive and creative.话说回来,并不是所有的“网上闲逛”都是企业的净损失。2011年的一项研究发现,在某些领域,当人们在上班时间随意地浏览网页时,他们的工作更富成效和创造力。The risks for employers go beyond lost productivity. Ugrin and Pearson point out that cyberloafing also poses legal risks for companies, if their employees are engaging in activities like viewing pornography or taking part in illegal transactions.员工“网上闲逛”的风险远不止使生产率下降。乌格林和皮尔逊指出,如果员工浏览色情网站或参与非法交易等行为,网上闲逛还会给企业带来法律风险。Ugrin and Pearson found that time-wasting was employed in nearly equal measure across different age groups but that generational differences were expressed in the various ways in which people specifically waste their time.乌格林和皮尔逊发现,不同的年龄组在网上浪费的时间几乎一样多,但人们以不同的方式浪费时间,从中体现了代际差异。;Older people are doing things like managing their finances, while young people found it much more acceptable to spend time on social networking sites like Facebook,; Ugrin said.乌格林说:“年长一些的人会做管理自己财务的一类事,而年轻人则认为在脸谱网这样的社交网站花费时间很理所当然。”And while the study’s authors endorse tougher sanctions to enforce productivity and worker conduct, they say employers must maintain a healthy balance in order to not negatively affect office morale.尽管研究的作者持采取更严厉的惩罚措施来保生产效率和员工的行为表现,但他们表示雇主必须让办公环境保持健康的平衡,不对办公室士气造成负面影响。;People will feel like Big Brother is watching them, so companies need to be careful when taking those types of action,; Ugrin said.乌格林说:“公司在采取这种处罚措施时一定要谨慎,否则人们会总感觉有‘老大哥’在盯着他们。” /201302/224867

Inefficiency is not a quality usually associated with Amazon but Jeff Bezos’s company is behaving as if it is a small, disorganised bookstore that cannot quite control its stock. “You want that book, do you? Very sorry but we have run out. We can order you another copy but they are taking a long time to arrive at the moment. How about buying another title instead?”“低效”与亚马逊(Amazon)通常沾不上边,但杰夫#8226;贝索斯(Jeff Bezos)的这家公司现在却表现得像一家组织混乱、库存控制不力的小书店。“你想买那本书是吗?不好意思,库存没货。我们可以为您预订一本,但要花很长时间才能送到。要不买本别的书吧?”It is a ruse, of course. When Amazon tells its US customers that The Silkworm, the new novel by Robert Galbraith, a pseudonym for JK Rowling, is “currently unavailable”, it is not telling the truth. What it means is that it is not making the book available for preorder because it is published by Hachette, from which Amazon is trying to force discounts. 这当然是骗人。亚马逊告诉美国顾客,罗伯特#8226;加尔布雷思(Robert Galbraith,J#8226;K#8226;罗琳(JK Rowling)的笔名)的小说新作《蚕》(The Silkworm)“目前无货”,说的不是实话。亚马逊的真实意思是,它不会预售该书,因为这本书由Hachette出版,而亚马逊正在试图迫使该出版社提供折扣。This is the moment publishers have feared since they lost an antitrust case in the US and Europe last year. “They were concerned that, should Amazon continue to dominate the sale of ebooks to consumers, it would start to demand lower wholesale prices,” wrote Denise Cote, the US district judge. She ruled that the publishers had conspired with Apple to raise book prices in its store.出版商们自从去年在美国和欧洲输掉一桩反垄断官司以来,便对这种场景忧心忡忡。“它们担心,如果亚马逊继续垄断电子书的销售,它将开始要求降低批发价格,”美国地区法官丹尼丝#8226;科特(Denise Cote)写道。她裁定,出版商与苹果(Apple)合谋提高苹果商店里的电子书价格。By forming a blatant cartel, the “big six” publishers and Apple botched their effort to resist Amazon’s dominance of ebooks with the Kindle. It made the strangest antitrust cases of recent years – the US government and the European Commission rushing to the aid of an emerging monopolist. 因为组成的同业联盟太过明目张胆,“六大”出版商和苹果在抵抗亚马逊通过Kindle垄断电子书的斗争中马失前蹄。此案成为近年来最奇怪的反垄断案件之一——美国政府和欧盟委员会(European Commission)竟然急着去帮助一家正在崛起的垄断企业。Mr Bezos once suggested that Amazon treat small publishers “the way a cheetah would pursue a sickly gazelle”, wrote Brad Stone in The Everything Store, his corporate biography. Hachette is one of the smaller big five – reduced from six by the Penguin-Random House merger – and is vulnerable.布拉德#8226;斯通(Brad Stone)在亚马逊公司传记《一网打尽》(The Everything Store)中写道,贝索斯曾提出,亚马逊应像“猎豹追逐羸弱的瞪羚”那样对待小出版商。Hachette是“五大”(原本为六大,因为企鹅(Penguin)与兰登书屋(Random House)的合并而减少为五大)出版商中较小的一家,容易受到亚马逊的冲击。I have mixed feelings about Amazon. Mr Bezos has created a remarkable company whose devotion to pleasing customers and cutting prices puts competitors to shame. It reimagined what retailing should be like, not just by putting it online, but by making it easier. 我对亚马逊爱恨交加。贝索斯创办了一家出色的公司,它对满足顾客和减价的执着令竞争对手汗颜。它重新塑造了零售业,不仅实现了在线零售,还让零售变得更方便。He also cut through the fumblings of rivals such as Sony in creating the Kindle. It did not overtake the Sony Reader and the Nook merely because of Amazon’s marketing power and manufacturing efficiency. It is a superior device and is linked to a brilliant (when Mr Bezos lets it work) online store. 贝索斯还打造了Kindle,从索尼(Sony)等竞争对手的笨拙产品中脱颖而出。Kindle之所以超过索尼阅读器和Nook,不只是因为亚马逊的营销能力和生产效率。Kindle性能优越,并与优秀的在线商店(当贝索斯让其正常运转的时候就是优秀的)相连接。Despite its current tactics, Amazon has been a profitable partner to publishers – bringing innovation to a business of custom and practice. “Amazon is the publishers’ best account. It offers tremendous volume with no returns [of unsold books] and preordering helps them put their books on bestseller lists on day one,” says Mike Shatzkin, a consultant.虽然目前采取了不友好的策略,但亚马逊一直能为出版商创造丰厚的利润,为一个以规矩和惯例著称的行业带来创新。顾问迈克#8226;沙茨金(Mike Shatzkin)表示:“亚马逊是出版商的最佳客户。它销量巨大,不会退货(未售出书籍),并且可以通过预售让出版商的书从第一天就登上畅销书排行榜。”But it is disturbingly ruthless, with a hardly disguised ambition to force other suppliers and intermediaries – including publishers and bookstores – out of business. It is a machine for squeezing margins,#8201;including its own, to near-zero in order to cut prices.但亚马逊的冷酷令人不安,它也毫不掩饰自己的雄心:将其他供应商和中间商——包括出版商和书店——挤出这块业务。亚马逊变成了一台机器,为了削减价格,将利润(包括它自己的)挤压到接近于零的水平。These margins include not only publishers’ profits but royalties and advances to authors, which have been falling. “This is a punitive, vindictive, vicious anti-culture company,” says Andrew Wylie, the authors’ agent. “If it doesn’t like the way negotiations are going, it punishes the publishers and ers. I don’t understand why this is not subject to legal redress.”这不仅包括出版商的利润,还包括作者获得的版税和预付金——这些收入也在下降。“亚马逊是一家苛刻、小气、恶毒、反文化的公司,”作家经纪人安德鲁#8226;威利(Andrew Wylie)表示,“如果它不喜欢谈判的走向,便惩罚出版商和读者。我不理解这种行为为何没有被绳之以法。”There lies Amazon’s advantage – it need not form a cartel to squeeze its suppliers because it is aly large. With a 30 per cent share of the physical book market in the US and more than 60 per cent of ebooks, it clearly has market power in the antitrust sense. But there has never been a case in US competition law of a single company being declared an illegal monopsonist. 这是亚马逊的优势所在——它不需要组成同业联盟来压榨供应商,因为它的规模已经够大。亚马逊占据了美国纸质书市场30%的份额和电子书市场逾60%的份额,从反垄断的角度来说,它无疑具有市场权力。但在美国反垄断法的历史上,从未有单独一家公司被宣布为非法买方垄断者的案例。“In the US, the simple use by one company of monopsony power to extract lower prices from suppliers is not illegal. There is general intuition that buyer power means lower prices and lower prices are good,” says Jonathan Jacobson, an antitrust lawyer at Wilson, Sonsini, Goodrich amp; Rosati in New York.“在美国,一家公司利用买方垄断使供应商降低价格,不构成非法行为。一般的看法是,买方权力意味着低价,而低价是有利的,”纽约威尔逊#8226;桑西尼#8226;古奇#8226;罗沙迪律师事务所(Wilson, Sonsini, Goodrich amp; Rosati)反垄断律师乔纳森#8226;雅各布森(Jonathan Jacobson)表示。Amazon may be breaking the law with a deceptive sales practice – telling its customers that Hachette books in the US (and Bonnier books in Germany, where it is waging a similar campaign) are “unavailable”when they can be bought quickly from its competitors. In terms of antitrust law, however, the biggest force in books is secure.亚马逊的欺骗性销售手段可能违法——它告诉顾客,Hachette的图书在美国“无货”(还有邦尼(Bonnier)的图书在德国也是如此——亚马逊使用了同样的手段),但顾客却能在竞争对手那里轻而易举地买到。不过,就反垄断法而言,亚马逊这家图书领域的龙头企业是安全的。There is a moral for publishers: get bigger. Penguin has merged with Random House (Pearson, the owner of the Financial Times, holds a 47 per cent stake in Penguin Random House), and HarperCollins has just bought Harlequin, one of the biggest independents, for 5m. The remedy to market power is to bulk up.出版商吸取的教训是:要做大规模。企鹅已经与兰登书屋合并(英国《金融时报》母公司培生(Pearson)拥有企鹅兰登书屋(Penguin Random House) 47%的股份),哈珀柯林斯(HarperCollins)刚刚以4.15亿美元收购最大的独立出版商之一Harlequin。对付市场权力的解药是扩张规模。The question is less who wins the contest between Amazon and publishers than what benefits the er and author (I am both, having had books published by Penguin Random House), and wider society. Amazon has done some things for the public good – the ability of any writer to self-publish on the Kindle platform aids freedom of expression and the sp of ideas. 主要问题不是谁赢得亚马逊和出版商之间的较量,而是什么能让读者、作者和全社会受益(我既是读者又是作者,企鹅兰登书屋出版过我的书)。亚马逊为公共利益做过一些好事——任何作者都可以在Kindle平台上出版作品,这可以强化言论自由,促进思想传播。It is hard, though, to see the public benefit in Amazon treating book publishers as just another bunch of suppliers, like the makers of toys or garden furniture. For now margins on ebooks remain high, offsetting the squeeze on hardbacks, but Amazon’s intent is clear. If it turns publishing into a lossmaking business, the profession of writing will suffer.然而,亚马逊将图书出版商作为普通供应商(如玩具厂商或花园家具厂商)对待,很难说对公共利益有什么好处。目前,电子书利润率依然较高,因此弥补了纸质书所受的压榨,但亚马逊的意图是明确的。如果它将出版业变成一种亏损的行当,写作这个职业就会遭殃。The irony is that publishers’ efforts to set book prices themselves and treat Amazon as an agent were legal; it was the cartel that undermined them. The solution in US law is to grow into giants themselves. So much for craft industry.讽刺的是,出版商试图自行为图书定价,将亚马逊当作代理商对待的努力是合法的;让它们受损的是同业联盟。根据美国法律,它们的出路是自己成长为巨头。同业联盟就到此为止了。 /201406/303441

HTC Corp. began to outsource production of some of its smartphones for the first time this quarter, as it looked to slash costs and pursue customers in developing markets. 宏达国际电子股份有限公司(HTC Co., 2498.TW, 简称:宏达国际)本季度首次开始外包部分智能手机的生产业务,目的是降低成本,争夺发展中市场的客户。The Taiwanese smartphone maker has outsourced at least three of the new models in its midprice Desire series to Taiwan-based contract manufacturer Compal Electronics Inc. and China#39;s Wingtech Group, said people familiar with the matter. Both assemblers began to mass produce smartphones for HTC this spring, the people said. Traditionally, HTC has produced all of its phones at its own factories. 据知情人士透露,宏达国际已将中档价位的Desire系列中至少三款新机型外包给了台湾合同制造商仁宝电脑(Compal Electronics Inc.)和中国大陆的闻泰集团(Wingtech Group)。这些知情人士称,今年春季这两家制造商已开始为宏达国际批量生产智能手机。以往,宏达国际的所有手机都在自己的工厂生产。The move accompanies other efforts by HTC, which isn#39;t profitable, to turn around its business. Chairwoman Cher Wang has taken a more active role in management in the past year, and the company recently hired Samsung Electronics Co.#39;s former U.S. marketing chief, Paul Golden, as a consultant to beef up its marketing. 与此同时,陷入亏损的宏达国际还采取了其他措施来扭转经营状况。过去一年中,该公司董事长王雪红加大了在公司管理方面的参与度,该公司最近还聘请了三星电子(Samsung Electronics Co.)前美国市场营销总监戈尔登(Paul Golden)担任顾问,以增强公司的营销能力。HTC has long focused on high-end phones and resisted outsourcing, even as competitors from Apple Inc. to Nokia Corp. have turned to contract manufacturers to focus on design and save costs over the years. But as HTC struggles to hold its ground against Samsung and rapidly growing Chinese brands, it has decided to launch more low-price phones this year with the help of contract manufacturers. 宏达国际长期以来侧重于高端手机,并拒绝外包生产业务;而过去几年来,从苹果公司(Apple Inc.)到诺基亚公司(Nokia Corp.)等竞争对手已经纷纷将生产业务外包给合同制造商,以便能够专注于产品设计和节省成本。但是宏达国际难以招架住三星(Samsung)和迅速崛起的中国大陆品牌的挑战,该公司在今年决定在合同制造商的帮助下推出更多低价手机。Once the world#39;s largest smartphone maker by shipments at its peak in 2011, HTC has since seen its stock slump by more than 86% amid unsuccessful marketing campaigns, supply-chain mishaps and growing competition. The mistakes brought HTC its second net loss on record in the first quarter, and it has fallen out of the world#39;s top 10 smartphone makers since last year. The company#39;s stock rose by the maximum daily limit of 6.9% on Monday to 169 New Taiwan dollars (US.59) on expectations that HTC would forecast a return to profit for the second quarter when it releases guidance on Tuesday. 宏达国际在2011年顶峰时曾是全球出货量最大的智能手机制造商,此后,受营销策略不成功、供应链事故和竞争加剧的影响,该公司的股价下挫逾86%。这些失误导致宏达国际第一季度出现了第二次季度净亏损亏损,去年还跌出了全球十大智能手机制造商行列。周一,宏达国际的股价涨停,至新台币169元(约5.59美元),涨幅6.9%,因投资者预期,宏达国际在周二公布业绩预期时会预测第二季度将扭亏为盈。HTC declined to comment. 宏达国际不予置评。Chief Financial Officer Chialin Chang said in an interview with The Wall Street Journal in March that HTC was considering the possibility of using contract manufacturers, but that the company had no plans to outsource its flagship HTC One line or its key midprice phone, the Desire 816. The company#39;s high-end phones are still its earnings drivers, said Yuanta Research analyst Dennis Chan. 宏达国际虽然继续在自己的工厂生产最先进的设备,但已将一款面向大陆市场的重要手机的生产外包出去。两位知情人士称,闻泰集团正准备量产Desire 616,这款手机搭载低成本芯片制造商联发科技(Mediatek Inc.)生产的八核处理器;闻泰集团也为小米(Xiaomi Inc.)等大陆品牌生产手机。While it is keeping production of its most advanced devices in-house, HTC has outsourced a high-power smartphone aimed at the China market. Chinese contract manufacturer Wingtech, which also makes phones for Chinese brands such as Xiaomi Inc., is ying to mass produce the Desire 616, which will run a fast eight-core processor made by budget chip maker Mediatek Inc., said two people familiar with the matter. 其中一位知情人士表示,闻泰集团也为宏达国际生产Desire 210,该款手机是该公司迄今为止价格最低的智能手机,上个月在印度推出,售价为8,700印度卢比(合145美元)。Wingtech also manufacturers HTC#39;s cheapest smartphone to date, the Desire 210, which was launched last month in India for 8,700 rupees (US5), one of the people said. 另一位知情人士称,台湾的仁宝电脑在第二季度开始为宏达国际生产Desire系列的部分智能手机;仁宝电脑也为诺基亚代工。Taiwan#39;s Compal, which also supplies Nokia, began production in the second quarter of some HTC Desire series smartphones, another person said. 巴克莱(Barclays)分析师Dale Gai表示,外包生产业务将有助宏达国际节省一些研发成本。不过他认为,这不会成为该公司扭亏为盈的关键因素,因为宏达国际的主要产品仍由该公司自己生产。 /201405/294624

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