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2019年11月16日 05:43:11来源:放心大夫

Did you ever wonder what occurs inside your body when something funny happens? 你有没有想过当有趣的事情发生时你身体里面会发生什么?What is this thing we have in our brains that makes us say “ha-ha” when someone slips on a banana?当有人踩到香蕉皮滑倒时我们大脑中是什么让我们发出“哈哈”的大笑声呢?One way to find out is to watch the brain laugh. 寻找的其中一个方法就是观察大脑对于笑的反应。Thats pretty much what Dartmouth neuroscientist William Kelley did. 达特茅斯大学神经学家威廉·凯利所进行的就是这样的研究。He and his team had a number of volunteers watch an episode of Seinfeld while being monitored by an MRI-thats a machine that allows researchers to see which parts of the brain are active at any given time. 他和他的团队让志愿者们收看一集搞笑电视剧《宋飞正传》,而研究人员通过监控机器观察大脑的哪个部分在任何给定的时间是呈现活跃状态。They then synchronized the MRI data with the laugh track to see how the brain changes when its registering something funny. 然后研究人员们将笑的数据同机器进行同步,进而跟踪观察有趣的事情发生时大脑的变化。Theres no one “funny center” in the brain–but the findings were pretty suggestive.大脑中并非存在这样一个“有趣中心”,但这项研究结果却具有启发意义。201502/357499。

  • Europe Dual citizenship in Germany德国 双重国籍在德国Jus sanguinis revisited血统主义死灰复燃?How not to treat people with more than one passport怎样不来对待拥有多重国籍的人Backing Turkey and Germany together期望土耳其能与德国“联姻”The case of a woman from Hanau, in Hesse, shows why Kenan Kolat, leader of Germany’s Turks, calls the German citizenship law “absurdity cubed.” Born in Germany to Turkish parents, she was a dual citizen. According to the law, she had to relinquish one passport between her 18th and 23rd birthday. She chose to forgo the Turkish one. But the Turkish bureaucracy was slow, her birthday came—and her German citizenship went instead.一位来自哈瑙的女士在海赛的亲身经历,向我们解释了德国土耳其社区组织的领袖Kenan Kolat认为德国《国籍法》“荒谬至极”的原因。作为出生在德国的土耳其人,她具有双重国籍。但依据国籍法规定,她必须在18岁到23岁期间选择放弃一个国籍。德国国籍是她最终的选择,但是由于土耳其相关机构办事缓慢,直到她生日那天,她的德国国籍也没有生效。International law has never fully embraced multiple citizenship. Many countries frown on it, though others take a more relaxed attitude. Germany, however, manages to make it especially complicated for citizens of foreign origin. Its traditional approach goes back to a law passed before the first world war. Based on jus sanguinis (“right of blood”), it gave citizenship to anybody of German descent, but not to foreigners born in Germany, as countries such as America and France that practise jus soli (“right of soil”) do. Then, in 1999, a centre-left government added the two notions together. This would have let a woman born in Germany to Turkish parents be simultaneously German and Turkish. But that law coincided with a regional election in Hesse, where the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) seized on the issue to mobilise its conservative base in opposition. The CDU won the state and took control of the upper house, where it blocked the new law.国际法从来没有真正包容过多重国籍。尽管有一些国家允许自己国家的人拥有多重国籍,但还是有很多国家不承认多重国籍。而德国对外籍人申请申请加入德国国籍的条件十分严苛,最传统的办法还要追溯到一战前通过的法条。依据 jus sanguinis(“血统主义),拥有德国国籍公民的后代自动拥有德国国籍,但是出生在德国的外籍子女并不能获得德国国籍。而像美国、法国等国家则实行 jus soli (“出生地主义”)。随后,1999年,德国左翼党将这两种方法都采纳了进来。这样,出生在德国的土耳其后裔就能同时获得德国和土耳其国籍。但是这新法条的颁布正好与在海赛举行的地区大选的时间不谋而合。在海赛,右派保守党基民党(CDU)抓住了这个问题不放,利用其来动员保守方反对法条的通过。最终CDU赢得了大选,控制了高层,并且封锁了新法条的颁布。A compromise was reached in 2000. Children born in Germany to foreign parents after 1990 can get two passports but have to choose one citizenship before they are 23. This year, the first cohort of such children, about 3,300, reach that age. From 2018 the number will reach 40,000 a year or more. There are about half a million such cases all told, more than two-thirds of them of Turkish descent.然而,在2000年,德国《国籍法》却做出了让步。在1990年之后出生在德国的外籍子女能够获得双重国籍,但是必须在他们23岁之前做出选择哪个国籍的决定。这一年,符合年龄标准的第一批试点孩子大约有3300人。预计到2018年,人数会增加到每年40000人甚至更多。已经知晓的大约有50万这样的案例,其中超过三分之二的人是土耳其后裔。Yet not all young dual citizens must choose. A child born to a German parent in America, say, retains both passports for life. So does a child born to a Greek or Spanish parent in Germany, because dual citizenship is allowed for members of the European Union and Switzerland. This seems unfair to the Turks. This week Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the Turkish prime minister, said as much to Angela Merkel, Germany’s chancellor, during her visit to Turkey. (Mrs Merkel also explained that, though happy for Turkey’s EU accession talks to continue, she retained her “scepticism” about its ever becoming a member.)而今,不是所有拥有双重国籍的年轻人都必须做出选择国籍的抉择。据一位出生在美国的德国小孩所称,他可以终生保留双重国籍。出生在德国的希腊或西班牙小孩同样也能获得这样的待遇,因为双重国籍已经被允许发放给欧盟成员国以及瑞士的公民。这样似乎对土耳其人并不公平。本周,在德国总理Angela Merkel访土期间,土耳其总理Recep Tayyip Erdogan传递了上述意图。(默克尔女士也表示,虽然很高兴看到土耳其加入欧盟谈判得以继续进行,但是她对土耳其加入欧盟仍保持“怀疑”态度。)Besides being unjust and creating two classes of citizens, the law is a nightmare to administer, says Ulrich Kober at Bertelsmann Stiftung, a think-tank. Because countries like Iran do not let citizens renounce their citizenship and others make it costly or difficult, German law in theory grants exceptions. But the rules are not clear, reckons Kay Hailbronner, a lawyer. To make the decisions even more arbitrary, the 16 German states process the paperwork, and each uses different forms.新法条的颁布不仅仅是一种不公平的表现形式,并且在市民中划分出了2种阶级,而且还是管理者的噩梦,Bertelsmann Stiftung的一位智囊团成员 Ulrich Kober这样说道。由于像伊朗这样的国家不允许其居民放弃伊朗国籍,而其他人要想取消伊朗国籍也是件困难的事且费用昂贵,所以德国国籍法按理应该允许例外情况,但事实上,法条中规定地十分模糊,Kay Hailbronner律师这样认为。德国的16个州甚至独立处理法条的相关文件,并且各自使用不同形式的文件,结果决策变得更加随意。What better way to irritate those citizens whom Germany’s politicians say they want to integrate? Mr Kober thinks Germany should simply allow dual citizenship. So do the centre-left parties hoping to replace Mrs Merkel’s government in September’s election, as well as the CDU’s coalition partner, the Free Democratic Party. It may yet happen.如德国的政治家所言,有什么更好的办法能够安抚那些想要融入德国的居民呢?Kober先生认为德国要做的不过是简简单单地允许双重国籍。就像希望能在9月份的大选中击败默克尔政府、基督教民主联盟和自由民主党的左党一样。它总有一天会实现的。翻译:朱大素译文属译生译世201610/471995。
  • The Next IdeaWhen the housing crisis hit in the mid-2000s, millions lost their jobs. Licensed home builder and Saginaw resident Jeff Little was one of them.Jeff lost his job in 2006, and soon his wife was unemployed as well. Struggling to make ends meet every month, he became self-employed and worked on and off while searching for a full-time job.For eight years, his efforts to land steady employment were unsuccessful until he got involved in an innovative public-private partnership developed to help create long-term career opportunities.Community Ventures, launched in October 2012 by the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), helps eligible “structurally unemployed” people living in Detroit, Flint, Pontiac, and Saginaw pursue career opportunities at Michigan companies.The program focuses on people with extended joblessness, low income, disability, limited education, or past incarceration.The goal is to place 1,000 structurally unemployed into stable jobs every year.To get there, the Community Ventures Team works cooperatively with local community and talent partners like Goodwill Industries, Jewish Vocational Services (JVS), Michigan Department of Human Services, Saginaw Business and Education Partnership, Detroit Employment Solutions, and others to find and screen eligible candidates.A connection is then made with participating employers, recruited by Community Ventures and MEDC, who commit to providing full-time (at least 30 hours) long-term positions that pay living wages. In order to minimize the hiring risk, businesses receive a stipend for each participant to pay for on-the-job training.As part of the program, local partners provide extensive post-employment support services like job coaching, transportation, workforce iness, child care, and adult education, depending on each participants needs.Last year, Jeff landed his first full-time job in nearly a decade.Working with the Saginaw Business and Education Partnership, Jeff was identified as a good Community Ventures program candidate and was hired at Nexteer Automotive, a Saginaw-based automotive supplier.More conventional workforce programs have focused on skills training that often doesnt support the local employers immediate needs.In Michigan, through Community Ventures, we have flipped that around by working directly with employers to ensure that participants gain high-demand skills and real jobs - jobs that set people on a sustainable path to independence.Its working. Nearly two-and-a-half years into the program, Community Ventures has placed more than 3,500 structurally unemployed people into long-term employment with more than 150 companies.This unique Michigan model could one day serve as a blueprint for a national program.So whats the Next Idea?There are about 300,000 people in Michigan who meet the definition of structurally unemployed, and about 16 percent of our population lives at or below the poverty line.What if, instead of 1,000 people a year in Detroit, Flint, Pontiac, and Saginaw, we targeted 10,000 to 15,000 people across the state? Imagine what would happen to unemployment and poverty in Michigan if 15,000 structurally unemployed people started finding opportunities for themselves.More conventional workforce programs have focused on skills training that often doesnt support the local employers immediate needs.Community Ventures doesnt have to be limited to just four urban areas. It can be expanded into any area where you have people who have chronically struggled to find jobs.The challenge now is to scale it on a statewide basis.In his 2016 budget recommendations, Governor Snyder has asked the legislature for million to continue the program in the four target communities. Expanding the programs reach, however, will require additional funding. With state budget priorities and realities as they are, relying on public dollars alone isnt feasible.We have to look outside the norm.One area we are looking at engaging is Michigans philanthropic community. Michigan is home to over 2,200 foundations providing hundreds of millions of dollars in grants every year. We feel that an economic development initiative like Community Ventures that promotes social enterprise would be a good fit for the mission of any number of foundations in the state.Another avenue we are exploring is social impact bonds. With this model, governments team up with service providers and private sector investors to create and fund innovative social programs. Investors are repaid only when the programs reach specific targets and tax dollar savings are achieved.A third opportunity we are looking at is crowdfunding. We know that a state-led crowdfunding effort can work. Our Public Spaces Community Places initiative has had tremendous success enabling local residents, businesses and other community stakeholders to use crowdfunding to support the development of strategic projects in their communities and be backed with a matching grant from MEDC.Today, Jeff Little is a machine operator at Nexteer.With the help of an onsite ;success coach,; he is thriving in his new position and has aly earned two raises. Little credits Community Ventures as a “total life change,” and getting up and going to work every day and providing for his family has instilled in him a new sense of pride and purpose.Jeff Littles story is about more than finding a job. It is about an opportunity to change a life for the better.With innovative thinking, we can take the model that is working to empower people in Detroit, Flint, Pontiac, and Saginaw who previously may have lost hope of ever making a living and bring it to other communities across Michigan.We have an opportunity to help write thousands of similar stories.Michael Finney is senior advisor for economic growth for Governor Rick Snyders administration and the former president and CEO of the Michigan Economic Development Corporation.Join the conversation in the comments section below, on Twitter or Facebook, or let us know your Next Idea here.201506/378649。
  • London Fashion Week伦敦时装周Rags to riches朱门华裳British fashion is becoming more hard headed英国时尚产业跨入高端大气上档次时代The Delevingne effect卡拉·迪瓦伊的美女效应WITH its whirl of frocks, models and million-dollar deals London Fashion Week has always been rather a closeted affair, accessible to few. Amateur fashionistas have had to wait for glossy magazines and blogs to tell them what to wear next. But at the second of Londons biannual fairs, which ran from September 13th to 17th, that was starting to change. Around half the shows were live-streamed to the internet and TV channels with bulletins broadcast to commuters waiting at underground Tube stops. A free pop-up cinema screened fashion-themed films.按照以往的惯例,伦敦时装周是裙裾飞扬的大牌成衣、魅惑性感的T台模特和投资上百万美元共同打造出的一场仅为极少数土豪奉上的时尚盛宴,而至于那些不入流的时尚人士则只能从铜版纸装订的时尚杂志和时尚达人的客中得知下一季的流行趋势。但是从9月13日至17日的这场时装周作为伦敦今年举行的两场中的第二场,则开始有了些许的变化。约有半数的秀场通过网络和电台进行直播,那些想和土豪做朋友的小伙伴们甚至可以在地铁站候车点的公告牌前、影院观影前荧幕弹出的时尚主题短片中观看走秀。This push to bring Fashion Week to a wider audience is likely to pay off. Though unaffordable to most shoppers, high fashion is the beating heart of high-street retail. More wearable versions of the transparent outfits that entertained audiences in London this month will soon appear in shops up and down the country. In the week following last Septembers shows, online fashion sales were up 45%, according to Ve Interactive, an e-commerce firm. Caroline Rush, chief executive of the British Fashion Council (BFC), which organises Fashion Week, expects that the digital buzz surrounding the event will push buyers orders well beyond £100m (0m).该做法的确为时装周吸引了大批消费受众群体,尽管对多数消费者来说要买的起这些时装至少要卖个肾,但这些高端时尚却是那些他们可以消费得起的高街品牌(如ZARA、BERSHKA或MANGO)的设计源动力。至于在本月秀场上的一系列令台下观众喜大普奔的透视时装将陆续出现在英国小伙伴们生活当中。据电子商务公司龙头企业——Ve Interactive的数据显示,九月时装周后一周的时间内,在线时装交易额同比上涨了45%。负责时装周运行的英国时装理事会(British Fashion Council)首席执行官卡洛琳·拉什(Caroline Rush)推测数字化的环境将推动超过一亿英镑(折合一亿六千万美元)的订单交易生成。The changes seen at the shows are part of a wider effort to bring a businesslike approach to British fashion. London has long been feted as a breeding ground for brilliant designers. Many of them, including John Galliano and Alexander McQueen, trained at Central St Martins, a college known for turning out skilful originals. But a tendency to focus on art over business has meant that too many designers have failed to make the most of their critical acclaim. London Fashion Week has long been seen as the tiddler of the “big four” global shows, overshadowed by the spectacles in Milan, New York and Paris.时装秀观看模式的改变是英国时尚产业商业化的一场巨大变革。伦敦向来被誉为是盛产高富帅设计师之地,知名设计师包括John Galliano和Alexander McQueen等,他们均毕业于培养高技术水平设计师的英国圣马丁艺术学院(Central St Martins),但这种艺术形式商业化使得多数设计师都无法正确处理好外界的褒奖,无法从中真正获益。事实上,伦敦时装周一直以来都处于全球四大时装周之末流,与米兰、纽约、巴黎三大巨头的时装盛宴相比,实在太过逊色。The BFC wants to change that. Since , when it appointed Ms Rush (its first full-time chief executive) the council has pushed to make young designers more market savvy and encourage greater investment in fashion. In January it appointed a new chairman, Natalie Massenet, the American creator of Net-a-Porter, an online fashion shop that last year saw sales of 368m, as its chairman. Ms Massenet has said she wants to stop ;business; being seen as a dirty word in fashion.英国时装理事会(BFC)为了改变这一处境,自年起任命拉什女士为首位全职首席执行官后,便极力让设计师新秀们敏锐捕捉市场需求并且鼓励他们多多投资时尚事业。而理事会今年一月上任的新任主席—娜塔莉·马斯奈(Natalie Massenet)是全球化奢侈品网上专卖店Net-a-Porter的创办者,该网站去年创下了368,000,000英镑的交易额。马斯奈女士表示受任为该理事会的主席是想改变“商业运作”在时尚圈的恶名。That may not be as far-fetched as it sounds. Britains fashion business adds about £21 billion to GDP. Oxford Economics, a consultancy, reckons that a good chunk of this is retail. But from designing clothes to selling them, fashion employs more people than any other creative industry in Britain. The designer end of clothes making has done especially well, growing 20% a year over the past decade. An increasing number of British designers have set their sights on overseas markets, especially in Asia. Paul Smith, for example, plans to open 20 new stores in China in the next five years. Attracting foreign talent, meanwhile, may soon be made easier with the introduction of a “London visa” for talented designers.事实也没有像马斯奈女士所说的那样严重,实际上,英国时尚产业为其国民生产总值增收210亿英镑。作为提供经济顾问机构的牛津经济研究院(Oxford Economics)日前表示该项收入很大程度来源于蓬勃发展的装零售业。从装的设计到销售,整个过程相比于其他创造型产业为英国民众提供了更多就业岗位,最为出众的是装设计师行业,其以每十年20%的增幅不断上涨,越来越多的设计师小伙伴们将目光对准了海外市场,尤其是盛产“大妈”的亚洲。据知名时尚品牌Paul Smith计划,中国在未来五年将陆续迎接其20家专门店的开幕。与此同时,英国或为引进海外人才而对杰出设计师放宽申请“伦敦签”的政策。(伦敦签——有才的你,值得拥有~)The renaissance of British fashion has been given a boost by some new ambassadors. The “Middleton effect”—a bump in sales attributed to the Duchess of Cambridges fashion choices—has had a beneficial effect on British brands in America. A new crop of British models, among them Cara Delevingne, bestrides the international catwalk. Now Boris Johnson, the floppy-haired mayor of London, has joined the campaign. At a fashion shoot to promote British menswear this summer he could not remember who designed the suit he was wearing but his words were on message. “London is to the suit”, he said, “as Parma is to the Parmesan cheese”.英国时尚再卷狂潮,新来的几位大使功不可没。—剑桥公爵夫人(Duchess of Cambridge)的时尚穿衣品味带动了美国发展的英国本土品牌,这就是所谓的“米德尔顿效应”(亦可称“公爵夫人效应”);英国模特后起之秀中的佼佼者,卡拉·迪瓦伊(Cara Delevingne)也在世界T台上掀起浪潮;而现如今伦敦市长鲍里斯·约翰逊(Boris Johnson)顶着他那头标志性的蓬乱金发也加入到该行列中。在今年夏季召开的一场提升英国男士装知名度的时装发布会上,这位不知道自己定制西装的设计者姓甚名谁的市长大人却讲出了“伦敦之于西装,恰如帕尔马至于帕马森干酪”。译者:尤熠 校对:徐珍 译文属译生译世 /201512/414510。
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