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三明市治卵巢早衰需要多少钱百家口碑

2019年10月20日 23:26:30 | 作者:爱乐园 | 来源:新华社
TOKYO — When you speak to foreign English educators in Japan, one thing becomes crystal clear: English education in Japanisn#39;t working. It#39;s just awful. While English classes are mandatory in Japanese schools, the percentage of students who emerge with actual English abilities are surprisingly low. Students in China, Korea and Japan are in an arms race tosee who can produce students with the best English, and Japan seems to be trailing far behind in third place.东京——当你同日本的外国英语教育者对话时,有一件事情变得非常明晰:英语教育在日本行不通。实在可以用糟糕来形容。虽然日本学校中实行强制性的英语课堂,可是拥有英语能力的学生少得可怜。中日韩三国的学生互相竞争看谁拥有最好的英语能力,而结果似乎是日本落在了第三名With the Olympic Games coming up in 2020,the Japanese government has proposed changes to increase the level of English ability in their students. Changes like starting introductory English classesin 3rd grade elementary school and making the subject compulsory from the 5th grade. Are these changes really going to help? We#39;ve gathered opinions fromboth foreign teachers and Japanese citizens about issues with the system and what might improve it.随着2020年奥运会即将到来,日本政府提议做出改变从而提升学生们的英语水平。比如在小学三年级就让学生学习一些入门的英语知识,以及在5年级时让英语学习成为必修课。这些举措真的有效吗?就这方面的问题,我们搜集了外国教师和日本民众的看法,看看如何提高日本的英语教育。Every foreigner who spends any amount oftime in Japan will understand the fundamental need to change the way students study English. But a recent th on the Japan subreddit, which seems to havebeen started by an English educator, tried to assemble as many opinions aspossible about the matter in one place. Many of the complaints fell into three main categories:在日本呆过一段时间的外国人都会意识到有必要对日本学生学习英语的方法进行根本性的改变。最近网上有一名英语教育者发表了一个帖子,就这个问题激起了人们的讨论,很多抱怨可归到以下三种:1. Teaching to the tests应试教育For those unfamiliar with the Japanese school system, most high schools and universities have a test that prospective students must take and pass. Especially in the case of high schools, there is amandated set of content that appears. And so, Japanese Teachers of English(JTEs) focus on the grammar and vocabulary that will be on the test. A broader understanding and the practical uses of English are largely ignored because they have to cover the specific material and don#39;t have time for anything else.在日本,大多数的中学和大学都有入学考试,想要就读的学生必须参加考试并通过才行。特别是中学,有一系列强制性的测试需要学生参与。所以为了应付这样的考试,日本的英语教师就把焦点放在了语法和词汇上了。对英语更广范围的了解和实际应用往往被忽视了。So, if Japanese students have to learn specific material for the tests, why should they learn anything else? There isno point in actually learning the language if all that is required is being able to pick the correct answer on a multiple choice test. Many Japanese netizens agree, ;Why change anything unless the style of testing is changed?;所以,为了通过考试学生们不得不学习某些指定的英语素材,那他们还有必要学习英语其他方面的知识吗?如果学生们需要做的就仅仅是在多项选择题中挑选出正确,那么还有必要学习这门语言吗?许多日本网民也觉得,当务之急就是要改变这样的考试制度。2. The quality of the textbooks is quitelow教科书的质量相当的低下Many foreign language teachers criticized the textbooks used in the classrooms, complaining about all manner of things including content and grammatical errors. Even more specifically, many peoplefound the choice of grammar included to be suspect, saying it wasn#39;t grammarused very often in native English. The JTEs have to teach these archaic forms through topics such as recycling plastic, people and animals dying in WWII andboring Japanese history, causing students to be apathetic. (Topics like theseare required in government approved textbooks.)很多外语教师都批评课堂中使用的教科书,包括其中存在的内容和语法方面的错误。而且人们认为教科书中的语法内容是可疑的,因为这些语法都不常用在地道的英语中。日本英语教师在教授这些陈旧的语法时,所使用的话题包括再生塑料,二战中人类和动物的死亡,以及无聊的日本历史,导致学生们对英语学习缺乏兴趣。(在政府批准的教科书中,这些话题是必备的。)3. A focus on translating into Japanese and JTEs speaking in only Japanese. Where is the English?Perhaps one of the biggest complaints wasthe amount, or lack of English used in the classrooms.集中于将英文翻译成日文,而且日本英语教师只说日语。那英语哪去了?或许人们最抱怨的事情之一就是课堂中英语的使用程度不高或者根本没使用英语。The JTEs often teach all the grammar in Japanese, and check that the students can follow the textbook by translating the English into Japanese. Assistant Language Teachers (ALTs) are regulated to human tape recorders, and then set free to roam the class and ;help; thestudents. Of all the hours of English education, how many of those hours were spent actually listening to and speaking English? (Repeating English is not the same as speaking it.)日本英语教师通常用日文来讲授英语语法,而且通过要求学生将英文翻译成日本的形式来考查学生的英语学习进度。一些助理语言教师相当于人类录音机,然后踱步于课堂间并“帮助”学生。在英语学习的整个期间,有多少时间是真正花在听和说英语上了?(重复英语和说英语可是两码事啊。)Japanese people agree that the current teaching style often limits students to what little English they hear from the teachers and what words are put in front of them. Successful teaching should include as many senses as possible to surround students in English. One Japanese netizen suggests that TV dramas should be utilized to hear real English, while seeing the facial expressions and mouth movements all togetherin one package. How can a student not be excited to learn phrases like ;OK, I#39;m on my way;, ;What#39;s the problem?; or ;Freeze! You#39;reunder arrest!;日本民众认为目前的教学方式使得学生们接触到的英语知识极少。成功的教学应该从多个方面让学生们融入在英语学习环境中。其中一名日本网民建议说可以利用电视剧来让学生们听到真正的英语,而且还能同时看到剧中人物的脸部表情和嘴部动作。比如,“OK, I#39;m on my way”(好的,我已经在路上了), “What#39;s the problem?”(啥情况)或者 “Freeze!You#39;re under arrest!”(别动!你被逮捕了),看到这样酷酷的英语表达时,学生们怎么会没有学习英语的热情?Which brings us to the main problem with the current system: Japanese students don#39;t understand the benefits of learningEnglish. This is certainly not limited to Japanese learners, but how many time do you hear a student say, ;I#39;m Japanese, so I will never use English in thefuture.; Studying English as a language is one of the least interesting thingsabout it. But, what about all the different things that you can experience whenyou understand English? TV shows, movies, books, games, and it#39;s not even limited to entertainment, scientific journals, international business and the majority of the Internet is conducted in English.聊到这里,就涉及到了目前英语教育系统中存在的一个主要问题:日本学生不懂得学习英语的好处。当然,这并非日本英语学习者独有的问题,但是你有多少次听到一名日本学生说“我是日本人,所以我以后是不会使用英语的,”把英语当成一门语言来学习是英语学习中最无趣的一面之一。但是,在学会英语后,你知道你能体验到多少不同的东西吗?英语电视节目,电影,书籍,游戏,还还包括英语科学杂志,国际商业,而且大多数的网络内容都是以英语呈现出来的。When the exposure of English is limited to the classroom and the unfortunate textbooks, a majority of the students will disengage from it and end up not learning anything. When students are forced to study and learn about certain grammar points and vocabulary, with no know ledge about how you can apply it to all the amazing things in English, of course, thestudents are going to do poorly. Expose them to the idea that, yes, this is a subject you have to study, but look at what you can do with it outside the classroom.You can excite students with that and promote self-study, which is a much better approach than learning ;This is a pen; for the sake of a test.所以如果只在课堂和书本上学习英语的话,最终大多数学生将不会对英语学习产生兴趣,从而什么都学不到。如果仅是被强迫去学习语法和词汇而不懂得如何将这些知识应用在日常的英语使用中的话,那么学生们的表现肯定不好。所以应该给学生们的灌输的一种思想是:是的,这是你必须学习的一门课程,但是学成后,你可以在课外很好的利用这些知识,拓展自己的视野。你可以利用这种方式来激励学生,从而提升他们的英语自学能力。 /201410/336687If I ask you what constitutes ;bad; eating, the kind that leads to obesity and a variety of connected diseases, you#39;re likely to answer, ;Salt, fat and sugar.; This trilogy of evil has been drilled into us for decades, yet that#39;s not an adequate answer.如果我问你,什么构成“不良”饮食,你可能会回答那些导致肥胖和各种相关疾病的东西,“盐、脂肪和糖。”这个邪恶三剑客已经困扰我们几十年了。但这个并不充分。We don#39;t know everything about the dietary links to chronic disease, but the best-qualified people argue that real food is more likely to promote health and less likely to cause disease than hyperprocessed food. And we can further refine that message: Minimally processed plants should dominate our diets. (This isn#39;t just me saying this; the Institute of Medicine and the Department of Agriculture agree.)我们对饮食和慢性病的关系还有很多不了解的地方,但是在这个问题上最有发言权的人说,相比经过高度加工的食品,真正的食物对健康更有利,不容易导致疾病。我们还可以进一步提炼这一要旨:我们的饮食主体,应该是经过极少加工的植物。(这话不只是我在说;美国国家医学院[Institute of Medicine]和农业部[Department of Agriculture]都是认同的。)And yet we#39;re in the middle of a public health emergency that isn#39;t being taken seriously enough. We should make it a national priority to create two new programs, a research program to determine precisely what causes diet-related chronic illnesses (on top of the list is ;Just how bad is sugar?;), and a program that will get this single, simple message across: Eat Real Food.然而我们正在面临一个公共健康的紧急状况,并且没有给予足够的重视。我们应该设立两个新项目,这应该是国家的头等大事,一个是研究项目,要准确地判定是什么导致饮食相关的慢性病(其中最首要的问题是,“糖到底有多糟糕?”),另一个项目是要传播一个简单的讯息:吃真正的食物。Real food solves the salt/fat/sugar problem. Yes, excess salt may cause or exacerbate high blood pressure, and lowering sodium intake in people with high blood pressure helps. But salt is only one of several risk factors in developing high blood pressure, and those who eat a diverse diet and few processed foods — which supply more than 80 percent of the sodium in typical American diets — need not worry about salt intake.真正的食物能解决盐/脂肪/糖的问题。是的,过多的盐会导致或加剧高血压,减少钠的摄入对高血压人群是有益的。但盐只是导致高血压的几个风险因素之一,而且那些饮食种类多样、很少食用加工食品的人,不需要操心盐摄入的问题——典型的美式日常饮食中,80%以上的钠来自加工食品。;Fat; is a loaded word and a complicated topic, and the jury is still out. Most naturally occurring fats are probably essential, but too much of some fats — and, again, it may be the industrially produced fats used in hyperprocessed foods — seems harmful. Eat real food and your fat intake will probably be fine.“脂肪”是个含义丰富的词,也是个错综复杂的话题,至今仍悬而未决。多数自然产生的脂肪可能都是必要的,但某些类脂肪——同样,可能是那些高度加工的食品中使用的工业方法生产的脂肪——过多似乎是有害的。吃真正的食物,你的脂肪摄入大概就不会有问题。;Sugar; has come to represent (or it should) the entire group of processed, nutritionally worthless caloric sweeteners, including table sugar, high fructose corn syrup and so-called healthy alternatives like agave syrup, brown rice syrup, reduced fruit juice and a dozen others.“糖”已经成为(或者说应该成为)整整一类经加工、无营养、高热量的甜味料的代称,包括食糖、高果糖玉米糖浆以及一些号称健康的代糖,比如龙舌兰糖浆、糙米糖浆、浓缩果汁等等。All appear to be damaging because they#39;re added sugars, as opposed to naturally occurring ones, like those in actual fruit, which are not problematic. And although added fructose may be more harmful than the others, it could also be that those highly refined carbohydrates that our bodies rapidly break down to sugar — white b, for example — are equally unhealthy. Again: These are hyperprocessed foods.这些似乎都是有害的,因为它们是添加糖,和天然的糖不一样,比如,在真正的水果中的糖是没问题的。添加果糖可能比其他形式更糟,但是精制碳水化合物在体内可以迅速分解为糖,比如白面包,可能对健康一样没好处。同样:这些都是高度加工食品。In sum: Sugar is not the enemy, or not the only enemy. The enemy is hyperprocessed food, including sugar.总而言之:糖不是敌人,或者说不是唯一的敌人。真正的敌人是高度加工食品,包括糖。In the ed States — the world#39;s most obese country — the most recent number for the annual cost of obesity is close to 0 billion. (Obesity-related costs are incalculable but could easily exceed trillion annually. Wanna balance the budget? Eat real food.) The amount the National Institutes of Health expends for obesity-related research is less than billion annually, and there is no single large, convincing study (and no small study will do) that proposes to solve the underlying causes of obesity. If the solution were as simple as ;salt, fat, sugar; or the increasingly absurd-sounding ;calories in, calories out,; surely we#39;d have made some progress by now.在美国这个全球最肥胖的国度里,最新数据显示每年在肥胖问题上的花销达到2000亿美元(约合1.2万亿元人民币)。(肥胖相关的出无法计算,但每年超过1万亿美元应该不成问题。想财政收平衡?吃真正的食物。)国家医学院每年用在肥胖相关研究上的经费不到10亿美元,而且没有一个有说力的大型研究(在这个问题上小型研究是没用的)能提出解决肥胖潜在成因的办法。如果解决方案就“盐、脂肪、糖”这么简单,或者是那个越听越荒唐的“卡路里进,卡路里出”(calories in, calories out),我们现在应该已经有一些进展才对。We know that eating real food is a general solution, but a large part of our dietary problems might stem from something as simple as the skyrocketing and almost unavoidable consumption of caloric sweeteners and/or hyperprocessed carbs, which are in 80 percent of our food products.我们知道,吃真正的食物只是一个笼统的解决办法,但我们的饮食问题,可能在相当程度上是源于高热量甜味料和(或)高度加工碳水化合物的摄入,而这两者在我们的饮食中几乎是不可避免的,且摄入量在飞涨。在我们的食物产品中,有80%含有这些东西。Or it could be those factors in tandem with others, like the degradation of our internal networks of bacteria, which in turn could be caused by the overuse of antibiotics or other environmental issues. Or it could be even more complex.或者也有可能是和其他因素共同作用的,比如我们体内的细菌网络在退化,而这个问题本身可能是过量使用抗生素或其他环境问题造成的。或者可能比这还要更复杂。The point is we need to know for certain, because until we have an actual smoking gun, it#39;s difficult to persuade lawmakers to enact needed policies. (Smoking gun studies are difficult in the diet world, but throwing up our hands in the face of complexity serves the interests of processed-food pushers.) Look no further than the example of tobacco.关键在于我们需要有确凿的了解,因为只有攥着如山的铁,才有可能说议员们去实施必要的政策。(在饮食的领域,寻找铁是很困难的,但是如果我们被这些困难吓倒,那就是正中加工食品贩子下怀了。)这方面只需要看看烟草的前车之鉴。Meanwhile, if we had to pick one target in the interim, caloric sweeteners are unquestionably it; they#39;re well correlated with weight gain (and their reduction equally well correlated with weight loss), Type 2 diabetes and many other problems. How to limit the intake of sugar? A soda tax is a start, proper labeling would be helpful, and — quite possibly most important, because it#39;s going to take us a generation or two to get out of this mess — restrictions on marketing sweet ;food; to children.与此同时,如果我们在此期间一定要找一个目标,毫无疑问应该是高热量甜味剂;它们跟体重增加、II型糖尿病等等问题是有明显关联的(而减少摄入也明显和体重下降有关)。如何限制糖的摄入?首先可以征收汽水税,进行妥善标注也是有帮助的,此外还有限制向儿童推销甜的“食物”——这很有可能是最重要的,因为要走出这片泥沼需要一代甚至两代人的时间。There#39;s no reason to delay action on those kinds of moves. But let#39;s get the science straight so that firm, convincing, sound, evenhanded recommendations can be made based on the best possible evidence. And meanwhile, let#39;s also get the simple message straight: It#39;s ;Eat Real Food.;这些举措都没有理由再拖了。但是让我们先从科学入手,找到尽可能充分的据,得出坚实、可信、明智、公正的建议。同时,我们还要明确传达一个要旨,那就是“吃真正的食物”。 /201409/326499

`It can sum up parenthood pretty succinctly.`That`s how 32-year-old Steve Cramer described a family photo that shows his wife, Elizabeth, launch the couple`s 6-month-old son into the air as she attempts to swing him around for the photo. 妈妈想让六个月大的儿子转个身、却不慎脱手将儿子抛向空中——对这张传说中的史上最失败全家福,32岁的爸爸史蒂夫·克拉默的意见是:“它简明地概括了育儿之道的要义。” The family photo has gone viral on the Internet since it was taken in late August in San Clemente, California, while the young family was on vacation with other family members. 今年八月下旬,克拉默一家在加州圣克莱门特度假时拍摄了这张照片。如今这张失败的家庭照已经爆红网络。 `In my family we have about 18 of us, and a lot of kids,` Cramer, of Castle Rock, Colorado, told GoodMorningAmerica.com. `We started out taking the large photo getting everyone to smile. But as you can imagine, getting all those kids to sit and smile doesn`t go so well. 克拉默一家居住在科罗拉多州城堡石市。他在接受“早安美国”网站采访时说道:“我们家有18口人,很多的孩子,一开始我和妻子试图让全家人对镜头微笑,但让所有孩子都乖乖坐定微笑并不容易,你懂的。” `When we finished with that, my 4-year-old was done. He had had enough. But my wife and I were all on the beach in the coordinating outfits and we really wanted to get one good picture to show off our happy family, but it wasn`t going so hot.` “刚拍完第一张微笑全家福,我四岁的儿子就不干了。我和妻子都站在沙滩上,我们俩还都穿着搭配的衣,指望着拍一张能显示家庭幸福的好照片,但事情进展有点不顺利。” Cramer explains that to get the children to calm down, they try and distract the boy with some fun, candid shots. And that`s when things went horribly wrong. 克拉默努力向孩子们解释想让他们安静下来,两个家长开始偷拍下有趣的场景,以转移他们的注意力。就在这时令人惊吓的一幕发生了。 `We swung them around a couple times, but the final time I heard my wife just go, ``Ahhhh!`` so I turn around and I see my son just gracefully and peacefully doing this full layout back flip, landing flat on his back in the sand,` Cramer explained. `We were just shocked.` “我们牵着孩子们转了几圈,但最后一次我听到妻子大叫了一声。我转身看到儿子被抛到空中,做了一个满分的后空翻,然后轻轻的背着地躺在沙地上。” 克拉默说,“大家顿时都惊呆了。” The couple says the baby cried for about two minutes but eventually got over it and was fine. 这对夫妇说,被抛空的儿子哭了大约两分钟,然后安静下来了。好在孩子安然无事。 `He sniffled a little bit,` said Cramer. `But my dad is a pediatrician and looked him over and said, ``Oh, he`s fine.`; “他哭了一会儿鼻子”,克拉默说,“但是我爸爸是个儿科医生,他为孩子检查了一下然后说,‘他没事’。” Once the family realized the baby was fine, they looked at the photos the photographer had taken and realized they had Internet gold - the image has aly tallied more than 2 million views since being posted on Reddit. 一家人确认儿子安然无恙之后,回头看照下来的照片,才意识到他们获得了网络热点素材——自从他们将照片发布到红迪网上之后,该照片已经获得了超过200万的点击量。 `We looked and we got this incredible photo. It`s hilarious,` Cramer said. `Everything could have gone wrong, but it ended as best as possible. Every time I look at the picture, though, my palms still get a little sweaty.` “我们看着这张照片,觉得它不可思议,十分搞笑。” 克拉默说,“一切都可能会出错,但这张照片是最好的结果了。不过每次我看到这张照片,我手掌心都还是会冒冷汗。” /201310/259123

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