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地名志或地名研究(Toponymy)属于历史语言学范畴。历史语言学家对地名的来源作了相当的研究。美国内务部曾汇集了一批能干的语言学家,成立了专门机构,其任务是对美国的地名来源进行研究,给以准确的解释。  在美国的地名中,一半以上始源于印第安语。其余的始源于欧洲,如纪念皇帝皇后,或某一特殊地区,还有是为纪念历史重要人物及记载历史活动的。  由于语言和文化是休戚相关的,人们通过研究地名的始源,可以了解关于这个国家的背景。历史活动,甚至价值观。  我们从不同的资料汇集了美国洲名的来源,供学习研究英语、美国历史与文化的人们参考。   ALABAMA(阿拉巴马):  来源于巧克陶印第安语,意思是 "thicket-clearers" 或者 "vegetation-gatherers","拓荒者"或者"打草人"。  AlASKA(阿拉斯加):  来源于阿留申语,意思是"great land"或"that which the seas breaks against","伟大的土地"或"分割海的地方"。  ARIZONA(亚利桑那):  来源于印第安语"Arimnac",意思是"hule spring","小泉水"。  ARKANSAS(阿肯色):  来源于印第安语,意思是"a breeze near the ground","靠近地面的微风"。  CALIFORNIA(加利福尼亚):  来源于法语"Califerne",是一部11世纪法国史诗中所想象的地方。  COLORADO(科罗拉多):  来源于西班牙语,意思是"ruddy"或"red","红色的"。  CONNETICUT(康涅狄格):  来源于印第安语,意思是"beside the long tidal river", "在长长的潮河旁"。  DELAWARE(德拉华):  纪念托马斯·魏斯特爵士"Sir Thomas West, Lord De La Warr",德拉华河和德拉华湾也以此命名。  FRORIDA(佛罗里达):  来源于西班牙语,意思是"feast flowers(Easter)","花的节日",即复活节。  GEORGIA(乔治亚):  纪念英国的乔治二世皇帝。In honor of George II of England.  HAWAII(夏威夷):  来源不确定。这个群岛可能是以其发现者夏威夷·罗亚(Hawaii Loa) 命名,也可能以传统的波利尼西亚人的家乡Hawaii or Hawaiki命名。  IDAHO(爱达荷):  来源于印第安语,意思是:"gem of the mountains", "山中的宝石";另一种说法的意思是"Good morning""早上好"。  ILLINOIS(伊利诺):  来源于印第安语加上法语后缀,意思是"tribe of superior men","贵人的土地"。  INDIANA(印第安纳):  来源于印第安语,意思是:"land of Indians","印第安人的土地"。  IOWA(依阿华):  来源于印第安语,意思是"the beatiful land","这块美丽的地方",另一种说法是"the sleepy ones","爱睡觉的人们"。  KANSAS(堪萨斯):  来源于苏族印第安语,意思是"people of the south wind", "南风的人们"。  KENTUCKY(肯塔基):  来源于易洛魁印第安语"Ken-tah-ten",意思是"land of tomorrow"or"the dark or bolldy ground","希望的土地",或"黑色的沃上"。  LOUISIANA(路易斯安那):  纪念法国路易十四世皇帝,"In honor of Louis XIV fo France". /200803/28456

Japan's Prime Minister Shinzo Abe (front L) and first lady Akie Abe disembark from a plane at the Beijing Capital International Airport in Beijing, October 8, 2006.While nearly 80 percent of Japanese say they are patriotic, most of that majority say their country should own up to, and reflect on, its record of aggression in Asia, according to a poll published in a newspaper yesterday.The Asahi Shimbun said 78 percent of 1,805 respondents to the December 2-3 poll felt at least some degree of patriotism. The figure was slightly lower than the 80 percent recorded in a similar poll conducted in April 2005, the daily said.At the same time, 88 percent of those claiming to be patriots said Japanese must consider their country's militaristic past and brutal colonial rule in Asia, the Asahi said.The results reflect public concerns about Japanese friction with China and South Korea over their shared history, the Asahi said.Japan's relations with its Asian neighbors have often been poor because of Tokyo's lack of contrition for its aggression and harsh colonial rule in the first half of the 20th century.Repeated visits by former prime minister Junichiro Koizumi to the Yasukuni Shrine that honors war criminals from World War II have further strained those ties.The Shinzo Abe government has pursued a policy agenda aimed at bolstering Japan's international military role.However, Japan's relations with China and South Korea have improved after Abe took power in September last year. His first overseas trips as prime minister were to Beijing and Seoul and there have been several initiatives in recent months to thaw ties.昨天公布的一项调查显示,虽然80%的日本人说自己是爱国人士,但其中的大多数人认为日本应该面对历史,应对自己曾对亚洲一些国家的侵略行为进行反省。据《朝日新闻》报道,这项在12月2日和3日进行的调查共有1805人参加,调查显示,其中有78%的人认为自己至少有点爱国心,略低于2005年4月一项类似调查的80%。此外,在自认为有爱国心的受访者中,88%的人认为日本必须面对自己的军国主义历史以及曾在亚洲一些国家进行的残酷殖民统治。《朝日新闻》称,调查结果表明,日本民众对政府与中韩两国在历史问题上的分歧较为关注。20世纪上半叶,由于日本政府对其过去的侵略行为和残酷的殖民统治毫无悔意,所以日本与亚洲邻国的关系一直很差。再加上日本前首相小泉纯一郎多次参拜供奉二战战犯的靖国神社,使得日本与邻国的关系更为紧张。安倍晋三首相上任后,政府出台了一系列旨在加强日本国际军事角色的政策。然而,自安倍首相去年九月上任后,日本与中韩两国的关系有所改善。安倍首相上任后出访的第一站就是北京和首尔。此外,近几个月还出台了几项旨在“解冻”关系的新计划。 /200808/46489

10. 蕾丝花边 Either you completely cover the wedding dress with lace or you only embellish a part of your wedding dress. The lace part you will surely make you look the best. 不论你是想穿着布满蕾丝的婚纱还是只想用蕾丝装饰花边,蕾丝这个元素必定会让身着婚纱的你成为最美的新娘。 /201108/148754

People, despite getting teary-eyed, enjoy the numerous culinary uses of the onion. The gas containing vegetable is both a primary ingredient and a flavor enhancer in many dishes. If you think its list of uses end at the kitchen, you better think again. It is proven to be a medicinal wonder, as well as a metal polisher and an insect repellent. With its number of alternative uses, the onion may induce tears of joy to any DIY pundit. Here are seven of its tearfully - pleasing uses. 尽管会泪眼汪汪,人们还是很享受洋葱的大量烹饪用途。这种气味浓重的蔬菜既是众多菜肴的基本原料也是增味剂。如果你认为它的用途仅限于厨房,那你最好再想想。它还被明是药物奇迹、金属抛光剂以及驱虫剂。有了众多另类用法,洋葱可能会让任何一个DIY专家留下喜悦的眼泪。这里是它的7种令你含泪带笑的用途。1. Insect Bite Treatment - The onion’s enzymes are known for their anti-inflammatory effects, which makes the vegetable an unusually effective treatment. Rub some onion to a bee sting, mosquito bite or any insect bite. After a few hours, the pain, itchiness and swelling will subside.1、治疗虫咬——洋葱的酶以消炎作用著称,这使得它有不同寻常的治疗效果。在蜜蜂和蚊虫叮咬处用洋葱擦一下,几小时后,疼痛、瘙痒和肿胀就会消退。 2. Odor Remover - Chemical solutions, like pain and varnish, have strong odors that can adversely affect your health when inhaled. Instead of purchasing a pricey deodorizer, you might as well apply a mixture of onions and water on the smelly areas. The onion’s scent won’t completely eliminate the chemical stench, but it will surely bring the fumes to a more tolerable level.2、去除异味——化学溶剂,如油漆和指甲油,有很大的气味,吸入后会对身体很不利。与其买昂贵的除臭剂,你还不如用洋葱和水的混合物洒在有味道的地方。洋葱的气味虽然不能完全消除浓重的化学异味,但肯定能让空气保持在一个可忍受的水平上。3. Reliever for Burns - Burns sting and are prone to infection. Treat those inflammations by mixing onion slices with a little water. Apply the mixture to the affected areas and within a few hours, your burns will subside. Just reapply whenever necessary.3、缓解烧伤——烧伤刺痛而且容易感染。用几片洋葱加点水治疗炎症。把混合物涂抹在感染处,几小时内,你的烫伤就会消退。需要的地方还可以再次涂抹。 /201011/117422

A scientific study on love shows that men are increasingly interested in intelligent, educated women with dependable character and emotional stability, and chastity isn't an issue.一项关于爱情的科学研究显示,如今的男性对聪慧、受过教育、人品可靠且情绪稳定的女性越来越感兴趣,而贞节已不再是个问题。The findings by Researchers at the University of Iowa are part of a study ed by media reports Monday.该研究由艾奥瓦大学的研究人员开展,研究结果在本周一的媒体报道中被引述。Conducted every decade since 1939, the study asks participants to rank a list of 18 characteristics they would want in a partner on a scale ranging from "irrelevant" to "essential."该研究自1939年起每十年开展一次,主要让研究对象对18个择偶标准按照“无关紧要”到“非常重要”的标准进行排序。Included are such items as "sociability" and "good cook, housekeeper," as well as "mutual attraction and love," which came in first place for both men and women in 2008. (In 1939, it wasn't in the top three for either sex.)这些标准包括“善于交际”、“厨艺精湛、会持家”以及 “相互吸引和爱情”等,这几项在08年的男女择偶调查中排在前几位(在1939年的调查中,这几条标准在男女调查中均未跻身前三)。 Male and female participants in 2008 rounded out their top traits with "dependable character" and "emotional stability, maturity." Men ranked intelligence fourth, a big jump from 11th place in 1939; in addition, "good financial prospect" moved to 12th place in 2008, a shift from its low 17th-place ranking in 1939 and last-place ranking in 1967.在2008年的调查中,男女受访者最看重的品质都是“人品可靠”、“情绪稳定、成熟”。在本次调查中,男性将“聪明”排在第四位,较之1939年的第11位大幅上升,此外,“良好的经济实力”升至第12位,该项在1939年的调查中仅排在第17位,在1967年的调查中垫底。"This is a generation of men who has grown up with educated women as their mothers, teachers, doctors, and role models," said Christine Whelan, head of the study and author of "Marry Smart: The Intelligent Woman's Guide to True Love" (Simon amp; Schuster, 2008).研究负责人、《嫁得漂亮:智慧女人的真爱指南》(西蒙舒斯特公司2008年出版)一书的作者克里斯蒂·威尔兰说:“这一代男性在成长过程中接触的都是一些受过良好教育的女性,比如他们的母亲、老师、医生和偶像。”"And in tough economic times, sharing the financial burden with a spouse takes the burden off these guys to be the sole provider," she said.她说:“在经济困难时期,找一个能共同负担家庭经济开的伴侣可以减轻男人的压力。”The study's participants were college students from the University of Iowa, the University of Washington, the University of Virginia, and Penn State University.该研究的对象是来自艾奥瓦大学、华盛顿大学、弗吉尼亚大学和宾州州立大学的学生。"Like attracts like, so certainly the fact that we were polling college students would suggest that intelligence and education are going to be important characteristics," Whelan said.威尔兰说:“物以类聚,人以群分。我们在大学生中开展这项调查的做法表明,智商和受教育程度将成为十分重要的择偶标准。”Another notable shift involves the significance of chastity: In 1939, it was valued more than intelligence in women, but in 2008, it was ranked the least important characteristic. Furthermore, it also was ranked the least important for men. This, coupled with the shared top-three ranking for both men and women, suggests a commonality that seems positively modernday.另一个显著的改变就是对于“贞节”的态度。在1939年调查中,男性对于女性“贞节”的重视远超过“智慧”;而在2008年,无论男性还是女性都认为“贞节”是最不重要的因素。从贞节观的转变以及男女在择偶时最看重的三个因素可以看出,当今社会的观念已步入现代化。 /200903/64277

Poor sleep habits are often the cause of daytime sleepiness. Before you go through any more groggy and crabby days, try these 12 ways to improve nighttime sleep and avoid daytime sleepiness.不好的睡眠习惯通常是日间奢睡的根源。再你经历更多的没有生机和易暴躁的日子之前,试一下下面的十二中方法来改善你的夜晚睡眠质量并避免日间困倦。1. Get adequate nighttime sleep.That may sound obvious, but many of us succumb to shaving an hour or two off our sleep time in the morning or at night to do other things. Most adults need seven to nine hours a night, and teenagers usually need a full nine hours. Block out eight or nine hours for sleep every night.充足的夜晚睡眠这听起来是不足为奇的,但是我们中的许多人都会从我们的睡眠时间里剔除一到两个小时去做其他的事情。不管这是发生在清晨还是夜里。大多数成年人需要7到9个小时的夜间睡眠,青年人通常需要足足9个小时的睡眠。每晚为你的睡眠规划好8到9个小时。 /201105/137065


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