乌市高新技术产业开发区隆胸医院哪家比较好69指南

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月16日 15:03:47
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While some dams in the ed States and Europe are being decommissioned, a dam-building boom is underway in developing countries. It is a shift from the 1990s, when amid concerns about environmental impacts and displaced people, multilateral lenders like the World Bank backed away from large hydroelectric power projects.美国和欧洲废弃一些大坝时,发展中国家却掀起了兴建大坝的热潮。上世纪90年代的趋势发生了重大改变,当时由于担心影响环境和居民流离失所的问题,世界(World Bank)等多边借贷机构都开始回避大型水电项目。World hydropower production will grow from 4,000 terawatt hours now — about the annual power output of the ed States — to 4,670 terawatt hours in 2020, according to Maria van der Hoeven, executive director of the International Energy Agency, in Paris. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts that hydropower generation will double in China between 2008 and 2035, and triple in India and Africa.总部位于巴黎的国际能源署(International Energy Agency,简称IEA)的总干事玛丽亚·范德胡芬(Maria van der Hoeven)表示,到2020年,全球水力发电量将从现在的4万亿千瓦时——大约相当于美国一年的发电量——提高到4.67万亿千瓦时。政府间气候变化专门委员会(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,简称IPCC)预测,中国的水力发电量在2008至2035年间会翻一番,印度和非洲的水力发电量将会增加两倍。The World Bank and other international lenders were the most important financiers of large dams before the ’90s lull. But although the World Bank has in recent years increased its investment in hydropower from a low of just a few million dollars in 1999 to about .8 billion in 2014, it still funds only 2 percent of hydropower project investment today.世界及其他国际借贷机构曾是水坝项目最重要的资助者,但它们从20世纪90年代以来减少了投资。虽然近年来,世界又增加了对水力发电项目的投资,从1999年的数百万美元,提高到了2014年的18亿美元(约合110亿元人民币),但该的投资金额在水电项目的整体投资规模中只占2%。Picking up the slack are national development banks from emerging countries such as China, Brazil, Thailand, and India, and private investors. Public-private partnerships are on the rise, generally with the support of regional development banks.其余资金则来自中国、巴西、泰国、印度等新兴国家的国家开发,以及私营部门投资者。公私合作的模式也在不断发展,而且一般受到地区开发的持。“Who benefits from these infrastructure projects?” asked Jason Rainey, executive director of the anti-dam group International Rivers, in Berkeley, Calif.总部设在加利福尼亚州伯克利的国际河流组织(International Rivers)反对建造大坝,该组织的执行主任贾森· 雷尼(Jason Rainey) 问道,“谁会从这些基础设施项目中获益?”Some well-documented answers: The Xayaburi Dam in Laos will sell power to Thailand, while threatening the subsistence livelihoods of people who have long lived along the Mekong River; the Inga 3 dam in the Democratic Republic of Congo will sell power to mining companies and to South Africa, rather than to the 96 percent of Congolese who lack access to electricity.以下是一些众所周知的:老挝的沙耶武里水坝(Xayaburi Dam)将向泰国售电,但对那些长期生活在湄公河沿岸的民众的生计造成了威胁;刚果民主共和国的英加三期(Inga-3)水电大坝的供电对象是矿业公司和南非,而不是刚果民众,96%的刚果人用不上电。A 2012 report from International Rivers found that Chinese companies or financiers were involved in 308 dam projects in 70 different countries, many in Southeast Asia, but also some in Africa, Latin America and Pakistan. Aside from supplying electricity to investing countries, projects can also offer a type of vertical integration to power funders’ industrial projects, such as mining or smelting. “China isn’t the only one working this model,” Mr. Rainey said: “The Brazilian Development Bank has financed more dam projects in Latin America than the Inter-American Development Bank. India is investing in hydropower in Nepal and Bhutan.”国际河流2012年发布的一份报告指出,中国公司或投资方参与了70个国家的308个大坝项目,其中有很多在东南亚,但也有一些地处非洲、拉丁美洲和巴基斯坦。除了为投资国供电,大坝项目还会为投资者的工业项目,比如采矿或冶金项目,提供了一种垂直整合的模式。“中国不是唯一采取这种模式的国家,”雷尼说。“巴西开发(The Brazilian Development Bank)在拉丁美洲资助的大坝项目比美洲开发(Inter-American Development Bank)多。印度也正在尼泊尔、不丹投资水力发电项目。”Nancy Alexander, director of the Economic Governance Program for the Heinrich B#246;ll Foundation, a public policy institute in Berlin, said she attributed this trend partly to a Group of 20 initiative that prioritized infrastructure investment as a path to economic stability.柏林的公共政策研究机构海因里希·伯尔基金会(Heinrich B#246;ll Foundation)的经济管理项目(Economic Governance Program)主任南茜·亚历山大(Nancy Alexander)表示,她将这种趋势部分归因于20国集团提出的一项计划,即优先考虑基础设施方面的投资,以此作为一种促进经济稳定的方式。The initiative encourages joint financing by multilateral development banks and other sources. A World Bank report on hydropower this year said that the bank now “typically acts as a ‘convener,’ bringing other financiers to the table.” It said that over the past five years, the World Bank Group had funded about half of the costs of projects that it financed, with the balance coming from host country governments, the private sector and other development banks.该计划鼓励多边开发及其他机构共同提供资金。世界今年发布了有关水力发电的报告,称该现在“通常是充当‘召集人’,招揽其他投资方提供融资”。报告称,在过去五年中,世界集团提供的资金,在其资助项目耗费的成本中占了大约一半,其余资金则来自项目所在国政府、私营部门,及其他开发。Ms. Alexander said the problem with this model is that it “derisks” mega-projects for the private sector and draws in institutional investors like pension funds and mutual funds. “Very often this means privatizing profits and outsourcing risks to the public,” she said.亚历山大表示,这种模式的问题在于,它消除了私营部门投资大型项目的风险,还吸引养老基金、共同基金等机构投资者进行投资。她说,“这通常意味着利润私有化,将风险推给公众。”Those risks can be both significant and hidden, she added. Project backers may cite national security or business confidentiality to avoid sharing information with the public.她还表示,这些风险可能会非常大,并且很隐蔽。项目投资者可能会以国家安全或商业机密为由,不向公众披露信息。National development banks such as the Brazilian Development Bank, China Development Bank and the Development Bank of Southern Africa “have abysmal records in terms of transparency and in terms of social and environmental safeguards,” Ms. Alexander said.各国的开发,比如巴西开发、中国开发,以及南部非洲开发(Development Bank of Southern Africa),“在社会影响和环境保护方面的透明度,一直都极其糟糕,”亚历山大说。The reduced involvement of global institutions allows countries to ignore international concerns. Although international backers have pulled out, for example, public-private funding has permitted Turkey to go ahead with its Ilisu Dam on the Tigris, defying Unesco’s objections that it would flood Hasankeyf, a town with 10,000 years of history. Turkish dam projects have also played a role in drying out Iraqi wetlands downstream and exacerbating tensions in Syria.全球性机构的参与减少了,各国就可能会无视国际社会的关切。比如,土耳其在底格里斯河上修建伊利苏大坝(Ilisu Dam)的项目,由于水位将淹没已有1万年历史的古城哈桑凯伊夫,而受到了联合国教科文组织(Unesco)的反对。尽管国际投资方已经撤出,但来自公共部门和私营部门的资金,却仍在推动这个项目继续进行。土耳其的一些水坝项目也在一定程度上导致处在下游的伊拉克湿地干涸,并加剧了叙利亚的紧张局势。Yet, although dam investment is coming from diversified sources, activist organizations still look to the World Bank to set the standard for environmental and social protections. At the World Bank’s annual meetings this autumn, 318 civil society organizations from 98 countries criticized its proposal for a new environmental and social framework, saying it would weaken existing safeguards. Among other things, they said, it would undermine the rights of indigenous people and of those displaced by projects, fail to protect workers or guarantee human rights and not meaningfully address climate change.然而,尽管大坝投资的来源日趋多元化,但倡导组织仍然期待世界能设定社会影响和环境保护的标准。今年秋天,在世界年度会议上,来自98个国家的318个民间团体,对该机构提出的一个新的环境和社会框架表达了批评,称这会削弱现有的保护措施。他们提出,这会损害原住民的权利、损害因项目而流离失所的居民的权利。该框架也未能保护工人、保障人权,并未有意义地应对气候变化问题。“They have a lot of weasel language that softens and dampens safeguards,” Mr. Rainey said.雷尼说:“提案中有很多狡猾的措辞,软化并削弱了保障性的条文。”Amy Stilwell, a spokeswoman for the World Bank, said the proposal was just a starting point. A second phase of consultations, including those with the petitioning groups, will begin soon, with a second draft expected in 2015, she said.世界发言人艾米·斯迪威尔(Amy Stilwell)说,该提案只是一个起点。她表示,该机构很快就会开始第二阶段的咨询,包括与请愿团体磋商,第二稿预计于2015年完成。Part of the reason dams are back in favor, despite ongoing concerns, is the increasing awareness of climate change and the need for cleaner energy sources, said Ken Adams, president of the International Hydropower Association, an industry group based in London. Hydropower can also balance the electricity load and store energy to support intermittent renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, he said.国际水电协会(International Hydropower Association)是一个总部设在伦敦的行业团体,其主席肯·亚当斯(Ken Adams)说,尽管关于水坝的担忧一直存在,但由于人们对气候变化日益重视,也需要更清洁的能源,兴建水坝又受到了青睐。而且水电还可以平衡电力负荷、储存电量,为风能、太阳能等间歇性的可再生能源提供持,他说。The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change supports hydropower to slow climate change, calling it a “proven, mature, predictable technology,” in a 2011 report.IPCC持用水电来减缓气候变化。在2011年的一份报告中,IPCC称,“它是已获得事实明的、成熟的、可预测的技术。”Hydropower’s reputation for low emissions, however, has come under scientific scrutiny in recent years. Reservoirs behind dams flood vegetation, which decays, releasing methane and soil carbon. A 2012 study, in the journal Nature Climate Change, concluded that “emissions from tropical hydropower are often underestimated and can exceed those of fossil fuel for decades.”然而,近几年来,水电“排放量低”的说法遭受了科学上的挑战。大坝背后的水库会淹没植被,使之腐烂,释放出甲烷和土壤碳。2012年,《自然·气候变化》(Nature Climate Change)杂志发表了一项相关研究,其结论是,“热带水电站的排放量常常被低估,它们可能在长达几十年的时间里,超过化石燃料的排放量。”The study emphasized that the effect is more pronounced in tropical ecosystems. Yet hydropower is typically presumed to be emission-free, Mr. Rainey said. “There is no mechanism within dam sanctioning processes, or any of the funding models, that methane emissions be monitored in dam projects,” he said, adding that even carbon market instruments such as the Clean Development Mechanism help to fund large dams without considering their carbon footprints.这项研究强调,在热带生态系统中,这种效应会更加明显。雷尼表示,人们通常认为水电不会有碳排放。“在水坝审批手续和融资模式中,都没有监测水坝项目中甲烷排放量的机制,”他说。即使是碳市场工具,比如“清洁发展机制”(Clean Development Mechanism),也在帮助大型水坝融资,却并没有考虑它们的碳足迹。Mr. Adams said his association’s voluntary standards could offer a solution. Its Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol, drafted with input from various stakeholders, including the World Bank, provides a framework for hydropower developers to monitor and benchmark their projects. William Rex, a hydropower specialist at the World Bank said: “We see it as a really useful tool.”亚当斯说,他所在的协会提出的自愿性标准可以提供一种解决方案。这套标准名为“水电可持续性评估规程”(Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol),由多个利益相关方起草,其中包括世界。这套规程提供了一个框架,供水电开发方监测自己的项目,并进行基准比较。世界的水电专家威廉姆·雷克斯(William Rex)说:“我们认为这是一种非常有用的工具。”Mr. Adams said his association would like to see financial institutions encourage borrowers to use it. “Any energy source is going to have its good side and downside,” said Mr. Adams. “But I believe that if done intelligently and appropriately, the downsides to hydro projects can be managed.”亚当斯表示,协会希望看到各大金融机构鼓励借款方使用该规程。“任何能源都有利有弊,”亚当斯说。“但我相信,如果明智而适度地开发,那么水利工程带来的负面影响是可以控制的。” /201412/346223

  In 1950, at a time when there were fewer than 10 digital computers worldwide, Bill Pfann, a 33-year-old scientist at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, discovered a method that could be used to purify elements, such as germanium and silicon. He could not possibly have imagined then that this discovery would enable the silicon micro-chip and the rise of the computer industry, the Internet, and the emergence of the information age. Today, there are about 10 billion Internet-connected devices in the world, such as laptops and mobile phones, and at the heart of each of these devices, there is at least one such micro-chip that acts as its “engine”.1950年时,全球只有不到10台数字计算机。时年33岁的新泽西贝尔实验室科学家比尔o芬尼在这一年发现了一种提纯锗、硅等元素的方法。他当时可能想不到,这一发现促成了硅制微芯片的诞生,推动了计算机和互联网的发展,导致了信息时代的出现。如今,全球已有超过100亿台联网设备。而所有这些设备中,都至少有一块这样的微芯片充当“引擎”作用。The reason behind this relentless progress is neatly contained in a prophetic law that was announced 50 years ago this Sunday, called Moore’s Law. The micro-chip is built with tiny electrical switches made of purified silicon called transistors and the law stated that the number of transistors on a chip would double every year. In 1975, Gordon Moore revised his forecast to state that the count would double every two years. The law has held true since.50年前,一个预言式的定律巧妙地揭示了科技不断进步背后的原因,它就是尔定律。微芯片上有许多由纯净硅制成的微型电子开关,它们被称作晶体管。而尔定律认为芯片上的晶体管数量每年都会翻倍。1975年,戈登o尔修正了他的预测,认为晶体管数量会每两年翻一倍。从此以后,这一定律从未失准。Why is Moore’s Law relevant? Because this doubling of the number of transistors led to computer chips that could be packed with increasingly sophisticated circuitry that was both energy efficient and cheap. This led to the widesp adoption of computers, mobile phones, and the information technology revolution.为何尔定律经年不衰?因为晶体管数量的倍增让计算机芯片能够搭载越来越复杂的电路系统,它们不仅节能,还十分便宜。这导致了计算机、手机的普及,推动了信息技术的革命。The price of computation is about 10 million times cheaper than it was 40 years ago, and the computing power held in a smart phone outstrips the workstations that computer scientists used in their offices in the 1990s. That we have been able to so far hold true to Moore’s Law is the reason that the electronic circulation of information has been commoditized, changing the way many of us learn, bank, travel, communicate and socialize.计算机的价格比起40年前,已然便宜了一千万倍,而一部智能手机拥有的计算能力,已经超过了20世纪90年代计算机科学家使用的工作站。至今为止,尔定律依然适用,也因为如此,信息的电子流通变得商品化,改变了我们当中许多人学习、储蓄、旅行、沟通和社交的方式。Take the example of social networking using a mobile phone. It works because the cost of a transistor has dropped a million fold and computing is about 10,000 times more energy efficient since 1980, when this writer first went to engineering school. Consequently, a 0 smart phone powered by a biscuit-sized battery contains a micro-chip with a few billion transistors in it and enough computing power to digitally process an image, and then upload and share it wirelessly using powerful mathematics to encode the data. This is a consequence of Moore’s Law in action.以使用手机进行社交为例。之所以能实现这一点,是因为从1980年(当时笔者才刚进入工程学院)至今,晶体管的价格降低了几百万倍,计算的能效提高了几万倍。因此,售价200美元、由一块饼干大小的电池作为能源的智能手机中,拥有一块包含几十亿晶体管的微芯片,其计算能力足以对图片进行数字化加工,运用强大的数学运算能力编码其数据,再通过无线网络上传和分享它。这就是尔定律作用下的成果。Yet, on its 50th anniversary, there are tell-tale signs that Moore’s Law is slowing, and we are almost certain that the law will cease to hold within a decade. With further miniaturization silicon transistors will attain dimensions of the order of only a handful of atoms and the laws of physics dictate that the transistors and electronic circuits will cease to work efficiently at that point. As Moore’s Law’s slows down, innovations in other areas, such as developments in software, will pick up the slack in the short-term.然而,在它诞生50周年之际,已有迹象表明尔定律下的增长开始放缓,我们也几乎可以确定,在接下来的十年内,它恐怕将不复成立。硅晶体管继续微型化下去,将达到仅含有少量原子排列的维度,根据物理定律,这种情况下晶体管和电子电路将无法有效工作。随着尔定律下的增长放缓,其他领域的创新,如软件方面的发展,将在短期内补上这一缺口。But in the longer-term, there will be fundamental changes in the essential design of the classical computer that, remarkably, has remained unchanged since the 1950s. Designed for precise calculations, today’s computing machines do not make inferences, and qualitative decisions, or recognize patterns from large amounts of data efficiently. The next substantive leap forward will be in computers with human-like cognitive capabilities that are also energy efficient. IBM’s Watson, the computing system that won the television game show Jeopardy! in 2011, consumed about 4000 times more energy than its human competitors. This experience reinforced the need for new energy efficient computing machines that are designed differently from the sequential, calculative methodology of classical computers and are inspired, perhaps, by the way biological brains work.但从长期来看,从20世纪50年代至今未曾改变的传统计算机的基本设计,将会出现根本性的变革。如今的计算机可用来进行精确计算,但它们无法高效地从大量数据中得出推断,做出定性决策或识别模式。下一个实质性的飞越将会出现在那些拥有类人认知能力且高能效的计算机上。IBM的计算机系统沃森在2011年的智力挑战节目“Jeopardy!”上取得胜利,但它消耗的能量是与它同台对垒的人类选手的4000倍。这一经历凸显了对新型高能效计算机的需求。它们要与使用顺序计算方法的经典计算机有所区别,设计者也许将从生物大脑的运转方式中汲取灵感。A journalist recently asked me whether the continuation of Moore’s Law was indispensable. It is the beauty of the collective enterprise of human innovation that which ensures that nothing is indispensable indefinitely for technology to progress. Decades later one might look at the era of Moore’s Law as a golden period where computers came of age through a masterful display of an industry’s ability to miniaturize and create billions of flawless and identical copies of tiny circuits at factories throughout the world. But, much as a pack of migratory birds flying in V-formation rotate in at the lead position, there will, at that future time, be many other technologies that will have carried us forward in the information age.一位记者最近问我,尔定律的持续是不是不可或缺的。人类创新这项集体活动之美,就在于保了没有什么对于技术进步而言是不可或缺的。几十年后,人们或许会将尔定律的年代看作黄金时代,这个年代的计算机起初是一个行业实力的体现,后来计算机逐渐小型化,全球的工厂制造了数以亿计一模一样的完美微型电路。但就像候鸟群会以V字队列盘旋在领头者旁边一样,未来会有许多其他技术引领着我们在信息时代继续前进。 /201504/371646

  Huawei has announced its first Windows 10 tablet, a day before Mobile World Congress in Barcelona begins.在巴塞罗那世界移动大会开幕前一天,华为正式发布了传闻已久的首款MateBook笔记本电脑。The MateBook is designed to be an alternative to laptops and is thinner than Microsoft#39;s rival Surface Pro 4 thanks to its use of a USB-C port.由于MateBook使用USB-C接口,所以相比竞争对手微软的Surface Pro 4更薄一些,可以代替手提电脑使用。The Chinese firm is aly the world#39;s third-bestselling mobile phone-maker, but until now had only made tablets powered by Android. Experts said it made good business sense to expand into the new category.这家中国公司已经成为世界上第三大最畅销的手机制造商,但直到现在才开发出安卓系统的平板电脑。专家称这为手机制造企业拓展了新的商机。However, there was no mention of the much-rumoured P9 smartphone at Huawei#39;s event. When questioned about the no-show, the firm told the B it did not discuss future products.然而,谣传已久的华为P9并没有被提及。当被问及华为P9的缺席时,华为公司告诉B,他们暂时不想讨论未来产品。The MateBook features a 12in (30.5cm) display and can be clipped into an add-on keyboard and used with a stylus.MateBook配备12寸(30.5cm)的触摸屏,可加入键盘或者使用写字笔。Its advantages over Microsoft#39;s Surface Pro 4 are that it is:优越于微软Pro 4 的几大特点:nearly 20% thinner, measuring 6.9mm (0.3in) deep比Pro 4轻薄20%,厚度为6.9毫米has a fingerprint sensor built into its side, unlike the Surface Pro which requires its cover to be attached to use the feature内置指纹传感器,不像Surface Pro需要触碰键盘盖来使用这项功能。However, the disadvantages are that Huawei#39;s machine is only offered with a sixth generation Core M processor, and not Intel#39;s more powerful Core i5 or i7 chips.但是这台机器的缺点是只提供第六代酷睿M处理器,而不是英特尔的更强大的酷睿i5或i7芯片。In addition, the decision to rely on a USB-C port means that older peripherals cannot be attached directly to the machine and it lacks a built-in display port.此外,依靠usb-c端口意味着旧的设备不能直接连接到这台机器,并且它缺乏一个内置的显示端口。The entry-level MateBook will cost 9 when it goes on sale later this year, making it 0 cheaper than the basic Surface Pro 4. To purchase its keyboard, MatePen and MateDock will cost an additional 7.当MateBook今年晚些时候开始销售时,其初级版本的售价为699美元,比Surface Pro 4的售价便宜了100美元。但是购买它的附属品如键盘、写字笔和MateDock将会额外花费277美元。 /201602/428332。

  Andy Grove, a technology pioneer credited with helping build Silicon Valley, died on Monday, bringing tributes from across the tech industry. 帮助缔造硅谷的科技业先驱安迪#8226;格罗夫(Andy Grove)周一逝世,整个科技业都向他表示了哀悼。 The former chief executive and chairman of Intel died at the age of 79, Intel said in a statement. He had suffered from Parkinson’s Disease for many years. 英特尔(Intel)在一份声明中称,该公司的这位前首席执行官兼董事长与世长辞,享年79岁。多年来,格罗夫一直受到帕金森病(Parkinson#39;s Disease)的折磨。 An early employee at Intel, he steered the company from memory chips to microprocessors, increasing revenues more than tenfold and creating the “Intel Inside” brand. Chips made by Intel, now the world’s largest semiconductor company by revenue, are used in Apple computers and servers in the data centres behind some of the world’s most popular apps. 格罗夫是英特尔的早期员工,他带领该公司从生产内存芯片转向生产微处理器,使营收扩大为原先的十倍以上,并树立了“Intel Inside”品牌。如今,英特尔已是全球营收最高的半导体公司。该公司生产的芯片被用在苹果(Apple)电脑和众多数据中心里的务器上,这些数据中心撑着一些全球最受欢迎的应用。 Brian Krzanich, Intel chief executive, said the chipmaker was “deeply saddened” by his death. “Andy made the impossible happen, time and again, and inspired generations of technologists, entrepreneurs and business leaders,” he said. Andy Bryant, Intel chairman, said Mr Grove’s approach to corporate strategy still influenced prominent thinkers and companies around the world. 英特尔首席执行官科再奇(Brian Krzanich)表示,公司对格罗夫的逝世“深感悲痛”。他说:“安迪一次又一次地把不可能变为可能,启发了好几代技术人员、创业者和商界领袖的灵感。”英特尔董事长安迪#8226;布赖恩特(Andy Bryant)表示,格罗夫的公司战略思路仍影响着世界各地的杰出思想家和企业。 Many technology leaders took to Twitter to express their thoughts on his achievements. 许多科技业领袖在Twitter上发表了对格罗夫成就的看法。 Tim Cook, Apple chief executive, called Mr Grove “one of the giants of the technology world”. 苹果首席执行官蒂姆#8226;库克(Tim Cook)称,格罗夫是“科技界的巨人之一”。 “He loved our country and epitomised America at its best,” he said. Marc Andreessen, venture capitalist at Andreessen Horowitz, said he was “the best company builder Silicon Valley has ever seen, and likely will ever see”. 库克说:“他爱我们的国家,并且是美国最大优势的典型例。”安德里森#8226;霍罗威茨基金(Andreessen Horowitz)的风险投资家马克#8226;安德里森(Marc Andreessen)表示,格罗夫是“硅谷有史以来最出色的企业缔造者,以后可能也不会再有更好的了”。 Mr Grove was born in Hungary by the name of András Gróf. A Jewish child during the Holocaust, he spent his early years with his mother fleeing from the Nazis. He escaped to the US after the Hungarian uprising of 1956. 格罗夫出生在匈牙利,原名安德拉什#8226;格罗夫(András Gróf)。作为一名“纳粹大屠杀”(Holocaust)期间的犹太孩子,他的幼年是在与母亲一起躲避纳粹(Nazis)中度过的。1956年匈牙利暴动后,他逃到了美国。 Arriving in the US aged 20, he trained to be a chemical engineer in New York and Berkeley. He joined Intel on the day it was founded in 1968 and served as chief executive from 1987 to 1998. 20岁那年抵达美国后,他接受教育成为了纽约和伯克利的一名化学工程师。他在1968年英特尔成立那天就加入了该公司,并在1987年到1998年间担任该公司首席执行官。 He also wrote management books including the bestseller Only the paranoid survive — about how to exploit crises at companies — and High output management. 他还写过多本管理类图书,其中包括畅销书《只有偏执狂才能生存》(Only the paranoid survive)和《高产出管理》(High output management)。《只有偏执狂才能生存》描写的是如何对企业面临的危机加以利用。 Mr Grove was honoured last September for “inspirational leadership” at the Annual Churchill Club awards in Silicon Valley. In a tribute to Mr Grove, venture capitalist Ben Horowitz dubbed him “the man who built Silicon Valley”. 去年9月,在硅谷丘吉尔俱乐部(Annual Churchill Club)的年度评奖中,格罗夫因“启发性的领导风格”而受到表彰。在对格罗夫的悼念中,风险投资家本#8226;霍罗威茨(Ben Horowitz)将他誉为“硅谷的缔造者”。 Mr Grove and his wife Eva were married for 58 years, having two daughters and eight grandchildren. He was a philanthropist, contributing to Parkinson’s research and the City College of New York, among other causes. 格罗夫和夫人埃娃(Eva)结婚58年,有两个女儿和八个外孙。他是一位慈善家,向帕金森病研究、纽约市立学院(City College of New York)以及其他慈善事业捐过款。 /201603/433265

  

  Xiaomi is the most important phone manufacturer you#39;ve never heard of.In the rich world, dominated by Apple and Samsung and where even fading brands such as Nokia and Blackberry remain familiar, Xiaomi (pronounced like the ;show-; in shower, plus ;me;) is still largely unknown.小米是你从没听说过的最重要的手机生产商。在这个纷繁的手机世界,苹果和三星处于主导地位,一些已经淡出市场的品牌例如诺基亚和黑莓还依旧为大家熟知。而小米(发音听起来像“shower”一次中的“show-”再加上一个“me”)仍然没有什么知名度。Yet this firm, only 5 years old, has aly become a formidable supplier of smartphones in its home market of China (the world#39;s largest), and has begun a remarkably successful campaign of international expansion.这个公司建立至今只有短短五年,却已经在中国的国内市场(世界最大的市场)上成为了实力最轻的智能手机供应商,并且开始引领一场非常成功的国际扩张运动。As the firm gets y to announce its newest model, the Mi5, next week, it is worth tuning in, because more than any company other than Apple, Xiaomi will show us where smartphones -- which is to say the mobile, networked computers we all have in our pockets -- are going worldwide.小米公司已经准备好下周要公开他最新的设计模型Mi5,这款手机非常值得入手,因为小米已经超越了除苹果以外的任何公司,将要向我们展示智能手机的国际化,而智能手机如今已经可以说是人们都有的放在衣口袋里的移动联网电脑。China and the ed States are the two most important economic powers in the world, and that goes double for technology.中国和美国是世界上最重要的两个经济体,而两国在科技上的重要性则是两倍于经济的。For three decades, that relationship could be summed up as ;invented here, produced there.; (The iPhone box may say ;Designed in California,; but it is made in Shenzhen, China.) Xiaomi is one indicator among many that that relationship is over. Its phones are well-designed and cheap, and, more importantly, the firm has been engineered to rely on the Internet, allowing it to build one of the leanest manufacturing and sales operations the world has ever seen.三十年来,手机生产中的关系可以被总结为“这儿发明,那儿生产”。(苹果手机可以说是“在加利福尼亚设计的”但是它确实在中国深圳生产的。)小米的发展则是众多信号中的一个,预示着这种关系的结束。小米的手机物美价廉,而且更重要的是,小米公司旨在依靠互联网,这让它可以建立起最可靠的生产和销售体制让世界都看得见。In a half decade, Xiaomi has gone from a startup focused on making a new mobile phone interface to beating Samsung as the No. 1 phone vendor in the largest market in the world last year.在五年的时间里,小米从一个最初只专注于设计出一种新的手机界面到去年打败了三星成为全球最大市场的手机供应商。Xiaomi#39;s products are so popular in China that it has become the third largest ecommerce firm there, just selling its own products. As 2014 closed, the company was valued at billion, an increase in value of something like 18,000% since its first round of fund-raising. It is, by several metrics, the most valuable startup ever.小米的产品在中国风靡到它在中国已经成为了第三大的电子商务公司,只是通过销售自己生产的商品。2014年尾,小米公司估值已达到450亿美元,这个数字相较于它刚刚开始筹资的时候基本上是增加了18000%。从好几个指标来看,小米已经是目前最有价值的新兴公司。。Xiaomi is widely referred to as the ;Chinese Apple,; a phrase that carries both a sense of awe at its design prowess and derision at its habits as a design copycat. Both reactions are warranted -- some of their phones look like little else on the market (the Mi3), while others are almost-copies of iPhones (the Mi4).很多人认为小米就是“中国的苹果”,这个名头既带着对小米高超设计的一丝惊异,也有一种觉得小米习惯性山寨别人设计的嘲弄。这两种反应都是有依可循的——小米有的手机确实很少有看起来不一样的(Mi3),别的都基本是高度模仿苹果手机(Mi4)。The firm was founded in Beijing in 2010 by Lei Jun, a computer scientist and charismatic serial entrepreneur now in his mid-40s, who is predictably, often compared to Steve Jobs, both for his energy and brilliance, and for his Jobsian taste in clothes and product launches.这个公司是雷军2010年在北京建立的。雷军是个电脑科学家,现在又是一个45岁左右的有能力的企业家。他总是无可避免地被拿来与乔布斯进行比较,既是因为他的精力和聪慧,也是因为他乔布斯式的衣着品味和产品推出。Xiaomi#39;s importance, though, is about more than just its growth. It#39;s about how it grew. The company was designed, from the beginning, to assume that both social media and ecommerce were normal. The rapid and enormous success came about largely because these tools allowed the firm to do everything backward.虽然小米如今举足轻重的地位不只是和他的发展有关,也和如何发展有关。从一开始,这个公司就是在社交网络和电子商务都成为常态的假设下进行设计的。这种快速且巨大的成功还要归功于这些网络工具的普及,这让小米公司能站稳脚跟尽情伸展拳脚。Xiaomi#39;s coming expansion will be its real legacy. Mobile phones are the most broadly desired category of complex goods in the world, beating out their only rivals -- cars and televisions -- by a mile. The mobile phone is also the near-universal source of connectivity for most of the world#39;s population, increasingly the gateway to every form of communications other than face to face, to every form of content other than karaoke, and to every form of commerce other than haggling.小米即将实现的扩张将会成为它真正的财富。手机是全世界需求量最大的一类复杂产品,甩开竞争对手汽车和电视好几条街。对于大多数世界人口来说,手机更是覆盖性占领了所有和外界交流的渠道。逐渐覆盖了除面对面以外所有交流方式,除了卡拉OK以外所有交流内容,除了讲价以外所有买卖形式。Though Apple invented the iPhone, and Samsung sp smartphones, it#39;s Xiaomi that showed the world how to create a defensible market between luxurious and crappy, and to scale up to meet the rising demand of the rapidly expanding middle class in Nigeria, Indonesia, Brazil, Mexico, India, cumulatively the world#39;s biggest market by far.虽然苹果发明了iPhone,三星推广了智能手机,但却是小米告诉了全世界如何创造一种介于奢侈品和地摊货之间的坚韧的市场和如何加大规模来满足尼日利亚、印度尼西亚、巴西、墨西哥和印度的中产阶级不断增加的需求,而这个市场正在不断扩大,不久就会逐渐成为世界上最大的市场。There are opportunities for the ed States here since good, cheap products benefit U.S. consumers, too. There is also competitive risk, as always. But the biggest threat Xiaomi poses is for companies that don#39;t take it seriously.现在小米抓住了一个机会,因为物美价廉的产品也能造福美国的消费者。竞争风险一如往常,但是越是不把小米当一回事的公司越是面临来自小米的巨大威胁。Xiaomi marks the end of China as a pure importer of products designed elsewhere. It was one of the first companies to adopt the new methods that are making China a center of innovation in design, electronic commerce and services. Xiaomi introduces a new risk in that relationship -- not a risk that Chinese firms will copy too much from the ed States, but that the American firms will copy too little from China.小米的发展标志着中国不再单纯是外国设计的产品的进口国了。它是第一批采用新方法让中国成为设计、电子上午和务行业的创新中心的公司之一。小米给中美公司之间的关系中带来了新的风险——这种风险并不是在于中国公司会发现自己在大肆抄袭美国公司,而是美国公司将会发现他们从中国公司借鉴的太少了。 /201510/404047Credit Suisse says its Asia Tech Team has confirmed that Apple#39;s has recently lowered its orders from suppliers, and that Apple now plans to build 70 million to 75 million iPhones in December and 45 million to 50 million iPhones in March..瑞士信贷表示,苹果的亚洲科技团队已确认,最近苹果已经削减了供应商的订单,并计划在12月生产7000万到7500万部手机,在明年3月生产4500万到5000万部手机。But a potential miniature iPhone, rumored to be released early next year, could help boost iPhones sales, Credit Suisse says in the report.瑞士信贷的报告中表示,传闻可能会在明年初发布的迷你手机,将有助于提升iPhone的销量。In a previous report, Credit Suisse blamed the softer demand for the iPhone 6S on the lack of apps that really take advantage of the phone#39;s new ;3D Touch; feature.在之前的报告里,瑞士信贷曾谴责6S需求减弱是由于缺乏能充分发挥它新的“3D触控”特色的应用。But not all is lost, Credit Suisse says: People who have iPhones tend to keep them, and Apple#39;s new iPhone installment plan program will put it into the hands of more people than ever before.但苹果6S也并非输的一塌糊涂,瑞士信贷称,那些拥有iPhone的人还是倾向于持有一台6S,并且苹果最新推出的分期付款计划,将会把它送到比以往任何时候都都要多的人群手中。Plus, if Apple follows through with the rumors and releases a smaller, lower-cost four-inch-screen iPhone in the first half of next year, Credit Suisse says, it could open up the market and make the device appealing to a larger audience.并且,如果恰如传闻那样,苹果公司能在2016年上半年发布一款更小巧,更低成本的4英寸手机,那么它将进一步打开市场,吸引更多的用户群体。And unlike what happened with Apple#39;s iPhone 5C flop, a smaller iPhone would be enough unlike the current flagship 6S that it wouldn#39;t confuse the market, according to the analysts.据分析专家称,新的迷你iPhone和曾经遭遇的失败的iPhone 5C不同,更完全有别于当前的旗舰6S,它不会引起苹果手机市场的混乱。 /201512/413654

  Imagine being talked about behind your back. Now picture that conversation taking place covertly in your own sitting room, with you unable to hear it.想象一下有人在你背后谈论你。现在设想一下,这样的谈话就悄悄发生在你家客厅里,而你却无法听到。That is the modus operandi of SilverPush, an Indian start-up that embeds inaudible sounds in television advertisements. As the advert plays, a high-frequency signal is emitted that can be picked up by a mobile or other device installed with an app containing SilverPush software. This “pairing” — currently targeted at Indian consumers — also identifies users’ other nearby devices and allows the company to monitor what they do across those. All without consumers hearing a thing.这就是印度创业企业SilverPush的做法,该公司在电视广告里嵌入听不到的声音。广告播放时,会发出一种高频信号,安装有内置SilverPush软件的应用的手机或其他设备可接收到这种信号。这种“配对”——目前是针对印度消费者的——也会识别出用户附近的其他设备,让该公司得以监控他们在这些设备上做些什么。这一切都在消费者无知无觉的情况下发生。This “cross-device tracking technology”, being explored by other companies including Adobe, is an emblem of a new era with which all of us — governments, companies, charities and consumers — will have to contend.这种“跨设备跟踪技术”——包括Adobe在内的其他公司也在探索此技术——标志着一个新时代的来临。这个新时代是所有人——政府、公司、慈善机构和消费者——将不得不应对的。Last month, the Royal Statistical Society hosted a conference at Windsor castle to ponder the challenges of Big Data — an overused, underexplained term for both the flood of information churned out by our devices and the potential for this flood to be organised into revelatory and predictive rivers of knowledge.不久前,英国皇家统计学会(Royal Statistical Society)在温莎(Windsor)城堡召开了一次大会,思考大数据带来的挑战。大数据是一个被滥用、内涵解释欠清楚的术语,既指我们的设备产生的海量信息流,也指把这些信息整理为分门别类的一股股具有揭示性和预见性的信息流的潜力。The setting was apt: the ethics and governance surrounding the growing use of data are a right royal mess. Public discussion about how these vast quantities of information should be collected, stored, cross-referenced and exploited is urgently needed. There is excitement about how it might revolutionise healthcare — during outbreaks of disease, for example, search data can be mined for the greater good. Today, however, public engagement largely amounts to public outcry when things go wrong.这次大会召开得正是时候:围绕日益增加的数据使用的伦理和治理可谓一团糟。目前迫切需要就这些海量数据应当如何收集、存储、相互参照和利用展开公众讨论。有人对大数据可能催生医疗革命感到兴奋:比如说,在疾病爆发时,可以为了更高的利益挖掘搜索数据。然而,如今,当出现糟糕情况时,公众讨论很大程度上变成公众的强烈声讨。The extent to which tech shapes our lives — the average British adult spends more than 20 hours a week online, according to a report by UK media regulator Ofcom — means our behaviour, habits, desires and aspirations can be revealed by our swipes and keystrokes.英国媒体监管机构英国通信办公室(Ofcom)的一份报告显示,英国成年人平均每周在线时间超过20小时。科技对我们生活的巨大影响,意味着我们的行为、习惯、欲望和抱负都可以通过触摸屏和键盘操作显露出来。This has made analysis of online be a new Klondike. Personal data are like gold dust, and we surrender them every time we casually click “OK” to a website’s terms and conditions.这使得对在线行为的分析成为一座新的金矿。个人数据就像金砂,每次我们随意对一家网站的条款与条件点击“确定”时,就把我们的个人数据交了出去。And here is our first problem: most of us click unthinkingly (it is usually impenetrable legalese, anyhow). It is thus questionable whether we have given informed consent to all the ways in which our personal data are subsequently used. To demonstrate this, a security company set up a public WiFi spot in the City of London and inserted a “Herod clause” committing users to hand over their firstborn for eternity. Within a short period of time, several people unwittingly bartered away their offspring in return for a free connection.这是我们面临的第一个问题:我们中大多数人都是不假思索地点击的(不过,条款与条件通常是难懂的法律措辞)。那么,我们对自己的个人数据随后被使用的各种情形是否行使了知情同意权,就成了疑问。为了明这一点,一家安全公司在伦敦金融城(City of London)设立了一个公共WiFi热点,并嵌入一个“希律条款”(Herod Clause),要求用户承诺永远放弃他们的第一个孩子。在很短时间内,就有不少人为了免费上会儿网稀里糊涂地放弃了自己的孩子。Legal challenges aside, there is rarely independent scrutiny of what is a fair and reasonable relationship between an online company and its consumers. Facebookfell foul of this when it manipulated the news feeds of nearly 700,000 users for a psychology experiment. Users claimed they had been duped by the study, which found that those exposed to fewer positive news stories were more likely to write negative posts. The company retorted that consent had aly been given. Approval last week of EU data protection rules permitting hefty fines for privacy breaches may prevent a repetition; consent will no longer be the elastic commodity it was.除了法律挑战,关于网络公司及其消费者之间公平与恰当的关系应该是怎样的,我们也很少进行过独立的审视。Facebook在这一点上便曾引起众怒,因为它为了做一个心理实验,对近70万用户的动态消息动了手脚。用户们声称,他们被那项研究给耍了,研究结果显示,那些接收到更少积极消息的人更可能写出消极的内容。Facebook反驳称,他们已获得了用户的同意。不久前,欧盟通过了数据保护规则,新规允许对侵犯隐私的行为处以高额罚款,这或许能阻止类似情况再次发生;用户不再像以往那样无论代价如何都只能被动同意了。A second challenge arises from the so-called internet of things, when devices bypass humans and talk directly to one another. So my depleted smart fridge could automatically email the supermarket requesting replenishment. But it could also mean my gossiping gadgets become a network of electronic spies that can paint a richly detailed picture of my prandial and other proclivities, raising privacy concerns. Indeed, at a robotics conference last month, technologists identified the ability of robots to collect data, especially in private homes, as the single biggest ethical issue in that field.第二个挑战源自各种设备绕过人类、直接彼此对话的所谓物联网。所以,我的智能冰箱在储存消耗光了的时候可以自动给超市发电邮,要求补货。但这也可以意味着,我的那些“八卦”的设备构成了一张电子间谍网,它可以绘制出一幅有关我的饮食与其他癖性的极其详尽的图画,令人担心隐私暴露。实际上,在不久前的一个机器人学大会上,技术专家们把机器人收集数据(尤其是在私人住所里)的能力认定为大数据领域最大的单个伦理问题。Alongside the new EU rules on data protection, we need something softer: a body of experts and laypeople that can bring knowledge, wisdom and judgment to this fast-moving field. There is aly a Council for Big Data, Ethics and Society in the US, comprising lawyers, philosophers and anthropologists.除了欧盟新的数据保护规则外,我们也需要更软性的方式:一个由专家和非专业人员构成的机构,为这一快速发展的领域带来知识、智慧和判断力。眼下,美国已有了一个由律师、哲学家和人类学家组成的大数据、伦理与社会委员会(Council for Big Data, Ethics and Society)。Europe should follow this example — because, as a stream of anecdotes at the Windsor conference revealed, companies and academics to be navigating this new data-rich world without a moral compass. In 2012 a Russian company created Girls Around Me, an app that pooled publicly available information to show the real-time locations and pictures of nearby women, without their consent; the app, a stalker’s dream, was withdrawn. High-tech rubbish bins in London’s Square Mile, which captured information from smartphones to track unwitting owners’ movements in order to target them with advertising, were ditched on grounds of creepiness.欧洲应当仿效美国的做法,因为正如温莎大会上的一连串趣闻所显示的那样,公司和学术界人士在这个数据丰富的新世界航行时,似乎没有带上伦理指南针。2012年,一家俄罗斯公司推出了一款名为“Girls Around Me”的应用(App),可以汇集公开可见的信息,在不经使用者附近女性同意的情况下显示她们的实时位置和照片。这款跟踪骚扰者梦寐以求的应用被撤下了。“平方英里”(Square Mile,即伦敦金融城,因面积正好1平方英里得名——译者注)的高科技电子垃圾箱捕捉来自智能手机的信息,以跟踪不知情的机主的行踪,从而针对他们发布广告,这些垃圾桶因令人毛骨悚然而被取缔。Meanwhile, a scientist has created software that combs Twitter connections to infer a tweeter’s ethnicity and even religion, raising the question of whether public posts can legitimately be used to deduce private information. Do we, as one lawyer suggested,need laws against misuse of our online personae?同时,一名科学家做了一款软件,能够通过彻底搜查推特(Twitter)人脉图,推断一名推特用户的种族、甚至宗教,这引发了使用公开发言推断私人信息是否合法的疑问。我们是否如一名律师所认为的那样,需要出台防止个人在线角色被滥用的法律?We have wearable devices that, like Santa, see you when you are sleeping and know when you’re awake. It is possible that a company will find a way of deducing — through sentiment analysis of social media postings, visits to charity websites, checks on your bank balance and fitness tracking — if you’ve been bad or good.我们有了可穿戴设备,这些设备像圣诞老人一样,在你睡着时注视着你,也知道你何时是醒着的。一家公司有可能找到推断你近来生活是否积极向上的办法——通过分析社交媒体发言表现出的情绪、访问慈善网站以及核查你的存款余额和健康追踪。This goes to show: just because big data makes it technically possible to do something, does not mean we should.这明:并非仅仅因为大数据使某事在技术上具备可行性,就意味着我们应该那么做。 /201601/421342

  

  Edward J. Snowden, the former National Security Agency contractor, opened his Twitter account with a joke on Tuesday. “Can you hear me now?” he wrote, in a short message that electrified the social network and made reference to his revelations about the agency’s spying on phone calls.本周二,国家安全局(National Security Agency)前承包商雇员爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)在Twitter上开设账户,并开了个玩笑:“现在你能听到我吗?”这条引爆Twitter的简短帖子调侃了国家安全局监听电话的行动。Mr. Snowden’s first words on his verified account were borrowed from an old television commercial for Verizon, in which an actor playing a technician tested the range of the company’s wireless network.斯诺登用认帐户发出的第一句话,借用了威瑞森(Verizon)以前的一则电视广告的台词。在那个广告中,一名演员扮成技术人员,对公司的无线网络覆盖范围进行了测试。When Mr. Snowden disclosed the scope of N.S.A. surveillance and the role of American communications companies by leaking a trove of classified documents in 2013, the first revelation was a secret court order compelling Verizon to give the N.S.A. information on all telephone calls in its systems, which was published by The Guardian.斯诺登在2013年泄露了大批机密文件,曝光了国家安全局的监控范围以及美国通信公司在其中扮演的角色。首当其冲的是一条秘密的法庭令,它迫使威瑞森将其系统中的所有电话记录提交给国家安全局。此事刊登在了《卫报》(The Guardian)上。As word sp that Mr. Snowden’s account was genuine, and he racked up more than 160,000 followers in his first hour on the network, several users noted that he was following only one account: that of the N.S.A.使用这个Twitter账户的是斯诺登本人的消息迅速传开。他开通账户刚一个小时,关注者人数就突破了16万。一些用户发现,斯诺登只关注了一个帐户:国家安全局。Among those welcoming Mr. Snowden was Glenn Greenwald, the former Guardian journalist who revealed Verizon’s role in the N.S.A.’s bulk domestic phone records program after meeting the former contractor in Hong Kong and obtaining the documents.不少人对斯诺登表示了欢迎,其中之一是前《卫报》记者格伦·格林沃尔德(Glenn Greenwald)。当年他在香港与斯诺登会面并拿到资料之后,向公众揭露了威瑞森在国家安全局大规模监听电话的计划中起到的作用。According to Dan Froomkin of The Intercept, Mr. Snowden was prodded to join Twitter by Neil deGrasse Tyson, the astrophysicist and television host, during an interview on his “Star Talk” radio show, “via robotic telepresence from Moscow,” where he has lived since winning temporary asylum in Russia in 2013.美国新闻网站The Intercept的丹·弗鲁姆金(Dan Froomkin)表示,斯诺登在Twitter上开账户是听从了天体物理学家、电视节目主持人尼尔·德格拉斯·泰森(Neil deGrasse Tyson)的建议。当时他“从莫斯科通过机器人远程连线”,在泰森的广播节目《星语》(Star Talk)中接受采访。自从2013年获得俄罗斯临时庇护之后,斯诺登就一直住在莫斯科。Dr. Tyson was among the many users of the network to welcome the whistle-blower, and the first Mr. Snowden responded to, striking up a brief conversation.泰森士是向这位泄密者表示欢迎的众多Twitter用户之一,也是斯诺登第一个回复的人,两人进行了简短对话。Mr. Snowden’s short Twitter biography s: “I used to work for the government. Now I work for the public.” It also mentions his role as a director of the Freedom of the Press Foundation, a nonprofit organization “helping support and defend public interest journalism focused on exposing mismanagement, corruption and law-breaking in government,” which has as one of its founders Daniel Ellsberg, who leaked the Pentagon Papers during the Vietnam War.斯诺登Twitter帐户上的简介写道:“曾经我为政府工作。现在我为公众务。”其中也提到了他目前是新闻自由基金会(Freedom of the Press Foundation) 的一名总监。该基金会是非营利组织,旨在“帮助持和捍卫符合公众利益的新闻报道,侧重于揭露政府的管理不善、腐败和违法问题”,其创始人之一丹尼尔·埃尔斯伯格(Daniel Ellsberg)曾在越南战争期间曝光了五角大楼文件(Pentagon Papers)。 /201510/402132

  

  The Sundial日晷The sundial,an ancient Chinese timekeeping instrument consisting of a bronze needle and a stone dial,measures the time by taking advan-tage of the shadow of the sun.日晷又称“旧规”,中国古代利用日影测得时刻的一种计时仪器。The needle crosses the center of the dial vertically,just like the pole of the gnomon,and the stone dial is placed onto a stone plat-form,higher in the south and lower in the north.通常由铜制的指针和石制的圆盘组成。铜制的指针叫做“晷针”,垂直地穿过圆盘中心,起着圭表中立竿的作用,因此,晷针又叫“表”,石制的圆盘叫做“晷面”,安放在石台上,呈南高北低,The sundial surface is therefore parallel to the equatorial plane. The upper end of the sundial points right to the North Pole,and the lower end to the South.使晷面平行于天赤道面。这样,晷针的上端正好指向北天极,下端正好指向南天极。Both sides of the dial are divided into 12 parts,each part representing two hours. When the sunlight beams down on the sundial,the shadow of the needle falls on the surface and moves as the sun moves.Therefore,the needle’s shadow resembles the needle of a modern watch or clock,and the stone dial is like the watch or clock’s dial plate,indicating time.在晷面的正反两面刻划出12个大格,每个大格代表两个小时。当太阳光照在日晷上时,晷针的影子就会投向晷面,太阳由东向西移动,投向晷面的晷针影子也慢慢地移动。于是,移动着的晷针影子相当于现代钟表的指针,晷面则是钟表的表面,以此来指示时间。From the vernal equinox(about March 20)to the autumn equinox(about September 22),the sun moves in the northern side of the equator, casting the needle’s shadow on the upper part of the stone dial.由于从春分到秋分期间,太阳总是在天赤道的北侧运行,因此,晷针的影子投向晷面上方;Likewise,since the sun moves in the southern side of the equator from the autumn equinox to the vernal e-quinox, the shadow is cast on the lower part. Therefore,when observing the sun-dial,it is important to first find out the projection position in the two different peri-ods.从秋分到春分期间,太阳在天赤道的南侧运行,因此,晷针的影子投向晷面的下方。所以在观察日晷时,首先要了解两个不同时期晷针的投影位置。 /201511/409365

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