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2020年02月25日 04:48:37来源:120常识

  • If you told me that Id have to be depressed for the next month,如果你告诉我,我会在接下来的一个月里一直抑郁I would say, ;As long I know itll be over in November, I can do it.;我会说,“只要一个月之后不抑郁了我就可以接受。”But if you said to me, ;You have to have acute anxiety for the next month,;但如果你告诉我,“你会在接下来的一个月里严重焦虑。”I would rather slit my wrist than go through it.那么我宁可割腕也不愿意忍受It was the feeling all the time这是一种持续的感觉like that feeling you have if youre walking and you slip or trip就好像你走在路上滑倒了或者绊倒了and the ground is rushing up at you,地面猛冲向你的感觉but instead of lasting half a second, the way that does, it lasted for six months.但这种感觉不是半秒钟,而是持续6个月Its a sensation of being afraid all the time but not even knowing what it is that youre afraid of.这是一种时时刻刻感到惧怕,却不知道自己在惧怕什么的感觉And it was at that point that I began to think that it was just too painful to be alive,就在那时我开始想活着太痛苦了and that the only reason not to kill oneself was so as not to hurt other people.人不自杀的唯一原因是因为不想伤害身边的人And finally one day, I woke up and I thought perhaps Id had a stroke,终于有一天,我醒来的时候,我觉得我可能中风了because I lay in bed completely frozen, looking at the telephone, thinking,因为我躺在床上整个人是完全僵硬的,我看着电话,心想;Something is wrong and I should call for help,;“不好了,我该打电话求助。”and I couldnt reach out my arm and pick up the phone and dial.但我没办法伸出手去,没有办法拿到电话来拨号And finally, after four full hours of my lying and staring at it, the phone rang,终于,在我躺在那盯着电话整整四小时之后,电话铃响了and somehow I managed to pick it up, and it was my father,我不记得自己怎么拿到的电话,是我父亲打来的and I said, ;Im in serious trouble. We need to do something.;我说,“我现在遇到大麻烦了,我们必须做点什么。”The next day I started with the medications and the therapy.第二天我开始吃药,开始接受治疗And I also started reckoning with this terrible question:与此同时我开始思考一个可怕的问题If Im not the tough person如果我不是那种坚强到who could have made it through a concentration camp, then who am I?即使被送去集中营也可以存活下来的人,那么我是谁呢?And if I have to take medication,如果我需要吃药的话is that medication making me more fully myself, or is it making me someone else?那么药物是让我变得更像自己,还是让我更不像自己?And how do I feel about it if its making me someone else?如果会让我变得像别人,那么我又如何感觉到这点呢?I had two advantages as I went in to the fight.在这个抗争的过程中我有两个优势The first is that I knew that, objectively speaking,首先是我很清楚,客观地说I had a nice life, and that if I could only get well,我有一个不错的生活条件,如果我能好起来there was something at the other end that was worth living for.那么最终是会有一些东西值得我去为之而活的And the other was that I had access to good treatment.另外一点就是我能接受好的治疗But I nonetheless emerged and relapsed,但我却不知为何,好转了又复发and emerged and relapsed, and emerged and relapsed,又好转,又复发,再好转,再复发and finally understood I would have to be on medication and in therapy forever.最后我才意识到,我必须一辈子依赖药物以及治疗And I thought, ;But is it a chemical problem or a psychological problem?于是我想,“但这到底是一个化学问题还是一个心理问题?And does it need a chemical cure or a philosophical cure?;这到底需要化学疗法还是心理疗法呢?”And I couldnt figure out which it was.我无法找到问题的And then I understood that actually,然后我明白了we arent advanced enough in either area for it to explain things fully.事实上我们对这两个领域的了解都还不够,都还不足以完全弄清真相201602/425459。
  • The first one is very simple: experience bars measuring progress首先看一个简单的:用经验值条量度进程something thats been talked about brilliantly by people like Jesse Schell earlier this year.它曾经被人精地讨论过,比如杰西谢尔,在今年的早些时候Its aly been done at the University of Indiana in the States, among other places.它已经被美国印第安纳大学做到了,也在其他的地方Its the simple idea that instead of grading people incrementally in little bits and pieces,这个朴素的理念是,取代用零碎的方式将人们逐步分级you give them one profile character avatar你给他们一个人物轮廓which is constantly progressing in tiny, tiny, tiny little increments which they feel are their own.一个可以不断进步的以非常,非常小的增量,一种他们感觉是自己的东西And everything comes towards that,然后所有事都向其发展and they watch it creeping up, and they own that as it goes along.他们看着其攀升,然后他们的自我也随之提升Second, multiple long and short-term aims第二点,长期与短期目标5,000 pies, boring, 15 pies, interesting.5000个馅饼,无趣,15个,有趣So, you give people lots and lots of different tasks.所以你给人们很多很多不同的任务You say, its about doing 10 of these questions,你说,这个是解决其中的10个问题but another task is turning up to 20 classes on time,但另一个任务是在规定时间里上升20个等级but another task is collaborating with other people,另一个任务是和其他人一起合作的another task is showing youre working five times,另一个任务要求你工作量提高五倍another task is hitting this particular target.还有一个任务是达到某个特定目标You break things down into these calibrated slices你把事情分成这些可计量的小部分that people can choose and do in parallel to keep them engaged人们可以选择然后同时进行以让他们持续参与and that you can use to point them towards individually beneficial activities.并将它们和个人的获利行为挂钩。Third, you reward effort.第三,奖励成就Its your 100 percent factor. Games are brilliant at this.这是你百分之百的要素,游戏在此很明确Every time you do something, you get credit; you get a credit for trying.每次你做一些事,你得到功劳,你因尽力而为获得认可You dont punish failure. You reward every little bit of effort你不惩罚失败,你奖励每一个小小的努力a little bit of gold, a little bit of credit. Youve done 20 questions,tick.你的一点金子,你的一点功劳--你解决了20个问题--打上勾It all feeds in as minute reinforcement.这些都是通过小小的鼓励实现的。Fourth, feedback.第四,反馈This is absolutely crucial, and virtuality is dazzling at delivering this.这绝对关键,虚拟世界以眼花缭乱的方式传递这一信息If you look at some of the most intractable problems in the world today如果你看看今天世界上一些最棘手的问题that weve been hearing amazing things about,我们所听到的一些惊人的事情its very, very hard for people to learn非常,非常难为人们所领会if they cannot link consequences to actions.如果他们不能把结果与行为连接起来Pollution, global warming, these things--the consequences are distant in time and space.污染,全球变暖,这些事情结果的产生在时间和空间上都是久远的Its very hard to learn, to feel a lesson.这非常难以学习或者体会经验But if you can model things for people,但是如果你能模拟东西给人们看if you can give things to people that they can manipulate如果你给予人们一些东西,他们可以操作and play with and where the feedback comes,可以演示,可以收集反馈then they can learn a lesson, they can see,人们就可以学到经验,他们能看they can move on, they can understand.他们能行动,他们能明白And fifth, the element of uncertainty.第五点,不确定性因素Now this is the neurological goldmine, if you like,现在这是个神经学金矿,如果你愿意的话because a known reward excites people,因为一个已知的奖励会激发人们but what really gets them going is the uncertain reward,但是真正能让他们前进下去的是未知的奖励the reward pitched at the right level of uncertainty,带着适当不确定性的奖励that they didnt quite know whether they were going to get it or not.也就是人们不知道是否能得到的奖励The 25 percent. This lights the brain up.比如25%的获奖机率,会使大脑兴奋And if you think about using this in testing,如果你想把它运用到测验中in just introducing control elements of randomness in all forms of testing and training,引入控制随机变量到任何形式的检测和训练里you can transform the levels of peoples engagement你能够改变人们的投入程度by tapping into this very powerful evolutionary mechanism.通过引进这种非常有力的进化机制When we dont quite predict something perfectly,当我们不能完全预测某事时we get really excited about it.我们为之十分兴奋We just want to go back and find out more.我们就想追溯出更多东西201511/411325。
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