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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月17日 09:18:09
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Science and technology科学技术Flood defences防洪减灾Dambusterbusters堤坝除险,以水御水Some clever, new ways of stopping rivers flooding防止河水泛滥的绝妙新方法THE destruction of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2005年的卡特利娜飓风摧毁了新奥尔良。showed the importance of keeping levees—the artificial banks that contain the flow of partly canalised rivers—in tip-top condition.这场惨剧提示我们部分渠化的河流其人造大坝即使在洪峰到来,河水漫坝的情况下也要挺住而不出现垮塌是多么重要。In practice, though, that is hard.然而,实际上这很难做到。Levees fail for many reasons, not all of them associated with violent storms,导致堤坝垮塌的原因很多,并非全都是狂风暴雨所致。and there are so many of them that keeping an eye on all of them is an almost impossible task.而且堤坝数量众多,难以对所有的堤坝状况都进行密切监视。It is good, therefore, to have a backup plan to block up unexpected holes before they can cause too much damage.因此,事先储备预案极为重要,一旦堤坝出现未曾预料的缺口时能够及时予以封堵,以防造成更大灾难。The traditional approach is to throw bags filled with sand or rocks into a breach.一旦堤坝出现裂口,传统的做法是向缺口抛掷沙袋和石块。Such bags, though, are heavy and unwieldy—particularly if they have to be filled far from the breach and then carried there.然而这些沙袋死沉,难以搬运。如果不得不在离裂口较远的地方灌装沙袋再运过去的话,这项工作就难上加难。William Laska of the Science and Technology Directorate at Americas Department of Homeland Security has therefore sought out alternatives.威廉·拉斯卡在美国国土安全部所属的工程科技处工作,He has found several technologies that have a common theme:他找到了解决这一难题的办法。they all use water itself to help stem the flood.这些方案有一个共同点:以水御水。The largest of the new devices is designed to block deep breaches.这些新发明的装置中体积最大是设计用来堵塞宽深堤坝裂口的。The Portable Lightweight Ubiquitous Gasket is a sausage-shaped balloon made of polyester and PVC, and fitted with motorised pumps.这种装置叫做便携式通用轻型堵漏包。它是由聚酯纤维和聚氯乙烯制作的圆柱形气球,并安装了发动机带动的水泵。When dropped into a river, PLUGs pumps switch on automatically and begin forcing water into the balloon through a valve.把这个装置投入河中,水泵就自动开始工作,通过一个阀门把河水注入气球。The air thus displaced is expelled through a second valve until the device is 80% full, at which point the pumps shut themselves down.河水不断注入,球内的空气通过另一组阀门被挤出。就这样直到水充满了80%的球体后水泵就自动停了下来。Filled thus far, PLUG is still buoyant and will float wherever the current carries it.灌了这么些水PLUG仍然可以浮于水面,随河水任意漂流。If it has been dropped in the right place, that will be towards the breach it is designed to fill.如果投放的位置恰当,它就会漂到堤坝的裂口处。And there, if all goes well, it will stick—blocking the hole in a manner suitable to its rather contrived acronym.在这里如果一切顺利的话,就像这个装置有点蹩脚的的英文首字母缩略语道出的,它就会像一个塞子一样堵住裂口。Prevention, however, is always better than cure, and the second of Mr Laskas devices is designed to stop levees being breached in the first place.常言说治病不如防病,对待堤坝亦然。拉斯卡先生发明的第二种装置就是用于事先防止堤坝出现垮塌。这In this case the acronym of choice is REPEL.种装置的全称是泥土坝便置保护装置,其英文首字母的缩略语REPEL也正好有防御的意思。REPEL is made of the same material as PLUG, but instead of being thrown into the water and carried to its destination by the current,它与第一种装置使用同样材料制作,但不是要把它投入河中由水流带到裂口处。it is laid out flat on a levee that is in danger of being overtopped and thus eroded by the river it is supposed to contain.一旦河水猛涨漫过堤坝就会对泥土坝造成冲蚀,危及堤坝的安全。此时可以把REPEL铺在堤坝顶上保护堤坝。In normal circumstances merely placing a layer of protective material on top of a levee in this way would not do much good.一般来说如果只是这样在堤坝顶部铺一层类似的保护材料在漫坝时不会起到什么作用。The force of the water would quickly wash it away.水流的力量会很快将它们冲掉。However, REPEL has a series of tubes that sit on top of it and can be pumped full of water in a manner similar to that employed by PLUG.而ERPEL在其上部装上了一系列的粗管,可以如第一种装置一样往这些粗管里灌水。The weight of these tubes holds the protective layer in place, while the gaps between the tubes permit the overspill to escape.这些装满水的管子的重量足以固定住这些保护层,漫出堤坝的河水可以在粗管间溢过。Some flooding from that overspill results—but not as much as if the spill were allowed to erode and destroy the levee itself.这样虽然有一些河水漫出堤坝,但造成的损失会远远小于由于土坝在水流侵蚀下而垮塌产生的后果。Yet simply halting floodwaters and preventing short-term damage is not enough.然而只是堵住了洪水防止了眼前的灾难并不完美。Neither PLUG nor REPEL can be used permanently.PLUG与REPEL都是应急设施。It is the third of Mr Laskas acronyms, REHAB,拉斯卡先生还有第三套装置,其首字母缩略语是REHAB,又正好有重建之意。that allows engineers to make permanent repairs.工程师们可以用它对堤坝进行永久性的修复。The Rapidly Emplaced Hydraulic Arch Barrier,该装置的全称叫做便置式拱形折流坝。made of the same material as the other two devices, can be put in place around a plugged breach to keep it sealed and dry once the PLUG has been removed.它与前两种装置采用相同材料制作,可以围住一个被暂时封堵住的堤坝裂口,使之与河水隔开。此时就可以将PLUG这个塞子撤掉,晾干堤坝裂口处的泥土。First, the arch is filled with air and floated to the desired location.首先将这个拱坝注入空气使它能够漂到指定的位置。Then, once it is in place, it is partly flooded and allowed to sink to the riverbed around the breach, making a tight seal.一旦到位,就向拱坝内灌水使它沉到裂口周围的河床上,形成了一道严密的围堰。That done, a second set of pumps evacuates the gap between the arch and the PLUG, allowing workers access to the site.这些工作完成后,再调用一组水泵将拱坝与堵塞间的水全部抽干,堤坝抢修工人们就可以进入现场进行堤坝的修复作业了。Not only is installing REHAB easier and faster than building a conventional temporary dam, it is also less wasteful.设置一道重建拱坝与常规的方法建临时围堰相比不仅省时、省工,而且还省钱。A conventional temporary structure is demolished after use.常规的临时围堰在完工后还需要拆除。REHAB can simply be floated away and reused—it will have rehabilitated itself, in other words.这种重建拱坝用完后只需充气排水就可浮起拖走重新使用,这也就是说,这种拱坝是可重复使用的。 /201305/237757

Finance and economics财经商业Free exchange自由兑换Money from nothing无中生钱Chronic deflation may keep Bitcoin from displacing its fiat rivals慢性通缩的比特币可能无法取代其法定对手BITCOIN, to its most ardent fans, is more than a useful way to pay for drugs.比特币对其铁粉来说可不仅仅只能用来买违禁药品,It is also a technological marvel that could disrupt much of the consumer-finance industry.它是一个可以搅扰大多数消费金融业务的技术奇迹。But is it money?但是,它就是货币吗?The Bitcoin economy keeps growing, despite the periodic disappearance of large quantities of currency in hacker heists.尽管大量比特币在黑客抢劫案中周期性消失,其经济却仍保持增长。The total value of Bitcoins in circulation has risen to .9 billion, from just 0m a year ago,比起一年前的4.9亿美元,比特币如今的流通总价值已上升至79亿美元,while daily transaction volume is up by almost 60%.日交易量更是增长了近60%。If Bitcoin aspires to match dollars and euros for money-ness,但如果比特币想成为与美元和欧元一般的货币,it will need to be more than just a Mastercard for nerds.它可不能仅仅满足于只是充当网络玩家手中的万事达卡。Economists reckon money is anything that serves three main functions.经济学家认为,货币有三个主要功能。It must be a medium of exchange, which can reliably be swapped for goods and services.首先,它必须是一种值得信赖的、可用于交换商品和务的交换媒介;It should be a stable store of value,其次,应当是稳定的储值手段,enabling users to tuck some away and come back later to find its purchasing power more or less intact.使用者们将部分货币储存起来,其购买力在之后一段时间内大体保持不变;And it should function as a unit of account:最后,它应该能充当计价单位,a statistical yardstick against which value in an economy is measured.用一个基准统计尺度衡量经济体的价值。The American dollar meets all three conditions.美元符合上述这三个条件,Bitcoin has some way to go.比特币则任重而道远。Bitcoin does best as a medium of exchange, thanks to its clever technical design.比特币的最擅长的交换媒介功能要归功于其巧妙的技术设计。Users can quickly move holdings around anywhere in the world.使用者可以在世界各处快速转移持有的比特币。Rather than relying on central clearing-houses,相较于传统货币依赖于中央清算机构,verification of transactions is done by miners, who are compensated for their work with newly created Bitcoin.比特币的交易验是由用新铸造的比特币作为其工作补偿的矿工来完成的。The new money they create adds imperceptibly to Bitcoin inflation,矿工铸造的新钱给比特币带来小到可以忽略不计的通货膨胀,sping the cost of their work over all users.其工作成本已分摊到所有使用者身上。This elegant system makes Bitcoin cheap to use.比特币精妙的系统降低了它的使用成本。Because banks are not needed to confirm legitimate purchases, transaction fees are low.因为不需要确认其法定购买力,比特币交易费用十分低廉。Bitcoins near-anonymity has also helped drive acceptance among those who would prefer to keep their transactions secret,此外,比特币近乎匿名性的特点对那些希望保护交易隐私的人而言无疑具有吸引力,whether drug-dealers or money-launderers.比如毒贩子或洗钱者。The combination of functionality and user interest means that people are finding it easier to swap coins for both goods and services and for other currencies.比特币将系统功能性和使用者兴趣融合在一起,人们用它换取商品和务乃至兑换其他货币变得更加便捷。This rising credibility as a medium of exchange supports Bitcoin values.这些都提高了其作为交换媒介的信誉度,从而撑起比特币的价值。Yet Bitcoin is not exactly a stable store of value.然而,严格来讲,比特币不是一种稳定的储值手段。It is technically equipped to do the job:它在技术上所能进行的工作是:coins saved in an encrypted wallet on a hard drive can be retrieved for later use in purchases.能保存储在硬盘上的加密钱包在有购买需求时随取随附,But the currencys worth is prone to wild gyrations.但其币值容易发生剧烈的波动。Massive Bitcoin heists, like the recent plunder of roughly 6% of outstanding Bitcoins from the Mt Gox exchange,Mt GOX交易所最近爆出其账户上约6%比特币失窃,reduce confidence in the currency.诸如此类的大量比特币失窃案大大降低了人们对比特币的信心。Bitcoin prices dropped by 30% against the dollar in February due in part to the Mt Gox news.比特币对美元的价格在二月份下跌30%,部分原因便是GOX公司的这则消息。In more bullish moments, interest has attracted speculators, sending values soaring—at least temporarily.在其牛市氛围中,巨额利益吸引了投机者,令他们推高比特币价格,至少暂时如此。Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss, twin brothers known mainly for their early quasi-interest in Facebook,因早期与脸书的恩怨而出名的卡梅伦和泰勒温克莱沃斯俩兄弟最近宣布,recently announced plans to launch a Bitcoin tracking fund,他们计划推出一个比特币追踪基金,to make it easier for amateur investors to take a punt on the technology.以使业余投资者更容易赌上一把。Volatile values could prevent Bitcoin from ever establishing itself as a medium of account.不稳定的价格可能妨碍比特币成为记账单位。Even the few retailers who accept Bitcoin use other currencies as their principal accounting unit.即使少数几个接受比特币的零售商也是在使用其他货币作为基本记账单位。Prices are given in a prominent currency and the Bitcoin price fluctuates automatically with changes in the crypto-moneys exchange rate.比特币的价格由主权货币给出,且随着加密货币的汇率变化自动波动。Similarly, most Bitcoin owners work in jobs with wages paid in traditional currencies.同样,大多数比特币持有者都是在用传统货币付工资的职位上工作。So long as Bitcoin buyers and sellers think in euros or dollars it will fall short of money status.只要比特币的买卖双方认同用欧元或美元来买卖比特币,比特币的货币地位会被削弱。And until Bitcoin values are less volatile relative to the currencies that now dominate real economies,除非比特币的价值趋于稳定,能与当前实体经济中的主导货币相媲美,users are unlikely to change their monetary frame of reference.否则使用者们不大可能改变他们的货币参考框架。That may be for the best, given another Bitcoin quirk.考虑到比特币的另一则警示,现在的情形可能算是最好的结果。The currencys money supply will eventually be capped at 21m units.比特币的最大货币供应量为2100万个。To Bitcoins libertarian disciples, that is a neat way to preclude the inflationary central-bank meddling to which most currencies are prone.对其自由主义的信徒们而言,这能巧妙地防止比特币如大多数货币般面临央行插手其中导致通胀。Yet modern central banks favour low but positive inflation for good reason.然而,出于某些理由,现代央行青睐于积极的低通胀。In the real world wages are sticky: firms find it difficult to cut their employees pay.现实世界中,企业很难降低其雇员的薪酬,A modicum of inflation greases the system by,工人的工资是刚性的,in effect, cutting the wages of workers whose pay cheques fail to keep pace with inflation.低通胀实际上削减了那些未能与通胀保持同步的工人们的工资,于整个体系有益。If the money supply grows too slowly, then prices fall and workers with sticky wages become more costly.如果货币供给增长过慢,价格会随之下降,工人的黏性工资成本变得更加昂贵,Unemployment tends to rise as a result.结果便是失业率趋于上升。If employed workers hoard cash in expectation of further price reductions, the downturn gathers momentum.如果雇用的工人预期价格下跌而囤积现金,经济衰退步伐将加快。Bitcoins money supply is still growing;比特币的货币供应量仍在增长,its miners are just over halfway to producing the total possible number.它的矿工们挖出的比特币刚刚超过其可能总量的一半。New coins will be minted until around 2030.新的比特币的铸造将到2030年前后达到峰值。Miners may then introduce transaction fees as compensation for their critical verification work.此后,矿工可能用交易费用作为其关键性认工作的补偿。More worryingly, deflation is aly a reality.更令人担忧的是,通货紧缩已经是个既成事实。Soaring demand for the currency is partly responsible for boosting its price.比特币价格高涨部分源于其需求飙升。But the knowledge that supply is ultimately finite is also a factor.但公众了解比特币的最终供给量有限也是原因之一。Digital fetters数字枷锁That other currencies remain the medium of account has so far been the Bitcoin economys saving grace.比特币经济至今仍然可取在于其他货币仍在充当记账单位。If Bitcoin matured into a complete currency, with large numbers of workers using it as their medium of account,如果比特币进化为完全意义上的货币,随着大批工人将其作为记账单位,then its inflexibility could bring economic havoc.它灵活性的缺乏可能导致经济灾难。Money-supply shocks, like the disappearance of Mt Gox, could set off a systemic collapse.就如Mt GOX消失之类的事件,货币供应遭到冲击,直接引发系统性崩溃。Given a loss of faith in exchanges, users might withdraw their coins in a panic, leading to a dangerous decline in transaction volume.在信任的交易所中受到损失,使用者可能出于恐慌撤回他们的比特币,致使交易量降至危险值。Such hoarding could threaten Bitcoins status as a medium of exchange, leading to its complete demise as a currency.这威胁到比特币作为交换媒介的地位,直接导致作为货币的比特币完全消亡。Reputable exchanges with large institutional holdings could help stem such panics by advertising a willingness to sell their Bitcoins to meet liquidity demand.大型机构持有的信誉良好的交易所向公众表示愿意出售比特币以满足流动性需求,有助于遏制这种恐慌。Yet because Bitcoin reserves are finite, users may not find the promise credible.然而,由于比特币的储量是有限的,使用者可能认为这种承诺不可信。By contrast, central banks with the inexhaustible resources of the printing press face no such inconvenient constraints.与此相反,央行的印钞机可是取之不尽、用之不竭,没有这般束手束脚。 /201403/280508

Egypt after the coup政变之后的埃及It isn’t over yet一切还未终结A week after the military coup that overthrew Egypt’s elected Islamist president, the country remains dangerously divided埃及发生军事政变,民选伊斯兰总统遭罢黜。一周之后,国家仍处于十分危急的分裂状态July 13th 20132013年7月13日THE words “civil war” pepper many a conversation in Cairo in the wake of the military coup on July 3rd that ousted Muhammad Morsi, a Muslim Brother, after only a year in power. On July 8th the prospect of all-out strife loomed larger after the security forces in Cairo shot dead at least 50 people who had been demanding Mr Morsi’s reinstatement.7月3日,埃及发生军事政变。穆斯林兄弟会的穆罕默德#8226;穆尔西(Muhammad Morsi)执政仅一年之久,便遭罢黜。自那以后,开罗的民众议论纷纷,“内战”这个字眼频频出现。6月8日,开罗的安全部队士兵至少开打死了50名要求恢复穆尔西职位的民众。形势愈加严峻,全面大战在即。Egyptian society remains bitterly divided between a core of Brotherhood backers, who feel cheated, and the millions of people, including secular-minded and liberal Egyptians and quite a lot of religious ones, who wanted Mr Morsi to go. Above all, Egyptians need to agree on a plan to move the country back to democracy. On July 8th the judge appointed by the army as an interim president unveiled a brisk timetable for bringing in a new constitution and for parliamentary and presidential elections. It is bound, at best, to be a bumpy ride.埃及社会仍是严重分裂,一边是穆兄会的核心持者,心中是上当受骗的感觉;另一边是数百万民众,其中不乏世俗自由派埃及人以及大批宗教人士,他们要的是穆尔西下台。最重要的是,埃及人需要确定一个统一方案,让国家重返民主之路。7月8日,由军方任命的临时总统——最高法院院长迅速公布了一份安排紧凑的时间表,确定了新宪法的颁布时间以及议会选举、总统大选时日。即便天时地利人和,这条路也注定坎坷。The opposition is still crowing over Mr Morsi’s demise. Voices calling for the vanquishing of “terrorists”, as the fiercer foes of the Muslim Brothers like to call them, seem louder than those calling for restraint and compromise. On the other side, Mr Morsi’s diehard disciples, fearing for their survival, refuse to consider anything less than his reinstatement, which the generals now in charge are sure to dismiss out of hand. Since July 3rd Mr Morsi’s people have continued to mass in districts of eastern Cairo, where their support is strongest, to protest against the overthrow of their democratically elected president.反对派至今还在为推翻穆尔西而沾沾自喜。要求消灭“恐怖分子”(这是更暴力的穆兄会反对派喜欢用的称呼)的人似乎比呼吁克制、折衷的人更多。而另一边,穆尔西的铁杆持者为了他们的存亡大计,要求穆尔西复职。若不满足这个最低条件,一切免谈。但目前的军方领导人肯定会当即拒绝。自7月3日起,穆尔西的持者就一直在开罗东部地区(他们的“大本营”)集会,抗议军方罢免他们民主选举的总统。The two sides also disagree over who was to blame for the shooting on July 8th outside the Republican Guard Club, where Mr Morsi was said to be held. The actions of the security forces seemed plainly disproportionate, at the least. The interim president, Adly Mansour, called for an inquiry without suggesting its terms, leaving the whiff of a would-be cover-up. The security forces have never hidden their hostility to the Brothers.双方存在分歧的还有一点:谁该为7月8日发生共和国卫队俱乐部(Republican Guard Club)外的击案负责。据传,穆尔西当时就软禁于此。无论如何,守卫士兵的行为看上去显然是过分了。临时总统阿兹利#8226;曼苏尔(Adly Mansour)下令调查此案,但他并没表达自己的立场(or 详细部署?),似乎有种想把案子压下去的意味。而安全部队从未掩饰过他们对穆兄会的敌意。In response the Brotherhood’s leaders called for an uprising against the army and its head, General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, who launched the coup. The public prosecutor then issued arrest warrants for the organisation’s leaders, including its supreme guide, charging them with incitement to violence. Several hundred Brothers, including Mr Morsi, are behind bars, raising the spectre of Egypt’s “deep state”, as the security establishment is known, making a comeback.作为回应,穆兄会的领导人号召民众起义,反对军方和发动政变的军方领导人——阿卜杜勒#8226;法塔赫#8226;西萨将军(General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi)。埃及检方随即对该组织领导(包括最高领导人在内)发出逮捕令,指控他们煽动暴乱。如今,包括穆尔西在内的几百名穆兄会成员锒铛入狱,恐惧的氛围已在酝酿,有着“暗深势力集团(deep state)”之名的国家安全部官员(穆巴拉克政权残余)似乎要卷土重来。Keen to bring back stability and to persuade people that he sincerely wants to cede power as soon as possible, General Sisi moved fast to prod Mr Mansour into setting a rapid return to democracy. Along with his speedy timetable, the interim president issued a set of articles to replace the suspended constitution until a new one is drawn up. He gave ten lawyers a month to amend the constitution, to be reviewed within two months by 50 civil-society figures and put to a national referendum a month later. All being well, parliamentary elections would be followed by a presidential one early in the new year.西撒将军迫切希望国家能恢复稳定,也急于让民众相信,自己是真心打算尽快交出权力,所以很快他便敦促曼苏尔制定了一套快速重返民主之路的方案。除了他那张日程紧张的时间表,临时总统还同时颁布了一系列条款。因之前宪法暂停,这些条款在新宪法出台前将充当临时宪法。根据他的安排,十名律师将花一个月修改宪法;在之后两个月内,50位民众代表将对宪法进行审核;一个月后,对新宪法公投。如果一切进展顺利,明年初将举行总统大选,随后选举议会。Mr Mansour also appointed Hazem al-Beblawi, a 77-year-old economist, as prime minister. Mohamed ElBaradei, a former head of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN’s nuclear watchdog, who is now a leader of the secular opposition, has been appointed deputy president during the transition. Mr Beblawi has embarked on negotiations to form a cabinet of technocrats, promising posts to members of the Brotherhood and of the Salafists’ Nour party.曼苏尔还任命77岁的经济学家——哈齐姆#8226;贝卜拉维(Hazem al-Beblawi)为总理。前国际原子能机构(联合国核监督机构)总干事穆罕穆德#8226;巴拉迪(Mohamed ElBaradei),如今作为世俗反对派领导人之一,被任命为过渡政府副总统。贝卜拉维为了组建一个由专家构成的内阁,已着手谈判。他承诺,将邀请穆兄会和萨斯特光明党(Salafists’ Nour)人士加入内阁。The Brothers have so far rejected Mr Mansour’s proposals in their entirety. Since their senior members have been rounded up and their television stations shut down, they are in no mood for compromise. “All the elections we won have been thrown into the rubbish bin and we have been excluded from the political process, so why would we accept this?” asks Abdullah al-Keryoni, a youth member of the Brotherhood, protesting outside Cairo’s Rabea al-Adawiya mosque.目前为止,穆兄会拒绝了曼苏尔的全部提议。自从他们的资深成员被捕、电视台遭关闭,穆兄会是没心情妥协的。“我们赢得的所有选举都遭人唾弃,政治议程也没我们参加的份儿,既然这样,我们凭什么要接受?“年轻的穆兄会成员阿布达拉哈#8226;阿克约尼(Abdullah al-Keryoni)在开罗拉比亚#8226; 阿达维亚(Rabea al-Adawiya)清真寺外抗议时问道。Meanwhile, the National Salvation Front, a grouping of liberal opposition parties under Mr ElBaradei’s co-chairmanship, said Mr Mansour had not consulted it before making his declaration and would suggest changes. Tamarod (Rebellion), the youth movement that led the protests to oust Mr Morsi, also criticised the sweeping powers reserved for Mr Mansour. And liberals nervously noted the reaffirmation in the interim president’s statement that sharia should be the basis of law, presumably as an inducement to bring the Islamists back into peaceful politics. The Nour party, which had distanced itself from the Brotherhood after the coup, also objected to the content of Mr Mansour’s proclamation.与此同时,由巴拉迪与他人共同领导的自由派反对党联盟“埃及救国阵线(National Salvation Front)”表示,曼苏尔在发布声明前并没征求他们的意见。联盟将针对该声明提交一些修改建议。发起抗议、罢黜穆尔西的新兴反叛组织塔马洛德(Tamarod),也谴责曼苏尔不应拥有这么大的权利。自由派人士则心有不安,他们注意到,临时总统在声明中再三强调法律应以伊斯兰教法为基础。这似乎会诱使伊斯兰主义者重新打破和平政治的局面。光明党自从政变起,就与穆兄会划清界限。而他们也反对曼苏尔声明中的规定。So further clashes are likely. Ahmed el-Tayeb, the grand imam of the al-Azhar mosque and rector of the university of the same name, who is by tradition the leading authority of Sunni Islam, has called for more serious efforts to reconcile the main camps and has warned that Egypt could be heading towards civil war. “The Muslim Brotherhood will adopt self-restraint as a strategy because they know violence allows their opponents to frame them as terrorists,” says Khalil Anani, an Egyptian expert in Islamist movements. “But they may not be able to rein in young members.” The killing of a Coptic priest and violence in Sinai suggest that other groups are keen to stir up trouble.所以,未来很可能会发生进一步冲突。爱兹哈尔(al-Azhar)清真寺的大伊玛目及同名大学校长(依照传统,他是逊尼派穆斯林的顶级权威人士)呼吁付出更多切实努力,与埃及的主要阵营和解。他们还警告说,埃及可能正向内战的方向发展。“穆兄会将把‘自制’作为一项战略,因为他们知道,诉诸暴力会被敌人冠上‘恐怖分子’之名,”伊斯兰运动的埃及专家卡哈里#8226;阿纳尼(Khalil Anani)说道,“但他们可能无法管束年轻成员。”西奈半岛(Sinai)发生暴力事件,一名科普特牧师被杀,看来有些组织是诚心滋扰生事。If the army can reimpose order on the streets with little more bloodshed and start meeting its promises to restore democracy, it will also have to set about rescuing the country’s shattered economy as a matter of extreme urgency. On July 9th Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the ed Arab Emirates, pleased to see Mr Morsi go, offered up to billion in cash, deposits and oil—more than the amount given to Mr Morsi by Qatar, his chief financier, during his year-long stint in power. Big business has broadly rallied to the new regime.如果军方能在尽量不杀戮的情况下再次迫使民间恢复有序状态,并着手兑现它许下的的承诺——恢复民主,那它也必须像处理头等紧急大事一样,开始拯救埃及离破碎的经济。穆尔西下台,科威特、沙特阿拉伯、阿联酋喜闻乐见。这三个国家于7月9日宣布,将为埃及提供价值120亿美元的现金、存款和石油。穆尔西在位的一年之中,埃及最大的投资国——卡塔尔都没有提供这么多资助。大型企业也普遍表示持新政权。But the generals, who performed dismally during their period as caretakers after Mr Mubarak’s fall two-and-a-half years ago, know that millions may come out onto the streets again if they do not move faster and more cleverly than they did before. As street demonstrations subside, Egyptians are holding their breath.但军方将领心里清楚,如果不能在之前的基础上加快步伐、更明智地决策,街道上就又会涌现无数抗议民众。两年半前穆巴拉克下台后,他们作为过渡期代理人,表现得就不尽人意。如今,街道已慢慢恢复平静,而埃及人正屏息以待。201307/248598

  

  May 26th 2012Barack Obama had a wobbly week. His re-election campaign’s attack on Mitt Romney’s time at Bain Capital came under fire from some Democrats for going too far in its criticisms of private equity. And in Democratic primary elections in Arkansas and Kentucky around 40% of the voters withheld their support for the president; some reckoned Republicans had crossed party lines to cause mischief.巴拉克#8226;奥巴马度过了忐忑的一周。他的连任竞选团队针对米特#8226;罗姆尼在执掌贝恩资本期间的攻击,遭到了一些民主党内人士的谴责,认为对私募股权的批评太过分了。同时,在阿肯色州个肯塔基州进行的民主党内初选中,大约40%的投票者没有持奥巴马。一些人认为共和党已经跨越了党派界限,造成了民主党内的不和。Officials in Argentina said they found a bomb hidden in a theatre in Buenos Aires where Aacute;lvaro Uribe, Colombia’s former president, was due to speak. Mr Uribe is campaigning against a constitutional amendment that might exempt Colombia’s guerrilla leaders from prosecution if they make peace.阿根廷官员表示,他们发现了一枚藏在布宜诺斯艾利斯一个剧院内的炸弹。而这个剧院正是哥伦比亚前总统乌里韦将要发表演说的地方。乌里韦正在组织一个反对宪法修正案的活动。如果该修正案通过,哥伦比亚的游击队领导人在同意和解的条件下,便可能逃脱起诉。Spain’s Repsol said that an exploratory well in deep water off Cuba was dry, dashing the island’s hopes of reducing its dependence on imported oil.西班牙雷普索尔能源称,在古巴附近海域深海区的一口勘探井是干的,这打破了古巴对减少对进口石油依赖的期望。In another attempt to inject life into Brazil’s stagnant economy, the government announced a fresh round of tax cuts, this time on car sales and some financial transactions.巴西政府在为向巴西滞怠的经济注入新鲜血液的又一次尝试中,宣布了新一轮的减税政策。这次减税对象为汽车销售和一些金融流通税。In a presidential election in the Dominican Republic Danilo Medina, the candidate of the ruling party, won a narrow victory. The parties complained of vote-buying but international observers said this did not affect the result.多米尼加共和国总统选举中,执政党候选人麦迪纳险胜,当选为总统。各党派纷纷抱怨说选举中有买选票的作弊行为,但是国家观察员表示这并不影响选举结果。Russia’s president, Vladimir Putin, unveiled a government dominated by loyalists, tightening his grip on the economy and national security after popular protests. The new government is likely to curtail the ability of Dmitry Medvedev, the prime minister, to pursue market reforms.俄罗斯总统普金揭开了一个由一群忠实拥护者统治的政府。继一系列的反对之后,他抓紧了经济和国家安全建设。新政府可能削弱总理梅德韦杰夫推行市场改革的力度。Serbia’s presidential election was won by Tomislav Nikolic, who beat Boris Tadic, the liberal incumbent, by two percentage points. Mr Nikolic used to be an extreme nationalist but has changed his tune, vowing to promote integration with the European Union and promising to be a good neighbour in the Balkans.叙利亚总统选举中,托米斯拉夫#8226;尼克利奇击败了自由党现任总统鲍里斯#8226;塔迪奇,以两个百分点的优势赢得了大选。尼克哩利奇过去式一名极端的民族主义者,但是后来转而发誓要促进欧盟一体化,并承诺要成为巴尔干半岛的好邻居。European Union leaders attended yet another summit in Brussels aimed at solving the euro-zone’s sovereign-debt crisis. At the earlier G8 summit at Camp David, in Maryland, Germany came under pressure to do more for jobs and growth, though the communiqué also concluded that “the right measures are not the same for each of us.”欧盟领导人在布鲁塞尔又出席了一次峰会,旨在解决欧元区的主权债务危机。之前在马里兰州戴维营召开的八国峰会上,德国迫于压力,要努力增加就业,促进增长,虽然公报中也说;“对我们每个国家要采取的正确措施不尽相同。”Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, a Libyan convicted of the 1988 bombing of a Pan Am flight over Lockerbie in Scotland, died from cancer. Mr Megrahi was released from prison by the Scottish government on compassionate grounds in , which outraged many relatives of the 270 people killed in the atrocity. He always claimed to be innocent.1988年苏格兰洛克比小镇上空泛美航空航班爆炸事件制造者利比亚人迈格拉希死于癌症。年,苏格兰政府出于同情从监狱释放了麦格拉希,激起了那场暴行中270名死难者亲属的愤怒。他也一直坚持称自己无罪。A Pakistani doctor who helped the CIA track down Osama bin Laden was found guilty of treason under laws that govern the country’s tribal areas. Shakil Afridi, who carried out fake vaccinations near bin Laden’s compound so that he could gather DNA evidence on his family, was sentenced to 30 years in prison.根据巴基斯坦部落地区法律,帮助中央情报局追踪本拉登的阿夫里迪被告犯有叛国罪,被判刑30年。阿夫里迪是一名巴基斯坦医生,他当时在本拉登住所附近,假借推广疫苗项目采集本拉登家人的DNA样本。In Malaysia Anwar Ibrahim, the leader of an opposition party and thorn to the government, was charged with inciting and participating in an illegal street protest on April 28th. Coming just four months after he was acquitted of sodomy (which is still illegal in Malaysia), Mr Anwar said the new charges were also politically motivated.马来西亚反对党领袖,政府的眼中钉安华被告,于4月28日,煽动并参加非法街头抗议。就在四个月前,他案无罪释放(在马来西亚也是非法的)。安华称新的指控也是出于政治动机。Fitch downgraded Japan’s sovereign-debt rating to A+, as its politicians squabbled about passing a rise in the sales tax. Japan’s public debt is forecast to rise to 239% of GDP by the end of 2012.惠誉国际评级将日本的主权债务降级为A+,因为日本的政客针对是否要上调营业税发生了争执。预计到2012年底,日本国债将上升为其国内生产总值的239%Fifteen months after the fall of Hosni Mubarak, Egyptians voted in their first free presidential election on May 23rd and 24th, with no opinion poll confidently predicting a winner among the three or four front-runners. But nearly all reckoned there would be a run-off, due a month later.5月23日和24日,埃及民众在穆巴拉克倒台十五个月后,第一次自由地选举他们的总统。没有任何一个民意调查可以有把握地预测三四个领先者中谁将胜出。但是,几乎所有人都认为一个月后将会有一场决定性竞选。Representatives of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany began a fresh round of talks with Iran over its nuclear plans, this time in Baghdad, hoping to persuade its government to agree to stop enriching its uranium to the high grade that would enable it to make a bomb.联合国安理会五大常任理事国和德国的代表们,在巴格达,就伊朗核计划开始了新一轮的会谈。旨在劝说伊朗政府同意停止其浓缩铀项目。该项目旨在将铀浓缩到可以制造核弹的程度。At least 100 people were killed by a suicide-bomber at a military parade in Yemen’s capital, Sana’a. A group allied to al-Qaeda claimed to have carried out the attack ten days after Yemen’s army launched an offensive against jihadists in the southern province of Abyan. See article也门首都萨那举行的阅兵过程中发生自杀式爆炸袭击事件,造成至少100人死亡。一个同基地组织有关联的小组称发动了这起袭击案。此事故发生十天前,也门军队向驻南方省份阿比安的圣战战士发动了袭击。Eleven Lebanese Shia pilgrims were kidnapped in Syria. The Free Syrian Army, a group of rebel fighters, said that government forces, hoping to besmirch the opposition, were responsible. As a result, protests erupted in the Lebanese capital, Beirut, where people are divided over the uprising in Syria.在叙利亚有十一名黎巴嫩什叶派朝圣者遭绑架。反叛者组成的自由叙利亚军队称,该绑架案是政府军队所为,政府军队欲将罪名嫁祸给反对派。绑架还引发了黎巴嫩首都贝鲁特的抗议。在贝鲁特民众对叙利亚的起义意见存在分歧。Supporters of Mali’s coup leader named him to head a new interim government in defiance of a deal brokered by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), a regional body that has been trying to mediate. The announcement provoked protests in Mali’s capital, Bamako. Mali’s interim president was beaten up by a mob.马里政变领袖的持者们将他推举为新临时政府的领导人,这是对区域组织西非国家经济共同体ECOWAS达成的协议的公然违抗。ECOWAS一直在努力调停。声明引发了马里首都巴马科的抗议,临时政府总统遭到了暴民的痛打。Guinea-Bissau’s military junta handed power back to a civilian government six weeks after the army staged a coup.六周前发动了政变的几内亚比绍的军事执政团将权利归还给了平民政府。A South African farm worker was found guilty of killing Eugène Terre’Blanche, the leader of a white-supremacist party, the Afrikaner Resistance Movement, who was beaten to death in his home in 2010.南非白人至上运动,白人至上党领袖尤金#8226;特雷布兰奇于2010年在家被打致死。查明凶手是一名南非农场工人。A debate over freedom of expression raged in South Africa over a gallery’s display of a painting of Jacob Zuma, the president, with his genitals exposed. The ruling African National Congress said the painting was disrespectful and sought legal action to have the artwork removed.南非的一个美术展览馆展出的一幅总统雅各布#8226;祖玛的画像激起了一场有关言论自由的争辩。画像中雅各布#8226;祖玛的生殖器无遮掩地暴露着。执政的非洲人国民大会称,这幅画太过失礼,并将采取法律手段将其撤除。201307/247383。

  

  Anyone who has vacationed in the higher elevations of Colorado, such as Vail and Estes Park, will tell you altitude sickness can be a real problem.任何在科罗拉多的高海拔地区如韦尔和洛杉矶国家公园等旅游胜地度过假的人都会告诉你,高原反应真的是要命的问题。Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, and difficulty sleeping can plague those visiting areas over eight thousand feet.食欲不振,恶心,呕吐,身体虚弱,头晕,入睡困难等症状可能折磨那些在海拔超过8000英尺区域旅游的人们。Altitude sickness results from the lack of oxygen at high elevations.由于海拔较高而缺氧造成高原反应。At thirteen thousand feet, every lungful of air holds only sixty percent of what it would at sea level.在13000英尺高的地方,肺仅能容纳海平面高度时60%的空气。Despite that fact, many indigenous people live in areas of low oxygen concentration with few adverse effects.尽管如此,许多在低氧地区的原居民很少有不良反应。The big question is, how do they survive?那么值得我们思考的是,他们是怎样存活的呢?The body can adapt to low oxygen levels by making more hemoglobin, an oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells.在氧气稀薄的情况下,身体能够产生一种适应环境的血红蛋白,这种血红蛋白即是红细胞的氧气载体。But too much hemoglobin over a long period of time can put a person at risk of blood clots, stroke, or chronic mountain sickness.但是太多的血红蛋白长时间存在可能导致人体产生血液凝块,患上中风或者患慢性高原病。Scientists wondered how mountain people can remain healthy living at high altitudes.科学家想知道在高原生活的人们怎样维持健康。To see if genes contribute, scientists analyzed the genomes of three ethnic groups living at altitudes over twelve thousand feet, two from Ethiopia, and Tibetans.科学家们为了实基因是否有关,他们对3组生活在超过12000 英尺区域种族群体做了染色体分析,其中有两组人来自埃塞俄比亚,另外一组来自西藏。One Ethiopian group, the Oromo, cope the same way lowlanders do, by making more hemoglobin.其中一组的埃塞俄比亚奥罗莫人与其他地方人一样,他们的身体产生更多的血红蛋白抵抗低氧环境。The Amhara and Tibetans, on the other hand, have hemoglobin levels ten percent lower than the Oromo.阿姆哈拉人和西藏人的血红蛋白含量比奥罗莫人低10%左右。Does genetic variation account for this?是基因变异导致这种情况吗?Scientists found that both the Amhara and Tibetan highlanders possessed genetic variants associated with low hemoglobin levels.科学家发现阿姆哈拉人和西藏人都有基因变异以维持低血红蛋白水平。But they were not the same genes.但是他们的基因却不同。It appears that each group took a different evolutionary path to achieve the same outcome of dampening the usual response of increased hemoglobin.看起来他们走了不同的进化历程,却达到了相同的结果,那就是抑制人体在患高空症时血红蛋白的增长。How about all those vacationers in Colorado?在科罗拉多度假的人们怎么办呢?They will have to make do with their own lowland genes, for now.目前只能用他们的低地基因来勉强应付了。 /201309/258034Computers are great tools, but they can also be mystifying.计算机是伟大的工具,但有时这个人类的好帮手也叫人无可奈何。Sometimes a program will just stop working correctly for no apparent reason.有时一个程序没有任何明显原因就会停止正常工作。It could just be a random glitch that can be solved by restarting the machine.这可能只是一个随机故障,可以通过“重启”秘籍解决。But sometimes the solution is not so simple,但有时并解决方法非如此简单明了,especially if at the root of the problem lurks a computer virus. 特别是如果问题的根源是计算机病毒在背后捣鬼。A computer virus is a bit of programming code that gets passed from machine to machine by e-mail or the sharing of programs.计算机病毒是一种通过电子邮件或分享程序在机器之间传递的编程代码。Like a biological virus, on its own a computer virus cant do anything.就像生物病毒一样,在自己的电脑病毒并无用武之地。But once it gets attached to something else, say a document or image attached to an e-mail message, it can wreak havoc.但一旦它附加到别的东西,比如一个文档或图片附加进电子邮件消息,就可以造成严重破坏。Once you open the infected object, two things can happen.一旦你打开感染对象, 会发生两件事情。The virus will reproduce itself to infect other documents and may damage the overall functioning of your computer.这种病毒会复制自己感染其他文件,可能会损害您的计算机的整体功能。Depending on the type of virus, it can simply clog up memory or, even worse, erase data.根据不同类型的病毒,它可以简单地堵塞内存,或者更糟糕的清楚数据。If your computer is connected to the internet, viruses called worms may infect your machine, then use its connection to seek out and infect other computers.如果您的计算机连接到因特网,一种蠕虫病毒会感染你的机器,然后利用它的连接去寻找和感染其他电脑。Unlike natural viruses, computer viruses are created by people and unleashed with the intent of doing mischief or harm.与天然病毒不同的是,计算机病毒是由人类创造并以恶作剧或伤害为意图发布。If you find that your computer has been infected, run a virus detection program to find the virus and destroy it.如果你发现自己的爱机已经被感染了,运行一个病毒检测程序来找到病毒并摧毁它。The best way to protect your computer is to install virus protection software thats always alert and looking out for harmful intruders.保护你的计算机最好的方式就是安装防病毒软件,以便总是警钟长鸣并且寻找有害的入侵者。Plus, never download a program from iffy Websites or open unsolicited e-mail attachments.另外,从不在可疑的网站或开放的不请自来的电子邮件附件中下载一个程序。They may be harmless, but you never know when a virus might be attached and y to pounce.它们可能是无害的,但是你永远不知道何时病毒会找上身并且随时准备抓住机会。 201311/263850

  Deleveraging in America美国“去杠杆化”进程Debt calm债务削减Consumers are borrowing again, but the economy has been slow to respond虽然消费者们再次把手伸向了“信用卡”,但经济增长的回应却很慢ECONOMISTS trying to explain the feeble pace of Americas recovery regularly blame deleveraging: the multi-year process of paying off the debts accumulated before the crisis. Yet for households, at any rate, deleveraging has stopped. Mortgage debt bottomed out in the middle of last year and is now rising again. Student and car loans are rising briskly. Only home-equity and consumer loans continue to shrivel. In absolute terms, household debt is rising again (see chart). Relative to household income, it peaked at 135% in 2007, fell to 109% at the end of 2012, and has roughly stabilised around that level.那些想要解释美国经济复苏进程放缓的经济学家们,一如既往地表示该问题的罪魁祸首乃“去杠杆化”一个长年以来的过程,以偿还经济危机发生之前所积累的债务。然而对于普通民众来说,无论从何种角度来看,“去杠杆化”已成过去。抵押信贷规模在去年中期触底反弹,而今年则再次呈现出增长的态势。学生贷款和车辆贷款量迅速上升。而只有房屋抵押贷款和消费信贷仍保持“萎靡不振”。如果按绝对量来计算,美国家庭信贷负担再次处于上升阶段。相对于家庭收入水平而言,2007年上述绝对量的指标为现有的135%,而到了2012年末则跌至现有的109%,并随即粗略地稳定在该水平。Banks, after years spent rebuilding capital and appeasing regulators, are ramping up lending. Total bank credit grew at a 7.5% annual rate in the second quarter, the fastest since 2007, with growth in most categories of loans. “There are lots of people out there, lots of banks out there with a lot of liquidity, competing for loans,” the chief financial officer of Wells Fargo, one of the countrys biggest lenders, recently told analysts. Competition to lend to car buyers has become so fierce that the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, a regulator, has warned of deteriorating standards, with loans routinely exceeding 100% of the cars value.多年来,一直都在重新积累资本,都在对市场监管者进行安抚工作,而现在则开始扩大自己的信贷业务规模。在本年第二个季度里,总放贷量录得7.5%的提升,且大部分资金级别的贷款业务均得到了增长,而这是自2007年以来的单季最高增长速度。富国的CFO近日向分析师透露:“现在不仅有着大量需要贷款的人,同时也有大批具有充足流动性并且能够提供贷款的存在,后者要通过竞争来抢夺客户。”目前,汽车贷款市场的竞争已经十分激烈,作为监管者的美国货币监理署正警告着信贷机构,要他们留意日益下降的放贷审核标准,因为汽车贷款的规模已经一如既往地突破了车辆销售总额。That borrowing is on the rise again should come as no surprise. Two studies, one by two economists, Carmen and Vincent Reinhart, and one by the McKinsey Global Institute, a think-tank within a consultancy, both found that prior episodes of post-crisis deleveraging lasted six to seven years on average—just like the present one.信贷总量的再次攀升并不应该让人感到惊讶。一份由两位经济学家Carmen和Vincent Reinhart完成的报告,以及另一份由麦肯锡公司内部的智库麦肯锡全球研究所所完成的报告,两份资料都发现了在上一次的“后经济危机时期”当中,“去杠杆化”的债务削减总体来说持续了六到七年,正如此次经济危机所发生的一样。In theory, deleveraging should end when debts are at a sustainable level, but that is difficult to measure. A recent working paper by three economists at the European Central Bank points out that the debt consumers can bear varies with interest rates, house prices, the rate of home-ownership, the share of the population aged 35-54, the deposit first-time house-buyers are required to make and the foreclosure rate. American debt exceeded the “equilibrium” level by some 25% of household income at the start of the recovery. Since then an improvement in many of these variables has raised the equilibrium even as debt has fallen, bringing the two into line.理论上来说,债务削减应该在负担的债务本身能够持续周转为基准,在该标准下停止进行,但这是很难衡量的一件事。一份由三位欧洲中央的经济学家所完成的工作报告中指出,消费者们能够负担的债务各自不同,而影响该结果的因素包含了利率、房屋价格、住房拥有率、35岁至54岁人口的比例、购房首期款的付率和房屋赎回率等等。美国人们的债务规模超过了“均衡”收入水平,在经济复苏的初期负债总量超过了全国人民总收入的25%。从那时开始,上述影响信贷的因素都在逐渐向好的一面发展,而随着债务水平的下降,收入与贷款的平衡也开始逐渐恢复。The end of deleveraging has not stoked the economy as much as many hoped. In the first quarter of the year the economy shrank by 2.1% on an annualised basis. But there may just be a lag: growth is the second quarter was a much perkier 4%. Goldman Sachs projects that debt will rise faster than income over the next few years, keeping growth above 3%.信贷削减的终结并没有像许多人所期待的那样给经济体打下强心针。在本年的第一季度里,经济总量下降的幅度约为年化2.1%。但这也许只是发生了滞后的现象:第二季度的经济增长态势比前面一个季度要好得多,达到了4%。高盛集团(Goldman Sachs)预计债务总量将会在未来几年里取得比收入增长更高的增速,将保持在3%以上。However, Richard Dobbs of McKinsey points out that although consumers are no longer cutting back, the public sector is only just beginning to tighten its belt and businesses never stopped adding to their debts. He reckons overall deleveraging, including firms and government, could go on for another four or five years.然而,麦肯锡公司的Richard Dobbs表示,虽然消费者们不再省吃俭用地过日子,但社会公共部门的财政紧缩计划只是刚开始,而企业们也不会停止增加自身的负债。他认为,包括公司和政府在内的机构,都会在未来的四年或者五年内保持“去杠杠化”的状态。 /201408/318728

  

  Dear Annie: My unmarried 30-year-old daughter has a drinking and behavioral problem that has escalated over the past year. 亲爱Annie:我还未婚的30岁女儿养成了饮酒的坏习惯,这么多年都没有得到改善。We have encouraged Terrie to get alcohol counseling or attend A.A. 我们鼓励过Terrie去戒毒所或参加戒酒互助会。She tried it once and quit. I believe she is bipolar, but mental health counselors will not treat her until she quits drinking. 她曾经尝试过,但还是放弃了。我觉得她处于两个极端,但是心理健康咨询师说直到她把酒瘾戒掉才能给她心理上的治疗。After her last outburst, I sent her a text message and said we could no longer have a relationship unless she gets help. 在她上次发病后,我写给她一张便条,上面写着除非她接受治疗,要不我们就断绝关系。Shortly after, she left town and moved to Florida with a friend who also drinks. 不久后,她离开了,和一个同样酗酒的朋友搬去了佛罗里达州.Should I keep the lines of communication open, or will my ultimatum help her reach bottom so she can start climbing back up? 我应该与她保持沟通,或者再最后忍耐一下,也许这样她就可以回来了?I tried Al-Anon, but the members only offer support and friendship to each other, which is nice, but it doesnt change my daughter. 我去过匿名戒酒者协会,但那儿的成员都是彼此提供持与帮助,那儿很好,不过却没能改变我女儿。— Concerned Mom Dear Concerned: Al-Anon is not intended to change the alcoholics behavior, only your response to it. 一位母亲提到:匿名戒酒者协会不是在有意改变酗酒者的行为,而要改变你们的反应。Choosing not to stay in touch would be for your mental health, not hers. 选择不去交流,可能对你的精神健康有益,而不对她有益。No one can ;fix; Terrie until she admits she has a problem, and she doesnt seem y. 没人能修正Terrie的人生,除非她能正视自己的问题,而且现在看来,她好像还没有准备好。Many who are bipolar self-medicate with alcohol and drugs, and there are treatment programs that address both disorders. 世界上有很多极端地使用酒精或毒品的人,而且现在也有许多针对这两种神经错乱的治疗方案。If Terrie wants help, she should contact a university medical center department of psychiatry for a referral. 如果Terrie需要帮助,我建议她联系大学医疗中心的心理科。201307/248935。

  

  Americas hospital industry美国医疗行业Taking a scalpel to costs对医疗费用动动刀Hospital operators brace themselves for health-care reform医院负责人正为医保制度改革做准备EARLIER this month Americas hospital bosses gathered in Washington, DC, with vice-president Joseph Biden.本月早些时候,美国医院的领导者们和副总统Joseph Biden齐聚华盛顿。To the amazement of many, they vowed to accept a cut of 5 billion in their expected revenues over the next decade as part of a grand bargain on health-care reform.令人感到惊奇的是,他们郑重同意在接下来的十年将预期收益削减1550亿美元,作为医疗保健改革已取得的巨大成效中的一部分。How can they justify giving away such a vast sum?他们为什么会同意放弃这么大一笔收益?There are several explanations, not all of them altruistic.对此有很多种解释,他们的动机也不全出于利他。Taken together, they show that the industrys leaders are bracing themselves for a period of upheaval.总之,他们已经显示出整个行业的领导人正积极应对未来行业的大变动。For hospitals, the positive thing about health-care reform is that it is going to be good for business.对医院来说,医保改革带来的好处是它对商业有利。It will be welcome news to an industry that is hardly in rude health.改革对于一个不太健康的行业来说总是好事。Despite two decades of consolidation, hospitals finances remain anaemic; over a quarter of them regularly post negative operating margins.诚然,医保行业走过了二十年的稳固期,但是医院的财经状况仍旧不景气,超过四分之一的医院存在周期性亏损。The recession is making things worse.而且现在的经济危机更是加剧了形势恶化。Moodys, a credit-rating agency, notes that many patients are putting off non-essential treatments.信贷评级机构Moodys注意到很多患者正在推迟一些非必须的治疗。So any reforms that promise a flood of new demand for health services should be welcome.因此任何可以使得医疗务的需求大幅增长的改革承诺都应该是大受欢迎的。Rich Umbdenstock, the head of the American Hospital Association and one of the bosses who shared the stage with Mr Biden,作为美国医院协会会长的Rich Umbdenstock和与副总统Biden先生见面会谈的领导人之一,acknowledges that extending health insurance to most of Americas nearly 50m uninsured will benefit his industry in the long term.承认从长远看来,为没有享受医保的五千万美国人提供保险将会使整个行业受益。Those unfortunates still turn up at emergency rooms and often do not pay their bills.这些没有医保的人们经常出现在急诊室里而且无力付医药单。The government gives hospitals some money to compensate them for this, but the AHA says it does not cover the full cost,对此,政府会给医院发放一定数额的资金以作弥补,但是美国医院协会表示,这些金额不足以付资金缺口。which it put at billion in 2007, up from .9 billion in 1980.这些缺口已经从1980年的39亿上升到2007年的340亿,Paul Mango of McKinsey, a consultancy, estimates that the hospitals recover only 10-12% of this cost.大约占医院每年财政收入的5%。来自咨询公司麦肯锡公司的Paul Mango估计,医院大概只能收回这些资金的10-12%,But he says the problem would be greatly reduced under a system of universal health-insurance which included subsidies for the indigent, as the proposed health reforms envisage.但他也说,如果可以建立一个大部分人都享受医保并且贫困人口得到补助的体制,这些资金缺口就可以被大大减少,而这种体制正是当前的医疗改革尝试建立的。Herbert Pardes, chief executive of New York-Presbyterian, a research hospital, says the large numbers of underinsured patients, who frequently fail to pay their bills in full, cost hospitals still more.Herbert Parades是纽约一家研究型医院Presbyterian的总裁,他说,很多保额不足的病人不能全额付他们的医疗花费,这仍旧给医院带来越来越大的负担。The huge sums the hospitals stand to gain from reducing such losses make even 5 billion over ten years look like a reasonable amount of money to sacrifice to secure such a bonanza.如果医院在未来十年可以通过削减这种损失而获得1550亿的利润,那么这样的暂时性损失也是合理的。But there are less virtuous reasons why the hospitals offered such a generous-sounding deal.但是人们不知道医院愿意放弃这样一笔利润的背后仍有很多不太高尚的原因。As Mr Umbdenstock notes, it was less painful than the 5 billion or more in cuts that Barack Obama had been pressing for earlier in the year.正如Umbdenstock先生所说,相比奥巴马总统今年早些时候敦促的2250亿甚至更多的财政削减计划,现行的削方案就没有那么痛苦了。This is a tacit acknowledgment that hospital chiefs were seeking to avert the one thing that strikes fear into their hearts: the sp of price controls.医院负责人们早已心照不宣地承认,他们通过这样的变通,正在努力避免物价被控制,这正是会令他们惊恐不安的事情。Because of the creeping expansion of Medicare and Medicaid, the publicly funded health-care schemes for the elderly and the poor,在美国,为老年病人和残疾病人的国家医疗照顾体制正在慢慢向更多的公民扩展,the government aly pays over half the bills at the average American hospital.正因为如此,平均下来政府已经为每家医院付了超过半数的医疗费。But the political left is clamouring for a government-run insurance plan, to compete with private ones, as part of any reform effort.但是政治左派却在改革之中叫嚣一个政府操作的保险计划,以此来和私人运营计划相抗衡。The problem, argues Toby Cosgrove, chief executive of the Cleveland Clinic, a hospital group, is that the existing public schemes routinely underpay hospitals for care.Toby Gosgrove是,一个名为Cleveland Clinic的理疗团体总裁,他说,这样做的问题在于,现行的医保体制总是使得医院获得不足额的补助。Some economists question that claim.一些经济学家对此持怀疑态度。Even so, it is probably right to suggest,尽管如此,正如Cosgrove医生所建议的,as Dr Cosgrove does, that any public insurance plan based on Medicares pricing would squeeze hospitals hard and, as a result, require private insurers to cross-subsidise the bill.依照目前国家医疗照顾体制的集款方式所运营的任何公共保险计划都会使医院出现资金困难,结果仍旧需要投保个人来买单。In addition to a determination to head off any moves towards greater government control over prices,采取此项改革的一个重要原因是医院领导人们下定决心阻止政府对医药价格的进一步控制,another even less noble reason for offering the price cut was a desire to thwart a proposed change to the tax status of non-profit hospitals, which make up most of the national total of 5,700 or so.相比而言另一个不怎么高尚的原因则是领导者们试图通过减少削减开来抵制改变非营利性医院税收政策的提案,非营利性医院在全美有5700家之多。On the ground that they provide charitable care, many religious and community hospitals have been granted an exemption allowing them to issue tax-free bonds,由于很多宗教和社区医院提供慈善性的救助,他们都享有税收优惠的政策,可以发放免税券,免收财产和收入税收等等。avoid taxes on property and income, and so on. But investigations by the Internal Revenue Service and others have revealed that many in fact provide very little charitable care, while paying enormous salaries or going on acquisition sprees.但是美国国内收入署和其他一些机关的调查表明,有些医院提供很少的慈善性救助,他们所做的无非是领取高额工资,无节制地享受收益。On this proposal, the industry may carry the day.在这样的提案下,整个行业的反对可能会占上风。Although the tax break is hard to defend, closing the loophole would lead to many small, weak hospitals shutting down—something voters would be unlikely to tolerate.尽管人们很难为税务减免而辩护,结束这样的漏洞可能会导致很多小型医院的倒闭,这正是选民们不能容忍的事情。Even those hospitals that survived might spark a backlash.甚至那些得以幸存的医院也会引发人们强烈的反对。Dr Pardes argues that abolishing the tax advantages would mean higher running costs that would inevitably be passed through to those patients who have private insurance.Parades医生说废除税收优惠政策即意味着更高的运作成本,这无疑将给那些拥有个人医疗保险的病人施加经济负担。The other great fear of hospital bosses is being forced to accept greater competition.医院负责人们的另一个隐忧是被迫进入激烈的行业竞争。Although the industry is fragmented, Jon Scholl of the Boston Consulting Group points out that because pricing is done at city or regional level, there are local pockets of power.波士顿咨询集团的Jon Scholl指出,现在的医疗行业处于离破碎的状态,由于定价的过程是在某一城市或地区范围之内完成的,本地权利口袋影响定价的行为是存在的。Alain Enthoven, an economist at Stanford Universitys business school who helped inspire the managed health care movement of the 1990s, promoted an approach that succeeded in squeezing costs at the time,Alain Enthoven是来自斯坦福大学商学院的经济学家,他曾经在二十世纪90年代推动管理医保运动的开展。but ultimately failed as patients rebelled against the restrictions it placed on their choice of doctors and treatments.当时他推行的改革方案在削减成本方面颇有成效,但因为病患不满他们失去了选择医生和疗法的自由而抗议,这项改革以失败告终。Mr Enthoven argues that the consolidation that followed managed care has resulted in too little competition.Enthoven先生认为,改革失败后的相对稳固导致了今日几无竞争存在的行业格局。Antitrust action in the hospital field has been woefully weak, he says.他说:反垄断在医疗行业只是一句可悲的空话。There are some innovative competitors emerging to challenge hospitals.当然还是有一些富有创新精神愿意挑战垄断的竞争者出现。Paul Keckley of Deloitte, a consultancy, estimates that there are over 1,000 retail health clinics operating today at Wal-Mart stores,Deloitte咨询公司的Paul Keckley估计,在沃尔玛店铺,Walgreen药店还有其他的一些便利商店,总共有超过1000家药品零售诊所存在。Walgreens pharmacies and other convenient locations, and their numbers are expected to multiply in the next few years.在今后几年,这些零售诊所的数量有可能翻倍。Some of these cheap and cheerful outfits are staffed by nurse practitioners, which incenses doctors and hospital bosses.一些有医师资格的护士在这里工作,他们的工资水平比医师低很多,这让医生和医院负责人们很是恼怒。The nascent boom in medical tourism could also disrupt the hospital business,但医疗旅游近期的初步兴起还是困扰医疗行业的一个原因。even if every hip-replacement patient does not actually go to India to get it done.尽管不是每一个需要做髋关节置换手术的病人都选择去印度治疗,Mr Keckley points out that in several parts of the country the mere introduction of insurance plans offering cheap surgery abroad has forced local hospitals to respond by slashing their prices—something unheard of in this industry.Keckley先生指出,在美国的一些地方,出现了一些提供便宜海外手术的医疗保险计划,这就使得当地医院不得不采取减价策略,但事实上,减价在医疗行业是前所未闻的事情。Mr Enthoven argues that if reforms are done properly, they would force hospitals to get organised to compete and get more efficient.Enthoven先生说,如果改革可以成功实施,那么这将促使医院组织性更强的去参与行业竞争,而且将使整个行业提高效率。Alas, the omens are not good.但是,目前的预兆不太好。One of the explicit concessions wrung by the hospital bosses from the White House was a promise to crack down on clinics owned by doctors.医院负责人们与政府方面协商出的一个明确让步就是打击私人医生开设的诊所。These outfits are guilty of anti-competitive self-dealing, since the doctor has a financial motive to refer cases to his own firm,因为医生们出于经济动机可能会向自己的私人诊所推荐病例,这些小诊所违反了反竞争的自利交易原则,but what hospital bosses were really concerned about was that such clinics are competing hard with them, and siphoning off the most profitable patients.但事实上医院负责人们真正担心的问题是这些小诊所正与大医院激烈的竞争,大医院可能因此失掉那些可以让他们赚大钱的病例。As this back-room deal illustrates, the strongest motives behind the hospitals ostensibly generous price cut were self-serving ones: to reduce competition, not boost it,正如这个密室协议所明的,在医院表面慷慨削减开的背后,最真实的动机却是自我获利:and to head off any increase in government influence over their prices.非但不促进,反而减少竞争,并竭力避免任何可能出现的政府对价格的管制。As health-care reform forges ahead, reformers are desperate to find cost savings and the hospital industry is a juicy target.医保改革就在眼前,改革者们将会失望的发现医疗行业减少开的目标很难实现。So its bosses felt they had to cut a deal.所以行业负责人们觉得他们必须做笔交易。As Julius Hobson of Bryan Cave, a veteran health lobbyist, puts it: If youre not at the table, then youre on the .Julius Hobson,是Bryan Cave公司的一个老兵健康游说者,现在的情形正如他所说:如果你不愿意主动出击,那你就等着被人利用吧。 /201304/237221

  Last time we talked about the false belief that evolutionary theory says human beings descended from monkeys.上次我们谈论到了关于人类进化论的错误观念:人类是猴子演变而来的。In fact, evolution says that both human beings and monkeys descended from a common ancestor that existed about thirty million years ago.其实,进化论阐述的是人类和猴子都是同一个祖先的后裔。而这个祖先存在于三千万年前。Across time, species can give rise to otherspecies, which can in turn give rise to others.斗转星移,物种会产生其他的物种,这样依次发展又会产生别的不同物种。So, while its not true that human beings evolved from monkeys, if you stretch your thinking youcan see how monkeys can be considered relatives of ours.因此,尽管人类从猴子演变而来不是真的,但如果你发散思维,就会明白为什么会说猴子是我们的近亲。After all, I call someone my cousin if she and I have a common ancestor.终究,我把和我有共同祖先的人叫做表兄。If we could keep recordsacross millions of years, we might want to count monkeys and apes as our cousins too.假如我们能够备存纪录数百万年之久,可能我们会把猴子和猿也视作表兄。But wait a minute!且慢!If thats true, then arent we also related to the ancestors of that common ancestor?如果真的是这样,那我们的祖先不是也有着共同祖先?I mean, my cousin and I both share a grandparent.我的意思是,我和我的表是同一个祖母。But the family tree doesnt stopthere.但是家族谱并不会止于此。We also share that grandparents grandparents.我们也是同一个曾曾曾祖母。What about the species that diverged togive rise to the common ancestor of monkeys and humans?而那些分散发展成猴子和人类共同祖先的物种呢?If you see where this is leading, youll have understood something rather wonderful about life onearth.如果想知道哪儿是起头,就得明白和地球生物有关的一些非常奇妙的事情。In fact, if you take the longest possible perspective — now looking back about four billionyears-you will find that every life form on earth is related to every other.实际上,如果你从长远的角度来看的话—回顾到四十亿年前,你就会发现地球上的所有生物都是息息相关的。We all share commonancestors, because all life came from the first self-reproducing, single-celled organism that existedin the oceans of primal earth.我们有着共同的祖先,因为所有的生命都来源于原始地球上第一个存在于海洋中自我复制的单细胞有机体。Yes, that tree outside is your relative, as is every bug and blade of grass.是的,外面那棵树是你的亲戚。同样的,所有的虫子和青草都是。Invite them in for dinner,why dont you?邀请它们共进晚餐吧!为什么不呢? 201409/326636

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