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2019年12月10日 08:57:12|来源:国际在线|编辑:同城大夫
Recent research into how emotions change with age may be able to help people lead healthier and longer lives and bring about new treatments for depression in the elderly. 人的情绪随着年龄增长会发生怎样的变化?该领域近期的一些研究成果有助于让人们活得更健康,更长寿,并为老年抑郁症带来新的治疗手段。 Like people#39;s bodies, emotions change over time. Older people for the most part have far fewer negative feelings, such as worry and stress, than do younger people, studies show. 人的身体会随着时间推移而发生变化,情绪也是一样。研究表明,在大多数情况下,老年人的负面情绪(如忧虑和压力等)要比年轻人少得多。 The elderly learn to disentangle themselves from feelings of negativity and seem to focus more on present situations that bring pleasure, rather than on the future, researchers say. They also tend to process negative information less deeply than positive information. 老年人已学会将自己从负面情绪的桎梏中解脱出来,更关注那些能带来当下乐趣的东西,而非虚无缥缈的未来。他们在处理负面信息时,往往也不那么钻牛角尖。 By contrast, positive feelings such as enjoyment and happiness change very little from the time a person is in his youth until old age. 与此形成对比的是,从青年时期直到老年,人们对于愉悦和享受等正面情绪的态度几乎不会随着时间推移而发生变化。 #39;It seems to be essential for our emotional well-being to not look back in anger and to focus on the positive when we are older,#39; Stefanie Brassen, a researcher at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, said in an email. 汉堡-埃彭多夫大学医疗中心(University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf)的研究人员斯特芬妮#8226;布拉森(Stefanie Brassen)在电邮中写道,“随着年龄的增长,不要纠缠于过去不愉快的事,而更多关注积极正面的东西,这对于一个人的情绪健康是至关重要的。” Older people who are depressed seem not to use the sort of emotional regulation typically seen in the elderly, researchers say. Depression affects some six million Americans over the age of 65, or about 15% of the total, and is believed to be a big reason why the elderly have the highest suicide rate, according to the nonprofit Geriatric Mental Health Foundation. 研究人员表示,患有抑郁症的老年人似乎缺乏该人群普遍具有的情绪控制能力。据非盈利组织“老年心理健康基金会”(Geriatric Mental Health Foundation)的统计数据,在65岁以上的美国人中,有600万人左右受到抑郁症的影响,占比约为15%;抑郁症也被视为老年人自杀率最高的很大一个原因。 In a potential new treatment approach, Dr. Brassen and colleagues are developing a training program in which older people practice strategies to better adapt to life circumstances. The goal is to get patients to #39;focus on what they have reached in life, on the resources and abilities they still have and on positive experiences they can plan in the near future,#39; says Dr. Brassen. 布拉森士及其同事正在研究一种治疗抑郁症的新方法,通过一个培训项目来锻炼老年人适应生活环境的能力,布拉森士说,目的是让病人“关注自己在生活中已经达成的目标、拥有的资源、依然具备的能力以及积极正面的生活经历,从而更好地规划未来。” Still, focusing on the positive or what feels good also can create problems, such as impairing decision-making and making older people more vulnerable to scam artists. There are times when one wants to focus on the negative and think through what someone is telling you rather than reacting to how a person makes you feel, says Laura Carstensen, a psychology professor at Stanford University and director of its Center on Longevity in California. 不过,凡事往好处想或追求令人愉悦的东西也会带来一些问题,如决策能力的降低和导致老年人容易上当受骗等。加州斯坦福大学(Stanford University)心理学教授及斯坦福大学长寿研究中心(Center on Longevity)主任罗拉#8226;卡斯滕森(Laura Carstensen)说,有时候,人们需要思考一些负面的东西,仔细考虑别人对你说的话,而不是根据对别人的喜恶程度来简单行事。 In one study, some 340,000 people ranging in age from 18 to 85 were surveyed by phone and asked how much they had felt emotions like happiness, stress and anger the day before. Between about the ages of 20 and 60, people experienced an increasingly greater ratio of positive to negative emotions, says Arthur Stone, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral science at Stony Brook University in New York, who led a study. 有一项研究对18到85岁的34万人进行了电话采访,询问他们在前一天是否经历了喜悦、压力和愤怒情绪。领导该项研究的纽约石溪大学(Stony Brook University)精神病学及行为学教授阿瑟#8226;斯通(Arthur Stone)说,在20岁左右到60岁左右的区间,随着年龄增长,受访者体会到的正面情绪比负面情绪逐步增多。 While reported feelings of happiness were generally similar across the decades, #39;we saw a drop off in the amount of stress and worry as they get older,#39; Dr. Stone says. The work was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in 2010. 虽然各年龄段在喜悦情绪上的占比相差无几,但斯通士说,“我们发现,年纪越大,人们的压力和忧虑情绪就越少。”该研究报告2010年发表于《美国国家科学院学报》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)。 How people approach life emotionally is driven by changes in their life goals, says Stanford#39;s Dr. Carstensen. Younger people often need to explore or take risks to achieve longer-range goals, and they experience stress and frustration in the meantime. Older people, by contrast, perceive their time horizons as shorter and focus on more immediate goals that elicit positive emotions, like being with their grandchildren, she says. 斯坦福的卡斯滕森士说,人们对待生活的态度和情绪受到人生目标改变的影响。年轻人追求长远的生活目标,往往需要不断摸索或承担风险,此过程中会有压力和挫败感。老年人则认为人生苦短,更关注能够激发正面情绪的短期目标,比如陪自己的孙子孙女享受天伦之乐等。 #39;As we focus on those [shorter-term] goals, people#39;s lives get better,#39; she says. In a study published last year, Dr. Carstensen and colleagues found that people who developed a higher ratio of positive to negative feelings as they aged were more likely to live longer. The study, published in Psychology and Aging, followed nearly 200 adults over 10 years. 卡斯滕森士说,“当人们把注意力放在那些(短期)目标上,活得就会更好。”在一项研究中,她和同事发现,正面情绪比负面情绪多的老年人更有可能长寿。该研究在十年中跟踪了近200名成年人,研究报告于2011年发表在《心理学与衰老》杂志(Psychology and Aging)上。 Healthy elderly people appear to employ coping strategies that help lessen the experience of negative emotion, says Dr. Brassen the German researcher. 布拉森士表示,健康的老年人会有一种随遇而安的心态,从而减少负面情绪的产生。 She and colleagues ran an experiment to see how young and old people respond to feelings of regret. Interestingly, a third group -- elderly people diagnosed with depression -- responded to regret in ways that more closely resembled the younger group, rather than their similarly aged peers. The study was published in May in the journal Science. 她和同事进行了一项试验,观察年轻人和老年人是如何应对悔恨情绪的。有意思的是,由患有抑郁症的老年人构成的第三组在对待悔恨情绪时与年轻人的那组更相似,而与年龄相仿的另一个老年组不同。该研究报告发表在2012年5月的《科学》杂志(Science)上。 In the experiment, Dr. Brassen engaged 21 healthy young people, 20 healthy older people and 20 depressed elderly in a game of chance. Players had to choose whether to keep on going in the game for the opportunity to win more points. But if they lost in a subsequent round, they would lose all their points. 在试验中,布拉森士让21名健康的年轻人、20名健康的老年人和20名患有抑郁症的老年人参加一个游戏。参与者必须决定是否在游戏中继续下去,以赢得更高的奖项,如果下一轮输掉,就会失去之前所有的积分。 When any of the participants lost, they would get agitated physiologically, including changes in blood flow patterns in a part of the brain that processes regret, Dr. Brassen says. But the younger participants and the depressed elderly also exhibited behavioral signs of regret. They made poorer decisions in subsequent rounds by taking more risk, which didn#39;t make sense logically because the game depended purely on luck, not strategy. 布拉森士说,每一个参与者输掉游戏时,都会在生理上出现激动生气的迹象,处理悔恨情绪的脑部区域血流量模式也会发生变化。年轻人组和患有抑郁症的老年人组都呈现出后悔的情绪,在下一轮游戏中甘愿冒更大的风险,而这是不理智的行为,会做出糟糕的决策,因为这个游戏完全靠的是运气,而非谋略。 By contrast, the elderly group that was healthy appeared to be able to engage in reasoning that distanced themselves from feelings of regret, Dr. Brassen says. 布拉森士说,与此相反的是,健康的老年人组能做出理智的判断,把自己从悔恨中解脱出来。 For example, some of these players concluded there was no cause to blame themselves for losing in what was a game of luck. #39;Healthy elderly were actually aware that they could have gained more [game points] but they seemed to be able to disengage from this thought/feeling,#39; Dr. Brassen says. 举例而言,有些健康的老年人做出结论,认为在这种全凭运气的游戏中输掉没什么大不了,不必自怨自艾。布拉森士说,“这组老年人其实知道,冒险的话可能会得到更多积分,但还是抵抗住了这种想法和情绪。” With practice, researchers say, older people can learn to spend less time dwelling on things they cannot change, leading to healthier emotional aging. #39;Maybe [it#39;s] not always the best strategy to stay young as long as you can but to accept and adapt to limitations in late life,#39; says Dr. Brassen. 研究人员表示,通过不断练习,老年人可以学会少去想那些自己无力改变的事情,从而使情绪更为健康。布拉森士说,“也许永葆青春并不是最理想的状态,做一个乐天知命的老人也不错。” Golden Oldies 情绪如何随着年龄增长而变化 Researchers are trying to understand how emotions change with age, which could provide clues to helping people live longer and healthier lives. 研究人员正在试图了解人的情绪是如何随着年龄增长而发生变化的,从而提供一些线索,帮助人们活得更健康,更长寿。 Stress peaks in the early 20s for most people, and is sharply higher in women than in men, but then steadily declines through old age. 对大多数人来说,20出头时是压力最大的年龄段,而且女性比男性更突出,然后压力随着年龄增长而稳步下降。 Feelings of enjoyment and happiness are highest among young adults, gradually decline in midlife, then rise again in later years. 年轻人的欢乐情绪最多,迈入中年后逐步减少,到老年又开始回升。 People tend to worry the most in midlife, from about age 40 to the early 50s, after which feelings of worry decrease. 中年人的忧虑情绪最多,从40岁左右一直到50岁出头,然后开始减少。 Anger is at its peak in early adulthood but then begins a long, gradual decline. 成年早期的愤怒情绪最多,然后开始一个漫长的下降过程。 Sadness stays relatively constant throughout life, although women experience more sad feelings than men. 哀伤情绪贯穿于生命的整个阶段,女性的哀伤情绪比男性更多。 /201209/198520One of my favorite teachers at Southeast Missouri State University in Cape Girardeau was known of his droll sense of humor. Explaining his ground rules to one freshman class, he said, ;Now I know my lectures can often be dry and boring, so I don#39;t mind if you look at your watches during class. I do, however, object to your pounding them on the desk to make sure they#39;re still running.;位于吉拉多海角的密苏里东南州立大学有一位我非常喜欢的老师,他奇特的幽默感很是出名。在对一个新生班级讲解他的基本原则时,他说:“我知道我的讲课可能经常会枯燥乏味,了无生趣,所以如果你们在上课时看表我并不介意。不过我坚决反对你们将表在课桌上猛敲看它们是不是还在走。” /201210/204884

There#39;s no question that cilantro is a polarizing herb. Some of us heap it onto salsas and soups with gusto while others avoid cilantro because it smells like soap and tastes like crushed bugs.毋庸置疑,香菜受到了两种最为极端的对待:喜欢它的人会把成堆的香菜放到沙拉和汤里,而讨厌它的人却觉得香菜闻着像肥皂,尝起来像是在嚼臭虫。A large chunk of the US population—including the likes of culinary goddess Julia Child—have claimed that it tastes offensive. Kinda like soap, in fact. It sps further than these shores, too: a recent survey suggested that 21 percent of east Asians, 17 percent of Europeans, and 14 percent of people of African descent all claim to be repulsed by the stuff.包括著名厨师朱莉娅·查尔德在内的许多美国人都不喜爱香菜散发出的肥皂一样的味道。但实际上并非只有美国人这样认为,最近一项调查显示,21%的东亚人、17%的欧洲人和14%的非洲人都说他们讨厌这种蔬菜。But what separates the cilantro lovers from the haters? Is it hard-wired in our genes, as Harold McGee suggested a few years ago in the New York Times? It#39;s probably not so simple.但为什么有人对香菜爱得要死,有人却避之不及呢?是像食物专家哈洛德·麦基几年前在《纽约时报》上撰文说的那样,我们体内的基因决定对香菜的喜好吗?也许并没有那么简单。Geneticists at 23andMe in California asked about 25,000 people whether they like cilantro or think it smells soapy. When they searched the people#39;s DNA for regions that correlate with a distaste for the herb, a single spot jumped out. And, it sits right next to a cluster of odor-detecting genes, including one that is known to specifically recognize the soapy aromas in cilantro#39;s bouquet.位于加州的个人基因信息网站23andMe曾调查过25000人,问他们是否认为香菜闻着像肥皂。当网站的基因学家研究DNA,看是否有专门控制排斥香菜的基因位点时,他们找到了一个点,而且这个位点就在嗅觉检验基因簇的旁边,将香菜的味道归入肥皂味的基因也位于这个基因簇中。The strongest variant lies within a cluster of olfactory-receptor genes—part of the genome which influences our sense of smell. Buried within that cluster is a gene called OR6A2, which encodes a receptor that makes people sensitive to the aldehyde chemicals contributing to cilantro#39;s characteristic flavor.在这簇嗅觉受体基因中,有一称作OR6A2的最强变体,它负责编码一种受体基因,能使人们对香菜特殊气味的醛类物质异常敏感。But, ;it didn#39;t make a huge a difference in cilantro preference from person to person,; Nicholas Eriksson, the lead author on the study says. In fact, their results suggest that a hatred for cilantro has only a small underlying genetic component. He and his team just published their findings on the arXiv.org.不过该研究的主要作者尼古拉斯·埃里克森告诉记者:“个人对香菜的喜好和这个基因的关系并不大。”实际上,这个研究表明,基因组成只是某些人反感香菜的一小部分原因。埃里克森和他团队的这一研究已经发表在arXiv.org网站上。The scientists pinpointed three more genes that influence our perception of cilantro: Two of the genes are involved with tasting bitter foods and one gene detects pungent compounds, like those in wasabi.通过研究,这些科学家又指出三个影响我们对香菜接受度的基因。其中有两个和品尝苦味有关,第三个和探测类似芥末的刺激性气味有关。Overall, Eriksson says these studies demonstrate that DNA does shape our opinion of cilantro, but probably not enough that we can#39;t overcome it. ;It isn#39;t like your height, that you#39;re stuck with. People can change it,; he says.总之,埃里克森认为,虽然DNA的确会影响人们对香菜的好恶,但却还在可控范围内。他说:“这并不像你的身高一样,一旦定型就不可改变。我们还是可以改变对香菜的看法的。”As Nature reports, McGee offers a strategy for building up an appreciation for the herb: Try a cilantro pesto. Crushing the leaves, he says, releases enzymes that convert the soapy, stinky compounds into more mild aromas.根据《自然杂志》的报道,麦基为我们提供了一个接受香菜的食谱:香菜蒜香酱。把香菜的叶子捣碎,这样香菜就能释放出多种酶,把刺鼻的肥皂味变成更轻微的香气。But Julia Child, an avowed cilantro hater, said she would just pick it out and throw it on the floor, Nature reports.不过《自然杂志》也报道,查尔德依然坚定地站在反对香菜的阵营里,她说她更愿意把香菜挑出来扔到地上。 /201305/240212

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