时间:2019年10月18日 10:39:49

Travellers to China worried that their view of the Great Wall will be obscured by Beijing’s pollution can rest easy with a “smog insurance” product being introduced this week.前往中国的游客如果担心长城风景可能受到北京污染的影响,那么本周推出的“雾霾险”产品有望让他们安心。“Smog insurance” is the latest response to choking air pollution in China and follows efforts that include closing industrial plants and do-it-yourself air filter specialists dispensing advice online.“雾霾险”是对中国令人不敢呼吸的空气污染的最新回应,之前的努力包括政府勒令工厂停产,以及DIY空气过滤器专家在网上提供咨询。Panasonic, the Japanese electronics group, said last week it would offer a pollution bonus to expatriate employees working in China.日本电子集团松下(Panasonic)上周表示,将向外派至中国工作的非中国籍员工提供污染奖金。Li Keqiang, Chinese premier, declared a “war on pollution” in his annual speech to the legislature in March. Only three Chinese cities meet national air quality standards, two of which are on islands.中国总理李克强3月在全国人大年会上发表讲话时,宣布“向污染宣战”。中国只有三个城市达到国家空气质量标准,其中两个位于岛上。CTrip, an online travel agent, and Ping An, the state-owned insurance company, have teamed up to offer “smog insurance” to travellers and residents in seven cities plagued by smog. The scheme pays out when the air quality index, or AQI, exceeds set levels for two days in a row.在线旅游代理携程(CTrip)和国有保险公司平安(Ping An)联手推出“雾霾险”,面向受到雾霾困扰的7个城市的游客和市民。该产品将在空气质量指数(AQI)连续两天超过设定水平时作出赔付。A week of the index being over 300, a level deemed hazardous at prolonged exposure, yields the policy holder a free lung check while those who need hospitalisation because of it would receive Rmb1,500 (0).如果空气质量指数持续一周高于300(被视为长时间接触有危险的水平),保单持有人将得到一次免费的肺部检查,而污染导致需要住院接受治疗的保单持有人将得到1500元人民币(合240美元)。If pollution exceeds the charts, as happened this winter in the northern city of Shijiazhuang for several days, policy holders can compete for a free trip to the subtropical island of Hainan to “clear their lungs”.如果污染达到“爆表”水平(北方城市石家庄在这个冬天有好几天出现这样的情况),保单持有人有机会获取海南“洗肺”旅游。It is not unknown for cities in northern China to see pollution in hazardous levels for a week at a time, particularly in the winter. But Ping An is on safer ground in the springtime, when breezes and bright skies tend to keep the AQI within more comfortable limits.在冬季的华北城市,危险级别的污染持续一周的情况并非罕见。但春天意味着平安保险较有把握:微风和明媚的天空往往使空气质量指数保持在比较舒适的范围内。Haikou, the capital of subtropical Hainan Island, Zhoushan, on an archipelago south of Shanghai that consists of 1,390 islands and 1.1m inhabitants, and Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, were the only three to meet national standards in a survey of 74 of the largest cities, the vice minister for the environment said this month.中国环保部副部长本月表示,全国74个城市的全年监测结果显示,仅3个城市达到空气质量二级标准。这3个城市是:海口(地处亚热带的海南岛的首府)、舟山(上海以南的一个群岛,共有1390个岛屿和110万居民),以及西藏首府拉萨。The air quality index assesses the level of air pollution with a grading system from 0 to 500. The higher the value, the more polluted the air and the greater the health concern: 50 represents good air quality with little potential to affect public health and over 300 is well within the hazardous range.空气质量指数采用从0到500的数值来评估空气污染水平。该值越高,空气污染就越严重,健康担忧就更大: 50代表空气质量状况属于优,不致影响公众健康,而超过300就进入危险范围了。The air in Beijing on Thursday was rated “good” by the US embassy and “excellent” on the Chinese index.周四,北京的空气被美国大使馆评为“良好”,被中国的指数评为“优”。 /201403/281252

China gets it. Russia doesn#39;t.中国明白了。俄罗斯却没有。For now, Vladimir Putin appears to be outsmarting the West. The Group of Seven nations called on Russia Wednesday to #39;cease all efforts to annex Crimea#39; and condemned its #39;unprovoked violation of Ukraine#39;s sovereignty.#39; But there was no sign of real, meaningful sanctions. And that#39;s because Europe--for now--needs Russia#39;s gas.暂时而言,俄罗斯总统普京(Vladimir Putin)现在似乎比西方国家技高一筹。七大工业国(Group of Seven)周三呼吁俄罗斯停止一切吞并克里米亚的努力,并谴责俄罗斯无故侵犯乌克兰主权的行为。但没有迹象显示俄罗斯将真正受到有实质意义的制裁。原因在于欧洲目前需要俄罗斯的天然气。The good news is that future Russian presidents will find it harder to follow in Mr. Putin#39;s footsteps. In due time, capacity improvements in world energy markets will erode Russia#39;s ability to use its mammoth supplies of natural gas to hold its neighbors hostage. Russia will eventually have to join, rather fight against, the modern global economy. It#39;s as if the protesters who ousted Ukraine#39;s Russia-leaning President, Viktor Yanukovych, moved a few years too early.好消息是,俄罗斯未来的总统将发现他们很难追随普京的脚步。在未来的某个时间,全球能源市场产能的提高将削弱俄罗斯利用其庞大天然气供应来挟持邻国的能力。俄罗斯最终将不得不加入现代全球经济,而不是与之对抗。只不过那些抗议者推翻乌克兰亲俄罗斯总统亚努科维奇(Viktor Yanukovych)的时间或许稍微早了几年。By contrast, policymakers in that other former communist power seem to understand that the world is changing and that their economy#39;s standing hinges upon integration rather than isolation. China is hardly a model international citizen--it engages in restrictive trade practices, cyber-spying and saber-rattling over regional territorial claims. But at least some key officials--notably People#39;s Bank of China Governor Zhou Xiaochuan--are deliberately setting a path of liberalization that will eventually compel their country to fall in line with international norms.相比之下,另一个前共产主义阵营中的国家的决策者似乎了解世界正在变化,意识到经济地位取决于融合而非孤立。很难把中国看做标准的国际公民,因为中国采取限制性贸易措施,展开网络间谍活动,并咄咄逼人地提出地区领土主张。但至少一些关键的官员正在刻意设定自由化之路,而这将最终推动中国遵循国际惯例。其中最明显的便是中国央行行长周小川。This week, Mr. Zhou announced that interest rate policy would be fully liberalized in one to two years and that a fully floating, convertible yuan wouldn#39;t be far behind. His comments didn#39;t grab headlines in the way that Mr. Putin#39;s troop maneuvers in Crimea did. But these actions will generate market pressures that will drive further political and economic reform in China, shifting it toward a more market-driven and consumer-focused economy to the benefit of its own citizens and those of rest of the world.本周,周小川宣布利率将在两年内完全放开,人民币距离自由浮动和完全可兑换也不远了。和普京派军队进入克里米亚相比,周小川的讲话并不是那么重要的消息。但这些行动将带来市场压力,进一步推动中国的政治和经济改革,使中国经济向更加依赖于市场力量的消费主导型经济转型,从而令中国民众和世界其他地方受益。Once China removes a cap on deposit rates and forces banks to compete for savings, the artificially cheap borrowing rates that have propped up thousands of inefficient government-connected enterprises and allowed them to flood the world with cheap goods will have to be phased out. Next, as local banks#39; profit margins shrink, the government will need to fully open up the Chinese capital account. This will bring welcome cheap foreign capital into the economy, but it will also radically shake up the hitherto cloistered Chinese financial system. The end result will be a wholesale restructuring of the Chinese economy, which in turn will test the viability of a centrally planned system and the Communist Party apparatus that has thrived off it. Big changes are afoot.一旦中国取消存款利率上限,迫使为揽储而展开竞争,则中国被人为压低的借款利率将最终一去不复返。这样的低利率造就了成千上万低效率的政府相关企业,并让它们得以在全球大量销售廉价商品。接下来,随着中国本地的利润率收窄,中国政府将需要完全放开中国的资本项目。这将为中国经济引入受欢迎的低成本外资,但这同时也将从根本上动摇中国至今仍与外界相对隔绝的金融体系。最终的结果将是中国经济的大规模重组,而这反过来又将检验中央计划体制的可行性以及中共通过中央计划而发展出来的运作方式。巨大的变革正在酝酿之中。These are incredibly bold moves in China. But they are also realistic and pragmatic. With financial innovations --digital currencies, for example--making it ever harder to shut out world economic forces, Beijing knows it can#39;t swim against the tide. The evolving Chinese model recognizes that in the 21st century, true power comes from a nation#39;s ability to harness the innovative drive of global competition. In Russia, by contrast, power is seen as a function of military might and control of natural resources.这些都是中国极其大胆的举措。但这些措施也是现实而可行的。随着诸如电子货币之类的金融创新使得世界经济力量越来越难以被拒之门外,北京深知其不能逆潮流而动。不断变革中的中国模式认识到,在21世纪,真正的实力来自一国利用全球竞争创新动力的能力。相比之下,俄罗斯则认为,实力是军事力量和对自然资源的控制。But this model of power is at the mercy of changes in the rest of the world#39;s energy capacity. Just look at Venezuela, which for many years used its oil monopoly to cajole Latin American states into defying the liberal economic prescriptions of the Washington Consensus. With technological advances now allowing the U.S. to extract ever growing amounts of domestic shale oil and gas, Venezuela#39;s influence is rapidly waning. Not coincidentally, it is now gripped by a roiling financial and political crisis, with inflation hitting 56%.但这种力量模式受制于世界其他地方能源产能的变化。委内瑞拉就是一个例子。该国多年来利用其原油垄断地位诱使拉美国家反对“华盛顿共识”(Washington Consensus)提出的自由经济政策。现在,技术进步令美国得以在本土开采越来越多的页岩油气,委内瑞拉的影响力正迅速减弱。同时委内瑞拉现在正陷入一场动荡的金融和政治危机,通胀率高达56%,这绝非偶然。For now, Russia is avoiding such a fate. The E.U.#39;s hands are tied so long as it needs Russian gas to keep the power on. The U.K. foreign secretary#39;s suggestion this week that the E.U. will purchase more gas from the U.S. wasn#39;t much of a threat while the infrastructure needed to get liquefied natural gas across the Atlantic is still lacking. The best anyone could suggest was Poland#39;s idea that E.U. member countries pool their bargaining power and jointly negotiate gas contracts with Russia.俄罗斯目前暂时避免了这种命运。只要欧洲还需要俄罗斯的天然气发电,欧盟(EU)就难以对俄罗斯采取什么措施。英国外交大臣本周表态称,欧盟将从美国购买更多的天然气,这话还没有太大的威胁,原因是目前仍缺乏跨越大西洋输送液化天然气的基础设施。最好的建议就是波兰提出的办法,即集合欧盟成员国的议价能力,联合起来共同与俄罗斯谈判天然气合约。But Russia#39;s belligerence in Ukraine will inspire an acceleration in the upgrade of production infrastructure elsewhere. What better reason to open up hydraulic fracturing, or fracking -- the technology behind the U.S. shale revolution -- in hitherto inaccessible gas fields in Eastern Europe and the U.K.? And there#39;s now greater incentive to build the liquefaction and re-gasification plants, along with the shipping ports and vessels, that will transport U.S. LNG into Europe#39;s power generation plants.但俄罗斯在乌克兰问题上的好战性将促使世界其他地区加快升级能源生产设施。要在东欧和英国迄今尚难以开采的天然气田采用美国页岩气革命所用的水力压裂技术,这是再好不过的理由了。同时,现在修建液化再气化工厂以及运输口岸和船只的理由也更充分了,这些设施将把美国的液化天然气输送到欧洲的发电厂。Such advances could quickly challenge Russia#39;s closed model of economic and political power. With energy export revenues shrinking, speculators would attack the ruble, eventually running Moscow#39;s sizable foreign-currency reserves dry and forcing a depreciation that provokes defaults by Russian companies on their dollar-based loans. Much like 1998, wealthy Russians would again flee into dollars, euros or pounds, and inflation would return along with economic and political chaos.这类技术进步可能很快对俄罗斯封闭的经济和政治权力模式形成挑战。随着能源出口收入的下降,投机者将会攻击俄罗斯卢布,最终让莫斯科庞大的外汇储备趋于枯竭,并迫使卢布贬值,这会引起俄罗斯企业的美元贷款违约。与1998年的情形一样,俄罗斯的富人将再次通过抢购美元、欧元或英镑来规避风险,俄罗斯也将重新受到通胀的冲击,并再次陷入经济和政治动荡。These changes won#39;t happen overnight. But this is exactly the path that Mr. Putin is laying out.这些变化不会一夜之间就出现。但这正是普京现在安排的道路。 /201403/279767

With bellies full of turkey and hearts full of mirth, millions of Americans will head to the mall this extended weekend — to buy Ugg Boots, Xboxes and Frozen dolls for themselves and for loved ones.数百万吃饱了火鸡、满心欢笑的美国人将会在这个大周末来到商场,为自己和亲朋好友购买UGG雪地靴、Xbox游戏机和冰雪娃娃。Increasingly, another industry is cashing in on Black Friday and Cyber Monday, and it’s not one you usually associate with teeming crowds and slashed prices — autos.另一个行业也逐渐开始利用黑色星期五和网络星期一的商机,而通常情况下,这里看不到热闹的人群和跳水的价格,这个行业就是汽车业。Car shoppers are visiting car dealers in greater numbers around the Thanksgiving holiday. Alex Gutierrez, an analyst at Kelly Blue Book, said that while Black Friday hasn’t yet reached the level of Memorial Day or Labor Day for car sales, it’s quickly becoming one of the bigger weekends of the year for dealers.感恩节前后,大量购车者会光顾汽车店。Kelly Blue Book的分析师亚历克斯o古铁雷斯表示,尽管黑色星期五的汽车销量目前尚未达到美国阵亡将士纪念日和劳动节的水平,但对汽车经销商而言,它已迅速成为一年中最重要的周末之一。Granted, the deals offered on car lots aren’t always short-term, he noted. Many manufacturers are “running their Black Friday specials throughout the month of December,” he said.然而,古铁雷斯称,汽车打折并非都是短期活动,许多汽车厂商的“打折活动会从黑色星期五一直持续到12月底。”So what is driving this increase in Black Friday car shopping? Some of it, surely, is just the growing focus on the weekend as a time for all things consumerist, with cars dragged along for the ride. Gutierrez also notes that for the past year or so, the auto industry has been recovering from a historic low point that came during 2009 and 2010 in the aftermath of the credit crisis.那么,是什么推动了汽车销量在黑色星期五实现增长?毫无疑问,部分原因只是更多人将这个周末当作购买一切商品的好时机,而汽车业只是搭了个顺风车。不过古铁雷斯也表示,在2009年至2010年的金融危机过后,汽车业的表现跌至历史最低,如今已经开始恢复生气。The other thing driving auto sales on Black Friday and Cyber Monday is the increasing importance of online shopping to the car buying process. Dealer.com, a Dealertrack TRAK 2.02% company that sells shopping tools to auto dealers, saw a 7% increase in the total traffic during the two weeks leading up to Black Friday in 2013 compared to 2012.而另一个促使汽车销量在黑色星期五和网络星期一攀升的因素,是网购在购车过程中的重要性日益增加。Dealer.com是Dealertrack旗下一家为汽车经销商提供购买工具的网站。该网站在2013年黑色星期五前两周的访问量同比提高了7%。“We are seeing a major surge in traffic, and we saw it last year too,” said Dave Winslow, Dealertrack’s vice president of digital strategy. Winslow pointed out that, with customers going online to shop, it doesn’t really matter if they are actually heading to the lots this weekend, because most of the decision-making happens before they actually go to buy a car.Dealertrack的数码战略副总裁戴夫o温斯洛表示:“我们发现,这段时间的网站访问量大幅增加,去年也有这个情况。”温斯洛指出,随着顾客们开始网购,他们是否在这个周末光临了汽车店并不重要,因为他们在买车之前已经做出了大部分决策。One online auto company is taking things a step further in its appeals to Black Friday shoppers by offering a flat discount of ,000 on all cars. That would be Carvana, a startup that calls itself the “Amazon of cars,” in that the cars — all used — are sold entirely online, including financing, and delivered the next day with no test drive. (The company does offer a no questions asked, full refund return within seven days of delivery.) Carvana currently operates in Atlanta, Nashville and Charlotte.一家汽车网购公司在吸引黑色星期五的顾客上更进一步,公司对所有车辆都提供1,000美元的折扣。这家初创公司名为Carvana,它自称是“汽车业的亚马逊(Amazon)”。Carvana只卖二手车,所有的购买手续,包括付款在内,都在网上进行,汽车将于次日送至客户处,其中没有试驾过程。(不过公司提供送达七日内无条件全额退款。)目前,Carvana只为亚特兰大、纳什维尔和夏洛特三座城市提供务。Carvana CEO Ernie Garcia stressed that Carvana wasn’t raising prices for two weeks before Black Friday and then cutting prices back down to what they were originally. With so many of their competitors taking that tack, Garcia said the company was stressing the promotion too much.Carvana的首席执行官欧尼o加西亚强调,他们没有在黑色星期五之前两周提价,然后再在活动期间降回原价。加西亚表示,许多竞争对手都会玩弄这种伎俩,但他们公司非常重视这次促销。“Every automotive retailer out there is going to have some crazy Black Friday thing,” he said. “That’s because they’re playing games. That’s really hard for us to really get through to customers.”他说:“外面每家汽车经销商都会在黑色星期五打出一些疯狂的活动,因为他们只是玩玩。让顾客听到我们的声音真的十分困难。”Is Black Friday really a great time to buy a car? Larry Dominique, an executive vice president at Truecar TRUE -2.00% , a service that tracks car prices, said that while it may be a good time, but shoppers can do even better.黑色星期五真的是买车的好时机吗?提供汽车价格追踪务的Truecar的执行副总裁拉里o多米尼克表示,这也许是个不错的时机,但顾客可以有更好的选择。He said that while discounts are very good on Black Friday, they actually improve at the end of the month. This is because car makers and dealers are looking to move as many vehicles off the lot as possible before the end of the year — manufacturers so they can report the best yearly sales they can, and dealers to reach the sales goals set by the manufacturers.他表示,尽管黑色星期五的折扣不错,但月底实际上会有更加优厚的让利活动。因为汽车制造商和经销商都希望在年底之前尽可能多地把车卖出去——如此一来,汽车厂家就能报出更多的年销量,而经销商也更容易达成厂家设定的销售目标。(财富中文网) /201412/346014

文章编辑: 管热点