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上饶弋阳县去除黑眼圈多少钱上饶横峰县激光全身脱毛价格Science and technology.科技。Moral philosophy.道德哲学。Goodness has nothing to do with it.无关善恶。Utilitarians are not nice people.功利主义者并不是好人。IN THE grand scheme of things Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill are normally thought of as good guys. Between them, they came up with the ethical theory known as utilitarianism. The goal of this theory is encapsulated in Benthams aphorism that ;the greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and legislation.;从历史洪流的角度来看,杰里米·贝萨姆和约翰·斯图阿特·密尔通常都被认为是好人。他们一起合作建立了现在被称为功利主义的道德理论。该理论的核心目的可以被贝萨姆的一句格言很好地概括;道德和立法的基础在于让最多的人最大程度的幸福;Which all sounds fine and dandy until you start applying it to particular cases. A utilitarian, for example, might approve of the occasional torture of suspected terrorists-for the greater happiness of everyone else, you understand. That type of observation has led Daniel Bartels at Columbia University and David Pizarro at Cornell to ask what sort of people actually do have a utilitarian outlook on life. Their answers, just published in Cognition, are not comfortable.听上去很不错,但当你开始把这套理论应用在具体事件上时问题就出来了。比方说,功利主义者可能赞成对恐怖主义疑犯用刑。大家都明白,这是为了其它所有人好。哥伦比亚大学的丹尼尔·巴特尔斯和康奈尔大学的大卫·皮扎罗受到类似这样的观察启发,提出了哪一类型的人对生活的看法最接近功利主义这一有趣问题。他们的论文最近在认知科学上发表,其中得到的结论让人不安。One of the classic techniques used to measure a persons willingness to behave in a utilitarian way is known as trolleyology. The subject of the study is challenged with thought experiments involving a runaway railway trolley or train carriage. All involve choices, each of which leads to peoples deaths. For example: there are five railway workmen in the path of a runaway carriage. The men will surely be killed unless the subject of the experiment, a bystander in the story, does something. The subject is told he is on a bridge over the tracks. Next to him is a big, heavy stranger. The subject is informed that his own body would be too light to stop the train, but that if he pushes the stranger onto the tracks, the strangers large body will stop the train and save the five lives. That, unfortunately, would kill the stranger.测量一个人有多大的意愿以功利主义方式行事的一个传统方法是电车实验。参加者进行一个想象实验,实验里有一节失控的有轨电车或火车车厢。该实验有很多版本,不管哪一个都要求参加者进行选择,而且不管怎么选都会有人死亡。例如:有五个工人在失控车厢前方的轨道上。如果实验参加者作为故事中的一个旁观者不进行干涉这五个人就死定了。参加者被告知他在铁道上方的一座桥上,身边有一个身材肥胖的陌生人,同时参加者知道自己的体重太轻,无法停止火车,但如果把那个陌生人推下去,他的巨大身躯将会停止火车,让五个工人得救。不幸的是这么做会杀死该陌生人。Dr Bartels and Dr Pizarro knew from previous research that around 90% of people refuse the utilitarian act of killing one individual to save five. What no one had previously inquired about, though, was the nature of the remaining 10%.巴特尔斯士和皮扎罗士从之前的研究中得知大约90%的参加者会拒绝杀死一个陌生人救出五个人的功利主义行为。但是之前的研究没人提出过剩下的10%人的性格这一问题。To find out, the two researchers gave 208 undergraduates a battery of trolleyological tests and measured, on a four-point scale, how utilitarian their responses were. Participants were also asked to respond to a series of statements intended to get a sense of their individual psychologies. These statements included, ;I like to see fist fights;, ;The best way to handle people is to tell them what they want to hear;, and ;When you really think about it, life is not worth the effort of getting up in the morning;. Each was asked to indicate, for each statement, where his views lay on a continuum that had ;strongly agree; at one end and ;strongly disagree; at the other. These statements, and others like them, were designed to measure, respectively, psychopathy, Machiavellianism and a persons sense of how meaningful life is.为了找出结果,这两个研究者对208个大学生进行了一系列电车实验,并以一到四分的机制来给他们的中的功利主义成分打分。参加者也要进行一系列分析个人心理的测试。测试包括这些问题,;我喜欢看人打架;,;应付别人最好的办法就是说他们想听的话;,以及;认真想想的话,生活没什么意思,每天起来真不值;。参加者要在一个连续的尺度上标出他们对每一个问题的看法,从;完全同意;到;完全不同意;。这三个问题按次序分别是为了测量一个人的冷血程度,厚黑程度以及他觉得生活是否有意义的程度,其它问题也是围绕着测量这三个方面而设计的。Dr Bartels and Dr Pizarro then correlated the results from the trolleyology with those from the personality tests. They found a strong link between utilitarian answers to moral dilemmas (push the fat guy off the bridge) and personalities that were psychopathic, Machiavellian or tended to view life as meaningless. Utilitarians, this suggests, may add to the sum of human happiness, but they are not very happy people themselves.巴特尔斯士和皮扎罗士然后开始寻找人格测试和电车实验结果的相关性。他们发现在面对道德两难(将胖子推下去)时回答体现功利主义的参加者和冷血变态心理,厚黑主义以及觉得生活没意义的想法有很强的关联。这表示虽然功利主义者能够增加人类整体的幸福值,但他们自己并不是什么快乐的人。That does not make utilitarianism wrong. Crafting legislation-one of the main things that Bentham and Mill wanted to improve-inevitably involves riding roughshod over someones interests. Utilitarianism provides a plausible framework for deciding who should get trampled. The results obtained by Dr Bartels and Dr Pizarro do, though, raise questions about the type of people who you want making the laws. Psychopathic, Machiavellian misanthropes? Apparently, yes.这并不意味着功利主义是错误的。任何法律的制定-当年贝萨姆和密尔希望借其理论能够有所助益的主要行为之一-不可避免的需要牺牲一部分人的利益。功利主义提供了一个比较合理的框架来决定应该牺牲谁的利益。不过巴特尔斯士和皮扎罗士的研究提出了应该让哪种人来制定法律的质疑。冷血,厚黑的厌恶人类者?从表面上来看,是的。 /201209/199776广丰区妇幼保健人民中医院激光祛斑多少钱 Hilbert thought that physics was much too important to be left to the physicists,希尔伯特认为物理太重要了,这些物理学家必须留下,so the mathematicians should take care of it.因此数学家们应该照顾好它。Stakes are very high here.赌注很高。All or nothing. To unlock the secret of light,拥有一切或一无所有。揭开光的神秘,to unlock the secret of gravity.揭开重力的秘密。Nobody can ever say that Einstein is not a fantastic mathematician because at that moment the problem is distilled into pure mathematics.没有人说爱因斯坦不是一位神奇的数学家,因为在那一刻问题被净化成纯粹的数学。Several times, Einstein thought he had it.爱因斯坦认为有好几次他就是这样。When he submitted one of the versions to the Prussian Academy,当他向普鲁士学院提交了一个版本,he wrote his son in Switzerland,他给在瑞士的儿子写信,you know, you will later understand this was a great day that changed history and your father was,you know, producing it.你知道,你以后会明白这是一个改变历史的伟大日子,你父亲,你知道,是这一切的缔造者。But it turned out again to be an erroneous version,但是很快结果再次变成一个错误的版本,he had to change it a week later once more.一个星期后他不得不再一次进行修改。He had tried many alleys before and they turned out to be deadends.他尝试过许多方法不过结果都是死路一条。How long do you wait developing this idea, writing the paper,在出版前你花多少时间等待开发这个想法,开始写论文,working out all the consequences before publishing it?计算出所有的后果吗?注:听力文本来源于普特 201205/180862Here is another cutting-edge technological project off the North coast of Scotland. Power companies have listed 10 sites on the seabed to turn wave and tidal energy into electricity.苏格兰的北海岸现在有了一项前端的技术项目。电力公司列出了海床上10个转化潮汐能为电能的地点。Such a cool idea, They aim to power 750,000 homes by 2020. David Shukman of B, check it out.这是一个好注意,到2020年,潮汐能将为750,000户人家提供能量。B新闻,David Shukman报道。Inch by inch, a new source of power is taking shape, the size of a submarine. Here at the dock side at Leeds near Edinburgh this vast machine will make electricity from the waves. Nearby, lying amounts of coal. It was coal that powered industrial revolution. Could sea power ever do the same?一点一点地,这种新型能源的使用慢慢成形,相关机器有潜水艇大小。这种大型机器将在爱丁堡附近的利兹市的码头投入使用,将潮汐变成电能。之前,周围用户都是使用燃煤能源。曾经,正是燃煤能源促进了工业革命,而今,海洋也能引发一场能源革命吗?This components is now being lowered into the sea and operation will have to be repeated thousands of times. And a start whats been described as a new era of harnessing the power of the sea.相关部件将会被放入海中并运转成千上万次。潮汐能源的运用被认为是开启了利用海洋能源的新时代。This system captures the swill. Each wave passing along the cylinders, moves the hinges that connect them. And that motion drives generators.这个系统会捕捉潮汐。当潮汐经过汽缸,会连接气缸的铰链,铰链的移动带动发动机的运转。;So its not alone;“所以,不光是这些”Near assembly hall, I was given the chance to see inside, down through the hatch.在大厅,我有机会进入到汽缸内,下到里面去看一看。;Wow, its just like being inside a submarine.; Its one section stretches through the gloom for 34 meters. Out the sea, there will be no one in here. The whole thing rocking with the waves. ;And here, at the end of this gaint cylinder is where they actually generate the power. Let me show you how thats done. Every time a wave passes along this system, the cylinders move at where they are hinged. There are these huge hydronic pumps, like bicycle pumps. And that captures the energy of the waves is channeled into a generator like this, and ends up producing electricity.;“感觉就像进入了潜水定一样。”一截汽缸有34米长。汽缸进入海洋就不能有任何人留在里面,整个汽缸都会随着潮水翻滚。“这里,在这个巨型汽缸的尽头。就是发动机产生能量的地方。让我来向你展示它是如何运作的。每次潮水经过这个系统,汽缸带铰链的部分就会移动。这里有巨大的液体循环泵,就像自行车打气筒一样,从而产生能量。这就是从潮汐将能量传送到发动机,并产生电能的过程。”But what happens if there arent any waves. ;This thing will be useless on a flat day.; ;On a flat day, we wont produce any power. Thats right, but important thing is the contribution average within a year, every make what we generate is a make what it doesnt need be fronted by force of fuels.;但是如果没有潮汐怎么办?“在无风的日子,这项技术将会毫无用武之地。”“在无风日,我们无法产生任何能量。对,但重要的是这项技术一年中平均能产生大量电能。一天能够使用潮汐能,就意味着少一天担心燃料能源的问题。”This plan to harness the power of the sea is the largest of its kind in the world. Electricity for 750,000 homes could be generated if all the projects go ahead. Thats 1.2 GW, roughly what a big conventional power station generates. ;这项计划是全世界利用海洋能源中规模最大的。如果计划顺利实行,将会为750,000户人家提供电能。粗略估计,相当于一个发电量在12亿瓦特的传统发电站。;Thats a very important day. What weve actually done is taking a very big step to making a new technology, renew energy technology—wave in tidal, commercially deployed on a grand...on a big scale.;“这是非常重要的一天。我们做的只是在开发新能源的工作上更近了一步,创新潮汐的能源技术。在很大程度上更近了一步。”The designs range from wave machine, swinging in the swill, to gaint turbines, spinning in the tides and huge porpellers harnessing the currents. Another component is launched. There may yet be unexpected costs or challenges, its still early days.这项计划的设计包括汽缸,潮汐,巨型涡轮,水流以及四叶螺旋桨运动等很多领域。另一个关键要素是如何发射汽缸。这项计划还在起步阶段,实施中还会遇到各种挑战和计划外开销。David Shukman, B news, in LeedsDavid Shukman,B新闻,利兹市报道。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201206/185558弋阳县妙桃隆胸假体多少钱

上饶市中医院整形美容中心上饶市第二人民医院脱毛手术多少钱 Books and Arts; Literature and its influences;Mother, may I文艺;书评;文学及其影响力;妈妈,我能不能...New Ways to Kill Your Mother: Writers and Their Families. By Colm Tóibín.Viking;《弑母新法》:讲述作家及其家庭的文献。科尔姆·托宾著。When the mother of Henry James, a 19th-century American novelist, appeared at a seance with a message for him, he was not surprised. As in life, so too in death, did his ;dear Mother; have an uncanny knack of ;pouncing upon the first occasion ... to get at me;.当十九世纪美国小说家亨利詹姆斯的妈妈出现在降神会上,给他留句话,詹姆斯并不感到惊奇。活着的时候,“亲爱的母亲”有神秘的能力能够“在第一时间冲出来……修理我”,死后亦然。;New Ways to Kill Your Mother;, the latest collection of essays from Colm Toibin, an Irish novelist and critic, is full of such moments when a writer and his family ;get at; each other. Fractious family relations may not be uncommon, yet the extent to which these writers-including W.B. Yeats, Thomas Mann, James Baldwin and John Cheever-managed to fight with their parents, siblings and children make arguments over the dinner table seem like a specialised art form.《弑母新法》是科尔姆托宾,爱尔兰小说家家最新的散文集,书中充满这样的细节,作家和他的家人如何“修理”对方。家人之间的剑拔弩张也许并不少见,但是和一些大师,包括叶芝,托马斯曼,鲍德温和约翰契福等,曾和父母兄弟子女动手的程度相比,在晚餐时拌拌嘴就像是种特殊的艺术形式。Mann justified spoiling his eldest child over his five others with the line, ;One should get the children used to injustice early.; ].M. Synge, an Irish playwright, was similarly pampered by his mother, and another, Samuel Beckett, admitted that he was what his mothers ;savage loving has made me;. Georgie Yeats implored a friend of hers not to speak with her mother, because she ;loves to make a whirlpool and especially if she can suck me in to it;, and W.B. Yeats was busy dissuading his father from trying his hand at writing, an effort inspired in old age by his sons success.托马斯曼溺爱长子超过其他五个孩子,他为自己辩护道,“人们应该让孩子在小时候就对不公平习以为常”。爱尔兰剧作家辛格也曾经得到过母亲如此的溺爱。荒诞派作家贝克特承认,他是母亲“野蛮的爱造就的”。诗人叶芝的夫人Georgie曾经请求她的一位朋友不要告知其母,因为她“喜欢制造混乱,特别是那种能把我吸走的混乱漩涡”,叶芝曾经忙于阻止父亲尝试写作,这股劲头是他在晚年因为儿子的成功而激起的。Mr Toibin writes in muscular prose and has a keen eye for detail. Dividing his book in two, ;Ireland; and ;Elsewhere;, he places these family wranglings within the larger context of trying to find an Irish voice, and of the struggle for writers such as Tennessee Williams to work out their identities as gay men in America. In Mr Toibins opinion, ;killing your father or your mother; is a necessary precursor to becoming an original writer.托宾散文笔道刚劲,拥有对细节敏锐的观察力。他将自己的书分成两部分:“爱尔兰”和“其他”,他将这些家庭争吵融入更广阔的背景中,那就是找寻一种爱尔兰式的创作,以及为如田纳西威廉姆一样的作家,为在美国寻求同性恋的作家身份而斗争。在托宾看来,“弑父弑母”是称为一个原创作家的必要前提。For most of his book, this argument is persuasive. However, not all of Mr Toibins chapters hang together well. The essay on Beckett s more like the book review it started out as, and the final piece on Baldwin only just about succeeds in comparing his literary style with the recent autobiographies by President Barack Obama.对于托宾的大多数作品,这个观点是有说力的。但是,并不是托宾书中所有的章节都很好的结合在一起。关于贝克特的文章读起来更像是他将着手写的书评,写鲍德温的最后一部分只谈及了他在文体上更胜一筹,是和总统奥巴马新近出版的自传之间做的比较。Instead, the finest moments of Mr Toibins book are when he focuses on the writers prose and how they went about creating their ;grim black marks on the page;. Hart Crane, a young American poet who committed suicide aged 32 in 1932, writes with a syntax that has ;something hard and glittering in it;. Baldwin had ;a fascination with eloquence itself, the soaring phrase, the rhythm pushed hard, the sharp and glorious ring of a sentence.;反而,托宾书中最棒的章节是关于作家的文章本身,以及他们如何写出“纸页上的冷酷黑色文字”的。年轻的美国诗人哈特克莱恩于1932年自杀身亡,年仅32岁,他的写作句法有种“坚硬闪光的东西在里面”。鲍德温“对雄辩,高翔的措辞,迅猛推进的节奏,句子尖锐辉煌的回环很着迷”。Such phrasing stands out and suggests the strength of Mr Toibins writing style. In this respect, it is a shame that not more of Mr Toibin comes through. 0bviously fascinated with families, he has written eloquently elsewhere about his relationship with his mother, and has peopled his fiction with fractured family relationships. But in this volume his parents are never mentioned, and any personal recollection is brief. By concentrating only on the liberated voices of others, Mr Toibin has somehow managed to constrict his own.这样的措辞出类拔萃,也显示了托宾行文的强有力。由此看来,非常可惜没有更多托宾的作品取得成功。托宾显然对家人入了迷,在别的地方,他富有表现力地道出和母亲的关系,让自己的小说充满了折裂的家庭关系。但是在这卷书中,托宾的父母没有被提及,个人回忆也一笔带过。和着重描写其他人的无拘无束的语言相比,托宾不知为什么对自己的故事如此压抑。 /201212/213442上饶横峰县去除腋毛多少钱

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