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来源:中华乐园    发布时间:2017年09月27日 03:59:53    编辑:admin         

The Compass指南针The compass is considered to be one of the four great inventions of anaent China.指南针是中国古代“四大发明”之一。Before the compass was invented, people depended upon the position of the sun and stars to tell them the direction when at sea, which only worked when it wasn’t cloudy. The invention of compass solved the problem.在指南针发明以前,人们在茫茫大海上航行,只能靠太阳和星星的位置辨认方向,如果遇上阴雨天,就会迷失方向。而中国人发明的指南针则帮助人们解决了这个难题。Over 2,000 years ago, inthe Warring States Period, Chi-nese ancestors invented the earli-est compass-Si Nan, also known as the South Pointer. Si Nan was composed of two parts:a spoon and a tray. The spoon was cut from an intact piece of natural loadstone, with its handle as the South Pole and s round,smooth bottom as the center ofgravity. The tray, on the other hand, was made of bronze, and at the center, there was a round, smooth groove, carvedwith checks and words indicating the 24 directions. When the spoon was put into the groove, it would rotate flexibly. When the spoon stopped, its handle would point to the south.This instrument was the predecessor of the magnetic compass.早在2000多年前的战国时期,我们祖先就发明了最早的指南针——司南。司南由一把“勺子”和一个“地盘”两部分组成。司南勺由整块磁石制成。它的磁南极那一头琢成长柄,圆圆的底部是它的重心,琢得非常光滑。地盘是个铜质的方盘,中央有个光滑的圆槽,四周刻着格线和表示24个方位的文字。司南勺放迸了地盘就能灵活地转动,在它静止下来的时候,磁石的指极性使长柄总是指向南方。这种仪器就是指南针的前身。However, since was easy for natural loadstone ( magnetic iron oxide) tolose its magnetism, Si Nan could not be widely used. During the Northern Song Dy-nashjt, artificial magnetization was discovered, gMng rise to the Pointing-to-the-South Fish, which was made from a piece of thin iron sheet cut into the shape of a fish, magnetized in a geomagnetic field, and put into water, floating and lying norlh-to-south.However, due to its weak magnetic field, Pointing-to-the-South Fish was not of much pradical value. On the basis of the Pointing-to-the-South Fish,people replaced the thin iron sheet with a magnetized steel needle, gMng rise to the earliest artifiaally magnetic compass.由于天然磁石因打击受热容易失磁,磁性较弱,因而司南不能广泛流传。到宋朝时,有人发现了人造磁铁,进而发明了指南鱼。人们把经过磁化的薄片做成鱼的形状,将其放入水中即能浮在水面并指示正南北方向。后来,人们将指南鱼再加以改进,把带磁的薄片改成带磁的钢针,创造了人造磁体指南针。The compass was soon employed in navigation. The earliest record on using the compass in navigation was in Zhu Yu’s Pin,g Zhou, Ke Tan ( written belween 1119~ 1125 ) ,which recorded Zhu Yu’s experiences in Guangzhou ( South China’s Guangdong Province) , where navigation was highly developed.Zhu also wrote a-bout some of the experienced sailors, The sailors know how to pinpoint the ship’s position; they watch the stars a night and the sun in the day, and when is cloudy, they use the compass.This might be the earliest record on the use of the compass in the world’s navigational his.ory.Initiated by the Chinese people, this newigational instrument was a grand innovation in ncrvigation technology.指南针发明后很快就应用于航海。世界上最早记载指南针应用于航海导航的文献是北宋宣和年间(1119~1125)朱或所著《萍洲可谈》。该书记录了他在广州时的见闻,还记载了申国海船上很有经验的水手:“舟师识地理,夜则观星,昼则观日,阴晦则观指南针。”这是全世界航海史上使用指南针的最早记载。我国人民首创的这种仪器导航方法,是航海技术的重大革新。Soon after, Arabian sea boats also employed the navigation device, and went on to introduce it to the European countries. As Friedrich Engels, pointed out in his book Natural Dialectics,“The magnetic needle arrived in Europe via the Arabs in around 1180.”The stcrtemenf shows the Europeans applied the compass in ncrviga-tion 80 years after the Chinese.中国使用指南针导航不久,就被阿拉伯海船采用,并经阿拉伯人把这一伟大发明传到欧洲。恩格斯在《自然辩法》中指出,“磁针从阿拉伯人传至欧洲人手中在1180年左右”。中国人首先将指南针应用于航海比欧洲人至少早80年。The famous saentist Shen Kuo (the author of Dream Creek Notes ) of the Northern Song Dynasty discovered the existence of magnetic declination( the angu-lar devicrtion of a compass needle from true north) , after performing many saentffic expenments.He pointed out correctly that the magnetic poles of the earth were not in uniformity with the geographic poles. The use of marine compass and the theory of magnetic declincrtion combined played a most important role in the tong-distance sea voyages. For the first time in history, humans were able to navigate freely un-der any kind of weather conditions.Hence many new sea routes were opened to traffic, promoting the exchange of culture and trade among the people of the world.Words fail to describe the compass importance to navigcrtion.北宋著名科学家沈括(《梦溪笔谈》著者),在制作和应用指南针的科学实践中发现了磁偏角的存在。他精辟地指出,这是因为地球上的磁极不正好在南北两极的缘故。指南针及磁偏角理论在远洋航行中发挥了巨大的作用,人类第一次得到了在茫茫大海中航行的自由,从此开辟了许多新的航线,促进了各国人民之间的文化交流与贸易往来。指南针对航海事业的重要意义怎么说也不为过。Joseph Needham, a famous historian, once said to Chinese students:“In the realm of navigation, your ancestors were much more advanced than our ances-tors. Far before Europe, the Chinese aly harnessed the wind power, with the coordination of fore (front)and aft ( rear) sails to navigate in any direction of the wind they encountered.Perhaps for this reason, in the history of navigation, China never used the galleys, which were rowed along by slaves as in anaent Greece or Rome.”西方著名历史学家李约瑟曾对其中国学生说:“你们的祖先在航海方面远比我们的祖先来得先进。中国远在欧洲之前懂得用前、后帆的系统御风而行,或许就是这个原因,在中国航海史上从未用过多桨奴隶船。”The invention of the compass had epochal influence on navigation, opening up a new chapter in the history of world navigation. With its help, Admiral Zheng He made seven voyages across seas to Southeast Asia and around Indian Ocean in the early Ming Dynasty (1368 ~ 1644) , Christopher Columbus discovered the New Word, and Ferdinand Magellan sailed round the world.指南针的发明,给航海事业带来了划时代的影响,世界航运史也由此翻开了新的一页。明朝初期郑和率领船队七下西洋,15世纪哥伦布发现新大陆和麦哲伦环绕地球航行等壮举,都是指南针用于航海事业的结果。 /201512/410738。

The battle between Apple and law enforcement officials over unlocking a terrorist’s smartphone is the culmination of a slow turning of the tables between the technology industry and the ed States government.苹果公司与执法官员就破解一部恐怖分子用过的智能手机展开的战斗,意味着技术行业与美国政府之间发生缓慢改变的局面进入高潮。After revelations by the former National Security Agency contractor Edward J. Snowden in 2013 that the government both cozied up to certain tech companies and hacked into others to gain access to private data on an enormous scale, tech giants began to recognize the ed States government as a hostile actor.美国国家安全局前承包商雇员爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)2013年披露政府通过拉拢某些技术公司,并侵入其他公司来获取规模巨大的私人数据之后,技术行业巨头们开始形成了把美国政府作为一个敌对方的认识。But if the confrontation has crystallized in this latest battle, it may aly be heading toward a predictable conclusion: In the long run, the tech companies are destined to emerge victorious.但是,如果说双方的对抗在这场最新战斗中变明确的话,战斗可能已经在走向一个可预测的结局:从长远来看,技术公司注定会取得胜利。It may not seem that way at the moment. On the one side, you have the ed States government’s mighty legal and security apparatus fighting for data of the most sympathetic sort: the secrets buried in a dead mass murderer’s phone. The action stems from a federal court order issued on Tuesday requiring Apple to help the F.B.I. unlock an iPhone used by one of the two attackers who killed 14 people in San Bernardino, Calif., in December.此时此刻,结局可能看起来不是那样。对手中,一方是美国政府强大的法律和安全机器,它争夺的是那种最能赢得同情的数据:藏在死了的制造群体谋杀的人手机里的秘密。政府的行动源于联邦法院周二的命令,命令要求苹果公司帮助联邦调查局破解去年12月在加利福尼亚州圣贝纳迪诺杀死14人的两名袭击者之一用过的iPhone。In the other corner is the world’s most valuable company, whose chief executive, Timothy D. Cook, has said he will appeal the court’s order. Apple argues that it is fighting to preserve a principle that most of us who are addicted to our smartphones can defend: Weaken a single iPhone so that its contents can be viewed by the American government and you risk weakening all iPhones for any government intruder, anywhere.另一方是世界上市值最高的公司,其首席执行官蒂莫西·D·库克(Timothy D. Cook)表示,他将对法院的命令提出上诉。苹果公司认为,它在为保护一个原则而战,而我们中间那些痴迷于智能手机的大多数人会持这个原则:削弱一部iPhone,使其内容能被美国政府检查,你将面临一种为任何地方的任何政府削弱所有iPhone的风险。There will probably be months of legal tussling, and it is not at all clear which side will prevail in court, nor in the battle for public opinion and legislative favor.可能会有好几个月的法律角逐,哪一方会在法庭占上风还完全不可知,谁会赢得公众舆论和立法者的青睐也不清楚。Yet underlying all of this is a simple dynamic: Apple, Google, Facebook and other companies hold most of the cards in this confrontation. They have our data, and their businesses depend on the global public’s collective belief that they will do everything they can to protect that data.然而,这一切的背后有一个简单的动力:苹果、谷歌、Facebook等公司掌握着控制这场争夺战局势的大部分主动权。它们拥有我们的数据,它们的业务依赖于全球公众的集体信念,那就是公司将尽一切可能来保护这些数据。Any crack in that front could be fatal for tech companies that must operate worldwide. If Apple is forced to open up an iPhone for an American law enforcement investigation, what’s to prevent it from doing so for a request from the Chinese or the Iranians? If Apple is forced to write code that lets the F.B.I. get into the Phone 5c used by Syed Rizwan Farook, the male attacker in the San Bernardino attack, who would be responsible if some hacker got hold of that code and broke into its other devices?这种信念的任何裂纹,对必须在全世界开展业务的技术公司来说,都可能是致命的。如果苹果被迫为美国执法机构的调查破解了一部iPhone的话,有什么能阻止它在中国或者伊朗的要求下这样做呢?如果苹果被迫编写代码、让联邦调查局进入制造圣贝纳迪诺袭击的男子赛义德·里兹万·法鲁克(Syed Rizwan Farook)用过的iPhone 5c的话,如果某个黑客获得了这些代码、用其闯入其他设备,那会由谁来负责呢?Apple’s stance on these issues emerged post-Snowden, when the company started putting in place a series of technologies that, by default, make use of encryption to limit access to people’s data. More than that, Apple — and, in different ways, other tech companies, including Google, Facebook, Twitter and Microsoft — have made their opposition to the government’s claims a point of corporate pride.苹果在这些问题上的立场是在斯诺登出现后形成的,那之后,公司开始采用一系列的技术,这些技术在默认情况下将使用者的数据加密以限制他人访问。不仅如此,苹果、以及包括谷歌、Facebook、Twitter和微软在内的其他公司以不同的方式,都把它们反对政府的主张作为企业的一种骄傲。Apple’s emerging global brand is privacy; it has staked its corporate reputation, not to mention invested its considerable technical and financial resources, on limiting the sort of mass surveillance that was uncovered by Mr. Snowden. So now, for many cases involving governmental intrusions into data, once-lonely privacy advocates find themselves fighting alongside the most powerful company in the world.苹果正在全球显露的新品牌是隐私;它已经把公司的信誉押在限制那种被斯诺登披露的大规模监听监视上,更不用提在这方面投入了公司可观的技术和财务资源。所以在目前,就许多涉及政府侵入数据的案子而言,曾经孤独的隐私倡导者们发现他们正在与世界上最强大的公司一起作战。“A comparison point is in the 1990s battles over encryption,” said Kurt Opsahl, general counsel of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a privacy watchdog group. “Then you had a few companies involved, but not one of the largest companies in the world coming out with a lengthy and impassioned post, like we saw yesterday from Tim Cook. The profile has really been raised.”“可作为比较的事情是20世纪90年代有关加密的争夺战,”隐私监督组织电子前沿基金会(Electronic Frontier Foundation)的法律总顾问库尔特·奥普萨尔(Kurt Opsahl)说。“那时,有几家公司参与其中,但没有世界上最大的公司,用一篇充满的长文站出来表态,就像我们昨天看到的蒂姆·库克所做的那样。现在的确是高调得多了。”Apple and other tech companies hold another ace: the technical means to keep making their devices more and more inaccessible. Note that Apple’s public opposition to the government’s request is itself a hindrance to mass government intrusion. And to get at the contents of a single iPhone, the government says it needs a court order and Apple’s help to write new code; in earlier versions of the iPhone, ones that were created before Apple found religion on privacy, the F.B.I. may have been able to break into the device by itself.苹果及其他科技公司还握有一张王牌:使设备越来越难以侵入的技术手段。需要注意的是,苹果公开回绝政府要求,本身就是对政府大规模侵扰的一种阻碍。政府表示,为了获取这一部iPhone的内容,政府需要获得法庭命令,在苹果的帮助下编写新代码;对于早期版本的iPhone,也就是苹果在隐私保护方面产生执着追求之前的版本,FBI或许自己就能进入这些设备。You can expect that noose to continue to tighten. Experts said that whether or not Apple loses this specific case, measures that it could put into place in the future will almost certainly be able to further limit the government’s reach.预计套索会继续收紧。专家们表示,无论苹果是否输掉这起官司,苹果未来采取的举措几乎肯定会进一步限制政府的影响范围。That’s not to say that the outcome of the San Bernardino case is insignificant. As Apple and several security experts have argued, an order compelling Apple to write software that gives the F.B.I. access to the iPhone in question would establish an unsettling precedent. The order essentially asks Apple to hack its own devices, and once it is in place, the precedent could be used to justify law enforcement efforts to get around encryption technologies in other investigations far removed from national security threats.这不是说圣贝纳迪诺袭击案件的结果不重要。就像苹果及几名安全专家说的那样,下令强迫苹果编写软件,使得FBI可以进入相关的iPhone,会创下一个令人不安的先例。这项命令基本上是要求苹果入侵自己的设备,一旦这么做了,那么在其他远未涉及国家安全威胁的调查中,这个先例就会为绕过加密技术的执法行动提供正当理由。Once armed with a method for gaining access to iPhones, the government could ask to use it proactively, before a suspected terrorist attack — leaving Apple in a bind as to whether to comply or risk an attack and suffer a public-relations nightmare.一旦获得进入iPhone的方法,政府就可以要求在潜在恐怖袭击爆发前主动使用它,致使苹果陷入困境——是遵从命令,还是冒着袭击发生、遭遇公关噩梦的风险。“This is a brand new salvo in the war against encryption,” Mr. Opsahl said. “We’ve had plenty of debates in Congress and the media over whether the government should have a backdoor, and this is an end run around that — here they come with an order to create that backdoor.”“这是反加密一方发起的一场全新的攻击,”奥普萨尔说。“国会和媒体已经就政府是否应该拥有后门的问题展开了很多辩论,现在他们要绕过辩论——直接下令开设后门。”Yet it’s worth noting that even if Apple ultimately loses this case, it has plenty of technical means to close a backdoor over time. “If they’re anywhere near worth their salt as engineers, I bet they’re rethinking their threat model as we speak,” said Jonathan Zdziarski, a digital forensic expert who studies the iPhone and its vulnerabilities.但值得注意的是,即便苹果最终输掉官司,该公司掌握很多可以最终关闭后门的技术。“如果他们是称职的工程师,我打赌此时此刻他们正在重新考虑他们的威胁模型,”研究iPhone及其安全缺陷的数字取专家乔纳森·兹阿尔斯基(Jonathan Zdziarski)说。One relatively simple fix, Mr. Zdziarski said, would be for Apple to modify future versions of the iPhone to require a user to enter a passcode before the phone will accept the sort of modified operating system that the F.B.I. wants Apple to create. That way, Apple could not unilaterally introduce a code that weakens the iPhone — a user would have to consent to it.兹阿尔斯基表示,对于苹果来说,一种相对简单的补救方式就是改变未来推出的iPhone,在手机接受苹果根据FBI的意愿改动过的操作系统前,用户要输入密码来确认。如此一来,苹果不能单方面引入削弱iPhone防护的代码,需要获得用户的同意。“Nothing is 100 percent hacker-proof,” Mr. Zdziarski said, but he pointed out that the judge’s order in this case required Apple to provide “reasonable security assistance” to unlock Mr. Farook’s phone. If Apple alters the security model of future iPhones so that even its own engineers’ “reasonable assistance” will not be able to crack a given device when compelled by the government, a precedent set in this case might lose its lasting force.“没有什么能百分之百防黑客,”兹阿尔斯基说,但他指出法官在这起案件中下令要求苹果提供“合乎情理的安全协助”,破解法鲁克的手机。如果苹果更改未来推出的iPhone的安全模式,以至于政府强迫苹果破解相关设备时,其工程师的‘合乎情理的协助’也无济于事,该案件创下的先例可能也会失去持久力。In other words, even if the F.B.I. wins this case, in the long run, it loses.换句话说,即便FBI赢了这场官司,从长远来看,他们还是会输。 /201602/427271。

First came ;How-old.net; - developed by Microsoft to detect the ages of people in photos. Now the company has launched a new application programming interface (API), on November 11, which equally amazingly can recognise emotions.前阵子, 大家为了弄清楚自己看上去有多老(多年轻)这一严肃而永恒的课题, 纷纷跑去颜龄网站how-old.net传照片做测试, 尘埃刚落, 微软公司11日又推出了测试情绪的工具。The demo of the #39;Emotion Recognition#39; API can be found at the website of Project Oxford (https://www.projectoxford.ai/demo/emotion#detection), where there are aly some sample pictures to help you understand how the process works.微软在其 ;牛津计划; 网站公布了通过照片识别情绪的工具小样。用法很简单, 只要把照片上传, 面部识别软件和人工智能就会生成结果, 告诉你照片表情中包含的各种情绪及其所占比重。This is what you need to do:1) upload an image to the website, then2) move your mouse over the face in the imageAfterwards, a box should pop up giving you the results. So far 8 different types of emotions can be recognised by the software:8种情绪—愤怒, 蔑视, 厌恶, 恐惧, 快乐, 中性,悲伤, 惊讶—每次都会逐一列出, 比重之和是1,数值最大的自然是最主要的情感。Project Oxford is Microsoft#39;s special section researching Artificial Intelligence. It provides individual developers with data analysis tools, which they can then use to develop their own Apps in any way they like. For example, this emotion recognition technology could be developed into a lighthearted App to guess someone#39;s mood.牛津计划不只是人脸识别,它包括四类:- 人脸识别;- 语音识别;- 计算机视觉 (理解图像并智能产生缩略图);- 语言理解智能务 (为APP打造对自然语言命令的理解能力)Above is a sample picture on the official website, showing a 100% happy face.小编并不觉得这个笑容是100%纯度的开心。 /201511/409927。

Apple released on Wednesday the first significant update to its iOS 9 software for iPhones and iPads, though it might matter most to those who like to send emoji-laden messages about food.这周三,苹果首次推出iPhone和iPad的iOS 9升级。此次升级满足了许多喜欢使用emoji表情的用户需求,添加了许多有关食物的表情。The iOS 9.1 update is available now to all iOS 9 users. Outward facing changes include new emojis such as a taco, hot dog, champagne and a unicorn. Live Photos has also been fixed so that the camera stops recording if it detects that the iPhone has been lowered. It also fixes bugs in tools like CarPlay and the app switcher.现在iOS 9.1已经可以适配所有的iOS 9用户。新的表情包包括玉米饼、热、香槟酒还有独角兽。拍照功能经过升级,在探测到用户手机向下放后停止取景。同时,升级也修复了CarPlay和应用间切换的问题。In other words, the fixes are fairly minor compared with the iOS 7.1 and iOS 8.1 updates in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Last year#39;s update added support for Apple Pay, brought back the camera roll and launched the iCloud photo library. iOS 7.1 rolled out CarPlay and iTunes Radio, as well as tweaking the Siri digital voice assistant.但是,同2013年的iOS 7.1和2014年的iOS 8.1相比,这次升级改动并不大。去年的升级添加了苹果付,重新用上照相机滚动功能和iCloud相片图书馆。iOS7.1推出了CarPlay和iTunes 收音机,同时还有Siri电子语音助手。Apple, which updates iOS every year, needs to keep the system fresh to maintain customers#39; interest in its products and ensure that software developers keep making apps for its platform. The refreshes are also vital to keep Apple in step with competitors like Google, whose Google Now and Google Now On Top features provide predictive capabilities to users of phones that run on the company#39;s Android software.为了保系统的创新和让用户始终对产品保留兴趣,苹果公司每年都会更新iOS系统,以保软件开发者可以在平台上开发新的应用程序。谷歌之前发布的Google Now和Google Now On Top以公司安卓软件为平台,为用户提供一系列预测功能。为了同谷歌等竞争对手相抗争,苹果系统更新尤为重要。As of Monday, 61 percent of people who use Apple#39;s mobile gadgets had upgraded to iOS 9, according to Apple#39;s developer site. Another 30 percent were still using iOS 8, and 9 percent were using older versions of Apple#39;s mobile software.根据苹果开发网站的数据,截至周一,61%的苹果用户已经升级为iOS 9。30%的用户使用iOS 8,9%的使用更老的系统。The company released iOS 9 last month. The software includes changes designed to make iPhones and iPads far more able to predict an owner#39;s needs and interests. Among some of the new features for iOS 9, it can automatically suggest apps to load or people to contact based on a person#39;s usage patterns. iOS 9 also comes with updates to Siri to give the voice assistant a new interface and allow it to remind a user of appointments without being told to ahead of time.上个月,苹果推出了iOS 9。升级为iPhone和iPad带来了更多可以预测用户需要和兴趣的功能。在iOS 9的新系统中,根据用户的使用类型,可以自动推荐应用程序下载或联系人。iOS 9也升级了Siri,更新了语音助手的界面,无需机主告知,Siri就可以自动提醒预约事件。 /201510/406316。

On Wednesday morning, during Google’s annual meeting, a shareholder named John M. Simpson stood up to question the company’s top executives about its self-driving car program. They were not friendly questions.周三早上,谷歌(Google)举行年会时,一位名叫约翰·M·辛普森(John M. Simpson)的股东站起来,向公司的高管提问关于自动驾驶汽车项目的问题。这些问题可并不友好。Simpson, 67, works for a nonprofit called Consumer Watchdog, where he directs its Privacy Project. In recent years, he has focused largely on Google, which, he told me, he hopes to prod into “being more respectful of people’s privacy when they do business.” Owning Google stock allows him to ask questions at the annual meeting.67岁的辛普森供职于一家名为消费者监督(Consumer Watchdog)的非营利机构,是该机构隐私项目(Privacy Project)的主管。近几年来,他基本上都在关注谷歌,他告诉我,他希望督促这家公司“在经营业务时更尊重人们的隐私”。由于持有谷歌的股份,他可以在一年一度的会议上提问。In the run-up to this week’s meeting, Simpson issued a string of press releases critical of Google’s self-driving vehicles. He feared that Google would collect data from car owners, stripping away even more of people’s privacy. He noted that Google’s “autonomous cars,” as they’re called, have been involved in 11 accidents (two recent fender-benders brings it up to 13). He listed what he said were the technology’s flaws: for instance, that it can’t make out hand signals from a driver in another car.在本周的会议召开之前,辛普森发表了一系列新闻稿批评谷歌的自动驾驶汽车。他担心,谷歌会收集车主的数据,盘剥人们更多的隐私。他注意到,已经有11宗事故(算上最近的两次剐蹭,共有13宗)都涉及谷歌的所谓“自动汽车”。他提到了一些在他看来属于技术缺陷的问题,例如,不能理解另一辆车中司机做出的手势。Finally, Simpson noted that Google — and Google alone — envisions cars that have no steering wheels or brakes, cars where everyone is a passenger. Simpson views this as Google’s hubris, pointing out that other car companies view self-driving technology as a complement, not replacement, for the driver. “We think there always needs to be the ability of a human to take over if need be,” he told me. Having looked into it more closely, I’ve come to the opposite conclusion.最后,辛普森提到,谷歌——只有谷歌——构想的是一种没有方向盘、没有刹车的汽车,所有人都是乘客。辛普森认为,这是谷歌的傲慢。他指出,其他汽车公司认为,自动驾驶技术对司机是一种补充,而不是替代。“我们认为,让人类在必要时控制车辆,这一点总是需要的,”他告诉我。在更仔细地研究过这一问题之后,我得出了相反的结论。Google’s effort to build a self-driving car is part of the division called Google X, led by a scientist with the too perfect name of Astro Teller. The goal of Google X is to attempt “moonshots” — efforts that require a radical solution that, if they succeed, would solve a huge problem (while making a nice return for Google, of course). The big problem self-driving cars could help solve, said Teller in a recent speech, is the “1.2 million people who die every year in car accidents.”谷歌制造自动驾驶汽车的项目,是一个称作Google X的部门开展的。领导这个部门的科学家有一个再合适不过的名字,叫做阿斯特罗·泰勒(Astro Teller,意为“星际揭秘者”——译注)。Google X的目标是尝试“瞄准月亮开炮”——这样志存高远的项目需要激进的解决方案,如果成功的话可以解决重大问题(当然也可以为谷歌带来丰厚的回报)。泰勒在最近的一次演讲中说道,自动驾驶汽车可以解决的重大问题是,“每年在行车事故中有120万人丧生”。During the six years Google has been working on self-driving technology, its cars have been taught to understand how to traverse the roads. With their combination of robotics, sensors and computing power, they know how to stop at a stop sign, look for oncoming pedestrians, change lanes, get on the freeway and anticipate all the various problems that drivers face.在谷歌研究自动驾驶技术的六年时间里,研究人员已经让谷歌汽车学会了在马路上如何通行。通过综合运用机器人技术、传感器和计算能力,这些汽车懂得怎样在停车标牌前停车、注意走来的行人、变道、驶入高速路,并为司机遇到的各种问题预先做好准备。Using retrofitted Lexuses, Google has driven a million miles autonomously. More recently, it has built several dozen small cars without steering wheels and brakes and is y to test them in the streets of Mountain View, Calif. (though the State of California is insisting that Google add a steering wheel and brakes to the cars it sends out for this experiment).谷歌使用经过改装的雷克萨斯(Lexus)汽车,已经自动驾驶了100万英里。最近,谷歌还制造了数十辆没有方向盘和刹车的小轿车,而且已经准备好在加利福尼亚州山景市(Mountain View)的街道上进行试驾。(不过加州参议院坚持要求谷歌在开上街头试驾的车辆中,增加方向盘和刹车。)It’s true that Google is alone in envisioning a world of completely driverless cars, while other car companies see self-driving technology as merely an extra feature that can be turned off. Google’s conclusion is not the result of hubris, however. Unlike its new cars, the retrofitted Lexuses also allow for human driving.的确,只有谷歌在构想一个汽车完全无人驾驶的世界,而其他汽车厂商认为,自动驾驶技术只是一个可以关闭的额外功能。但是谷歌得出这样的论断并不是因为傲慢。不像谷歌新制造的汽车那样,改装的雷克萨斯也允许人类驾驶。Google realized that when people had the ability to drive autonomously, they paid less attention to what they were doing. “People don’t even pay attention to driving when they are driving,” said Teller. The cars, which have 360-degree vision and can “see” much further ahead than humans, were at their safest when people didn’t have the option of taking the controls.谷歌发现,尽管人类有自主驾驶汽车的能力,但他们对自己正在做的事情付出的注意力更少。“人们在开车的时候,甚至都不去注意与开车相关的事情,”泰勒说。这些汽车有着360度的视野,可以“看到”的距离远比人类远,不提供让人类控制的选项,反而是最安全的。Alain Kornhauser, a self-driving car expert at Princeton University, pointed out to me that when the auto companies install autonomous features to aid drivers, it won’t be the humans who escape accidents by taking over from the technology — which is what Simpson assumes. Rather, the technology will step in to override human error.普林斯顿大学(Princeton University)的自动驾驶汽车专家艾伦·科恩豪泽(Alain Kornhauser)指出,汽车厂商为了辅助驾驶员而安装了自动驾驶技术,但这不是像辛普森所设想的那样,让人类从科技手中夺过驾驶权,进而从事故中脱身,而是让技术介入,纠正人类的错误。Google notes that in every accident its cars have been involved in, all of them minor, the self-driving cars have never been at fault — except on the one occasion when a Google driver took the controls. And all the “flaws” Simpson notes are things that Google has either solved or is in the process of solving.谷歌提到,涉及该公司汽车的事故都是小事故,而且任何一起事故中,自动驾驶汽车都没有责任——只有一起除外,而那次事故中谷歌的驾驶员掌握了方向盘。而且辛普森提到的所有“缺陷”,谷歌不是已经解决,就是正在解决过程中。At the annual meeting, Simpson asked Google if it would pledge not to use any customer data it gathers from driverless cars for marketing purposes. David Drummond, the company’s general counsel, ducked the question, saying it was too early to make any such pledge. Simpson also asked Google to release the accident reports. In truth, Google has released plenty of information about the accidents, and on Friday began issuing monthly reports that include descriptions of accidents.在年会上,辛普森询问谷歌,是否愿意承诺,不将无人驾驶汽车中搜集的顾客数据用于营销目的。谷歌首席法务官戴维·德拉蒙德(David Drummond)回避了这个问题,称现在做出任何此类承诺都为时过早。辛普森还要求谷歌公布相关的事故报告。实际上,谷歌发布了很多关于事故的信息,而且开始在周五发布月度报告,其中包括对事故的描述。Simpson and other consumer advocates are right to press Google — and all the big tech companies — on privacy issues. The profligate use of our data has become a big concern for many Americans. But on the question of whether Google should be promoting completely autonomous cars, he couldn’t be more wrong. The sooner they are a reality, the safer we’ll all be.#9744;辛普森和其他消费者权益倡导人士就隐私议题向谷歌(以及所有大型科技企业)施压是正确的。对我们的数据的恣意使用,已经成了许多美国人担心的大问题。至于谷歌是不是应该推广完全自动驾驶的汽车,他真是大错特错。它们越早成为现实,我们大家就越安全。 /201506/380102。

It is certainly a unique idea - an anonymous app that lets you chat from the toilet with others in a similar position.有一款手机应用,可以让你在如厕时和其他正在上厕所的人进行匿名交流,这个创意不错吧?Called Pooductive, the app was originally launched via Kickstarter, but failed to raise enough funds. Now developer Ricardo Gruber has released it for free, claiming it will help charities - and allow people to discuss their toilet habits.这款名为“Pooductive”的应用最初发布在Kickstarter(一家著名的众筹网站)上,但是没能筹到足够的资金。现在应用开发者里卡多·格鲁伯(Ricardo Gruber)决定将其免费发布,称该应用有助于慈善机构的工作,并且使人们畅谈如厕习惯。The site also explains the app has a serious message. #39;We hope to connect Pooductive with some big charities that focus on both clean water and improving hygiene in developing countries.#39;该网站称,这款应用还有一个重要的目的。“我们希望把 Pooductive与一些关注发展中国家清洁用水和改善卫生条件的大型公益组织联系起来。”However, a recent study found that the app is likely to face stiff competition from rival messaging apps like WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger, which have 800 million and 700 million active users respectively.然而,最近一项研究发现,Pooductive很可能会面临激烈的竞争,因为即时通讯应用WhatsApp和Facebook即时通分别有8亿和7亿活跃用户。In a study of mobile phone habits, about 75 per cent of those questioned admitted to surfing the web, using apps, emailng and texting while in the toilet - with more than 90 per cent saying they had returned calls.在一项针对手机使用习惯的研究发现,75%的受访者表示,他们在如厕时会浏览网页、玩应用、发邮件、发短信,超过90%的受访者会回电话。According to the website Wtop.com, one in five men said they had participated in conference calls while sitting on their porcelain throne - seemingly unfazed by the prospect of accidentally activating the iPhone FaceTime feature or the potential for people to hear dubious noises coming from the cubicle.据Wtop.com网站消息,20%的男性表示,他们在如厕时会参加电话会议,似乎他们并不担心一不小心启动iPhone视频电话功能,或者其他人听到隔壁隔间里发出的可疑声音。The research, which surveyed 1,000 people, also revealed that cubicle activities would be determined by the type of Smartphone you owned.这项针对1,000人的研究还显示,如厕习惯可能取决于你使用的智能手机。People who like to multi-task, by doing a number of things while using a range of apps, were likely to be Android owners. While no-nonsense Blackberry users tended to take and make calls. Those with iPhones were more like to be playing with apps.安卓用户可能更喜欢一心多用,同时打开多个应用做很多事。黑莓用户一般很严肃、实际,只接打电话。而苹果用户更倾向于玩应用程序。 /201508/395008。