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宜昌包皮包茎手术多少费用周健康

2019年07月22日 02:00:00|来源:国际在线|编辑:百姓指南
“QUOTATIONS FROM CHAIRMAN MAO” is the book that gave new meaning to the term “must-.” First published in 1964, and distributed by the hundreds of millions, it was the catechism of the Cultural Revolution, a compendium of snippets from speeches and writings by Mao Zedong that each and every Chinese citizen was expected not just to flip through, but also to study, memorize and recite.《毛主席语录》为“必读”一词赋予了新的涵义。该书于1964年首版,发行了上亿本,堪称“文化大革命”的教义手册。它是毛泽东的讲话与文章的片段摘要,每个中国人都应当阅读,不是草草翻阅,而是仔细研究和背诵,脱口就能引用。Pop quizzes separated the good students from the bad, with the threat of serious consequences. Shoppers who turned up at the state food stores, for example, could expect a thorough grilling before they were waved through — or not.对《语录》的突击测验能把毛主席的好学生与坏学生区分开来,坏学生会面临很严重的后果。比如说,去国营食品店买东西的顾客就会遭到详细的盘问,之后才能获准购物——也许还会被拒之门外。“The Little Red Book,” as it came to be known outside China, a reference to its red binding, is the subject of “Quotations of Chairman Mao: 50th Anniversary Exhibition, 1964-2014,” at the Grolier Club, where it opened on Wednesday. The exhibition puts on display books and propaganda material from the collection of Justin G. Schiller, an antiquarian book seller who, with his partner, Dennis M. V. David, runs Battledore Ltd. in Kingston, N.Y.在中国以外的地方,这本书因其红色装帧被称为“小红书”。星期三,一场名为“毛主席语录:50周年展,1964-2014”在格罗列尔俱乐部举行,主题正是“小红书”。该展览将展出贾斯汀·G·希勒(Justin G. Schiller)收集的书籍和宣传材料,他是一位古董书商,与合作伙伴丹尼斯·M·V·大卫(Dennis M. V. David)共同在纽约州金斯顿经营“板羽球”有限公司。Mr. Schiller, known as a specialist in children’s books, especially the work of Maurice Sendak, developed his somewhat unusual fixation on a trip to China in 1998, when he visited the National Library in Beijing and asked how to identify a first edition of the “Quotations.”希勒是童书专家,特别精通莫里斯·桑达克(Maurice Sendak)的书籍,1998年他访问中国期间才开始有了这个多少有些不同寻常的爱好。当时他去北京的国家图书馆,想问如何鉴别第一版的《语录》。The complicated answer led him down a winding trail. He got his hands on a first edition, but soon became intrigued by the Cultural Revolution and Mao worship, epitomized in the “Quotations” and its myriad spinoffs: propaganda posters, toys, decorated mirrors, carafes, tea trays and lapel pins, all represented in the Grolier exhibition.这个复杂的问题引着他走上了一条曲折的道路。他搞到了一本初版《语录》,《语录》所代表的“文化大革命”和对毛的个人崇拜很快就激起了他的强烈兴趣,此外《语录》还有无数衍生品:政治宣传画、玩具、用语录装饰的镜子、玻璃水瓶、茶碟和像章,这些物品都在格罗列尔的展览上展出。“I became interested in the whole pattern of how the book grew and developed,” Mr. Schiller said. “Ultimately, my interest grew into a collection.”“我开始对这本书的整个发展方式感兴趣,”希勒说,“最终,我的兴趣进一步发展成为收藏。”The exhibition begins at the beginning, and even before, with several precursor anthologies that can be seen as steppingstones to the “Quotations,” first issued with a white paper cover in spring 1964. Vinyl bindings in three shades of blue were tried out, but within a few months, the red vinyl cover with an incised red star in the center, now familiar, appeared, and red it remained, all over the world. One of the more arresting display cases includes nearly identical copies of the “Quotations” in dozens of languages, from Albanian to Uighur.展览以《语录》的开端作为开始,甚至可以说更早——它们是若干早期选集,于1964年春出版,可以被视为《语录》的铺路石。它们是白色的平装封面,还有塑胶外封,尝试了三种色调的蓝色。但是几个月后,正中雕有立体红星的红色塑封版就出炉了,这个红色的版本如今已经为人们所熟悉,一直保留下来,传遍全球。一个更引人瞩目的展柜中放着《语录》的数十个不同语言版本,从阿尔巴尼亚语到维吾尔语,它们看上去几乎一模一样。It was Lin Biao, Mao’s minister of defense and, for a time, his designated successor, who hit on the idea of presenting the leader’s thoughts in an easily digested format. Aware that the often poorly educated soldiers of the People’s Liberation Army had, at best, a rudimentary understanding of Mao’s political ideas, Lin ordered the army newspaper to publish brief excerpts from Mao every day. These could be absorbed in bite-size pieces and then analyzed by each brigade in evening study sessions guided by superior officers.林彪是毛的国防部长,也一度是他钦点的接班人。正是林彪想出了把领袖的观点编纂成容易理解的形式。林彪知道中国人民解放军的士兵大都没受过良好教育,至多也只能粗略理解毛的政治观点,便要求解放军的报纸每天配发毛的简短语录。这些语录应当被浓缩为格言的长度,然后在部队军官组织的晚间学习中进行分析。The newspaper feature proved so successful that the army’s General Political Department put together a book, with Mao’s thoughts organized by topic into 30 chapters. By the time the canonical third edition came out in 1965, the anthology ran to 270 pages, with 33 chapters and 427 ations. The presses ran overtime to churn out enough copies to put in the hands of every Chinese citizen.报纸登出的语录大受欢迎,于是解放军总政治部将它们集结成册,把毛的思想按主题编纂为30章。1965年出版了权威的第三版,页数是270页,共有33章,收录427条语录。印刷厂加班加点,让中国人可以人手拥有一册。By 1967, about 700 million books had been printed, and it has been estimated that five billion copies had been printed by the end of the 20th century, with editions in 52 languages. Mr. Schiller has copies in all but two of them, Pashto and Turkish. A Braille edition is included in the exhibition.1967年,《语录》的印数已经达到7亿本,到20世纪末,总印数估计在50万册,共有52个语言的版本,希勒先生手中只差普什图语版和土耳其语版,展览中还收录有盲文版。Many copies ended up being a few pages shorter. In 1971, Lin, rumored to be plotting against Mao, fled China and died when his airplane crashed in Mongolia. A Party decree required anyone who had the “Quotations” to rip out from the book’s opening pages Lin’s endorsement, in his reproduced calligraphy, and, where applicable, a preface he wrote in December 1966.很多版本都缺少几页。1971年,被传阴谋反毛的林彪逃离中国,因飞机失事死于蒙古境内。一项党的命令要求所有人把《语录》扉页的林彪毛笔书法题词撕去,此外还有他在1966年12月写的序言。The prose of the “Quotations” was prosaic — “The masses have a potentially inexhaustible enthusiasm for socialism,” one typical excerpt begins — and at times baffling. It is hard to know what lesson even the most ardent Communist might have drawn from this: “One can get a grip on something only when it is grasped firmly, without the slightest slackening. Not to grasp firmly is not to grasp at all. Naturally, one cannot get a grip on something with an open hand. When the hand is clenched as if grasping something but is not clenched tightly, there is still no grip.”《语录》中有的句子很乏味——“群众中蕴藏了一种极大的社会主义的积极性”——其中典型的一段是这么开始的;有时也让人困惑。“什么东西只有抓得很紧,毫不放松,才能抓住。抓而不紧,等于不抓。伸着巴掌,当然什么也抓不住。就是把手握起来,但是不握紧,样子象抓,还是抓不住东西。”最热忱的共产党员能够从中学到什么东西不得而知。The words hardly mattered. The book held sway as a symbol, not a program of ideas, which is why it lent itself so ily to propaganda uses. Bold posters showed crowds holding the book aloft, their faces radiant with joy. At home, citizens could pour water from a “Little Red Book” carafe, wake up to a “Little Red Book” alarm clock with a soldier’s arm waving the book back and forth, and watch as their children played with rubber “Little Red Book” dolls.这些语言没有什么关系。挥舞这本书已经成为一种象征,而不是为了传达观念,所以它才那么容易就被作为政治宣传之用。醒目的招贴画上,可以看到人们高高举起这本书,脸上闪烁着快乐的光芒。在家里,人们用印有“红宝书”的水瓶倒水,伴随着“红宝书”闹铃声起床,闹钟上有个士兵高举着这本书,胳膊来回挥舞,孩子们则用橡胶的“红宝书”娃娃做游戏。One of the more intriguing examples is a rosy-cheeked boy who holds a rifle in one hand, a red book in the other, and presses one foot firmly down on the head of an American soldier with a military policeman’s helmet. “They squeak when you press them,” Mr. Schiller said.更有趣的是一个脸色红润的男孩,一手拿来复,一手举红宝书,脚下稳稳地踩着一个美国士兵的脑袋。士兵还戴着军警头盔,“一捏它就会发出吱吱声,希勒说。”There is a book of songs, “Quotations of Chairman Mao Tse-tung Set to Music,” that includes ditties like “A Revolution Is Not a Dinner Party.” Mr. Schiller owns a “Quotations” LP that came with an exercise book, so that listeners could get a Party-endorsed workout while enjoying the music.此外还有歌本,《毛主席语录歌曲集》中收入了《革命不是请客吃饭》等小曲。希勒有一张《语录》歌曲的黑胶唱片,还附有一个体操手册,听者可以一边欣赏音乐,一边做经党批准的体操锻炼。In the West, the book commanded the attention of two audiences. The Maoist faithful, small in numbers but fervent, drank it in like a revolutionary elixir. Publishers saw it as an invitation to sell parody books, both satirical (“Quotations From Chairman L.B.J.”) and serious (“Quotations From Chairman Jesus”). Such was the power of the brand that, decades after Mao’s death, publishers churned out “Quotations” parodies for Jesse Ventura and Tony Blair.在西方,这本书主要吸引两种读者。一种是忠诚的毛主义者,他们人数虽少,但却非常狂热,将之视为革命的灵丹妙药,照单全收。另外就是觉得可以趁此机会卖点戏仿书籍的出版商。这些戏仿有的是讽刺,如《林敦·约翰逊主席语录》(Quotations From Chairman L.B.J.);有的是严肃的,如《耶稣主席语录》(Quotations From Chairman Jesus)。这就是品牌的力量,以至于毛去世几十年后,出版商还在炮制戏仿的杰西·文图拉(Jesse Ventura)和托尼·布莱尔(Tony Blair)语录。Readers inclined to scoff at what is probably the world’s most popular book, after the Bible, might take a look at the American best-seller lists in the mid-1960s, when the Cultural Revolution kicked into gear. While thousands of Red Guard zealots held the red book aloft, shouting revolutionary slogans, American ers thrilled to “Valley of the Dolls” and “How to Avoid Probate.” There is no accounting for taste.《毛主席语录》或许是这个世界上最畅销的书籍,仅次于《圣经》,倾向于嘲弄这本书的人不妨看看美国60年代中期的畅销书单,当时“文化大革命”刚刚开始。当成千上万狂热的红卫兵高举红宝书,高呼革命口号的时候,美国读者正在为《娃娃谷》(Valley of the Dolls)和《怎样避免遗嘱认》(How to Avoid Probate)而着迷。品味这东西真是很难说。 /201411/343587While the debate about legalisation of cannabis is endlessly fascinating, it obscures the vital question of how to design a system of legal availability.虽然关于大麻合法化的辩论总能激起人们的兴趣,但它遮盖了一个重要问题:如何设计出一套合法供应的体系?Prohibition produces some very bad results. It deprives millions of people of the liberty to pursue what would be, for them, a harmless pleasure. It creates an illicit market that delivers tens of billions of dollars a year to criminals. It leads to large numbers of arrests (mostly for possession for personal use) and a smaller but substantial number of incarcerations (mostly for growing or dealing). The black market fuels corruption and violence worldwide.禁令带来一些很糟糕的后果。它剥夺了数以百万计的人无害享乐的自由。它滋生了非法市场,每年几百亿美元落入犯罪分子手中。有许多人被捕(多数是因为持有大麻自用),还有数目较少但仍相当可观的人入狱(多数是因为种植或交易大麻)。黑市在全球各地助燃着腐败和暴力。On the other hand, prohibition maintains high prices, discouraging heavy use and use by minors. The problem is how to shed the harms of prohibition while minimising the harms of legalisation. The desirable outcomes are cannabis available to adults who want to use it in moderation and abolition of the illicit trade but without significant increases in habitual heavy use or in more-than-occasional use by minors. Alas, current legalisation efforts in the US, replacing prohibition with commercial production and sale after the fashion of alcohol, have little prospect of getting us there.另一方面,禁令的好处是,它维持了大麻的高价,从而减少了大量使用大麻和未成年人使用大麻的现象。问题是怎样既能消除禁令的弊端,又能尽量减少合法化的危害。理想的结果是,让想要适度吸食的成年人能够获得大麻,从而取缔非法交易,同时又不导致习惯性滥大麻或是未成年人频繁吸食大麻的情况显著增加。可惜的是,美国当前的合法化努力方向是用商业生产和销售取代禁令,就像对待酒类那样,这意味着实现上述目标的机会渺茫。Some rise in problem use is inevitable if cannabis becomes cheaper and more available. But a move to commercialisation multiplies the risks. A licit industry would be financially dependent on the minority of consumers who become chemically dependent, just as the alcohol industry derives most of its revenue from periodic binge drinkers and chronic alcoholics. Alcohol and cannabis follow the 80-20 law: 20 per cent of the user population accounts for 80 per cent of sales, and most of those heavy users suffer from substance abuse. The commercial interests of the cannabis industry would therefore be in direct conflict with the public interest, and the industry would have both means and motive to use its muscle to resist measures to limit drug abuse.如果大麻价格降低、供应增加,滥用的现象难免会上升。但商业化之后,风险会成倍增加。合法化的行业将在经济上依赖一小部分上瘾的顾客,正如酒业的营收大多来自经常豪饮者和长期酗酒者一样。酒类和大麻均适用“80-20定律”:20%的顾客群贡献80%的销售额,大部分“重度消费者”有物质滥用问题。因此,大麻行业的商业利益将与公共利益直接冲突。该行业将有动机和手段来阻挠限制滥用的措施。Cannabis is naturally cheap; only prohibition makes it expensive. The Rand Corporation’s Drug Policy Research Center in the US has estimated the free-market price at no more than 10 per cent of the current illicit-market price. Since an hour stoned aly costs less than an hour drunk, casual users would gain little from lower prices – even now the cost barely registers in their personal budgets. But for cash-strapped teens and heavy users, a cost of pennies per cannabis cigarette would be an invitation to dive in; and a for-profit industry would reinforce that invitation with relentless promotion.大麻本来很便宜,只是禁令才让它值钱。美国兰德公司(Rand Corporation)毒品政策研究中心(Drug Policy Research Center)估计,自由市场的价格不会超过目前非法市场价格的10%。既然沉迷于一小时大麻影响的成本已经比买一小时的醉便宜,偶尔享用的消费者很难从降价中获得什么好处——即使是现在,抽大麻在他们的预算里也占不了多大份量。但对于大量吸食的消费者和囊中羞涩的青少年而言,几分钱一根的大麻烟将非常诱人。而谋求利润的行业将用不断的促销加强这种诱惑。High taxes and tight marketing restrictions might, in principle, curb the damage. But why should we expect such measures to surmount industry opposition? Here, again, the case of alcohol provides fair warning.征收重税和严格限制营销在理论上可能会控制住危害。但凭什么认为这些措施能战胜行业的反对?在这方面,酒类的案例再次提供了合理的警告。A large increase in problem use might be a price worth paying to rid ourselves of the many ills attendant on prohibition. But it is not a price we have to pay. Smarter policies could lead to better outcomes.为摆脱禁令带来的诸多弊病,滥用大麻现象的大幅增加或许是值得付出的代价,但这并不是非得付出的代价。更明智的政策有望产生更好的效果。Legal production and sale could be restricted to consumer co-operatives; to not-for-profit enterprises with trustees charged with preventing abuse; or to a state monopoly run as a branch of the health service rather than the revenue agency. Non-commercial vendors would be less likely to offer cannabis-infused sweets in packaging that mimics children’s sweets or infuse cannabis into fruit-flavoured drinks, as now offered by the “medical marijuana” industry in the US.合法产销的范围可以限定于:消费者合作社,有受托人负责防止滥用的非盈利企业,或者一个国有垄断机构,作为医疗务(而非税务部门)的某个分来运行。非商业的供应商不太可能会像目前美国的“医用大麻”行业那样,售卖富含大麻成分、包装模仿儿童糖果的甜食,或是将大麻成分加入果味饮料。One measure to limit abuse – consistent with either commercial or non-commercial distribution – would be user-set personal periodic limits on consumption: an instance of the “libertarian paternalist” strategy of “nudges” toward sensible behaviour.有一项限制滥用的措施既适合商业经销,又适合非商业经销:让消费者自己设定在一个周期内的消费量。这是“自由意志家长主义”将人们向理智行为“轻推”的体现。Almost no one plans to become a heavy daily user. Abuse is the accretion of countless undramatic decisions, each taken under the lure of current amusement, pleasure or relief, and neglecting the future. If each user, on starting to purchase cannabis, were required to choose a personal monthly a, to be enforced by retailers, users’ long-term interests might have a fighting chance of competing with short-term impulses. Persuading people to set such limits would require persuading them that they are at risk of falling prey to cannabis abuse. Users could increase their limit but only with, say, two weeks’ notice; in the meantime, retailers would be required to dishonour purchase requests above the limit.几乎没有人希望每天吸食很多大麻。滥用是无数个小决定的累积,每个小决定则来自及时行乐(不管是消遣、追求快感还是放松)、忘记未来的诱惑。如果每位消费者在开始购买大麻时被要求选择每月的消费量,并由零售商执行,那么消费者的长期利益或许有机会与短期冲动较量一番。既然要说人们为自己设限,就需要说他们认识到陷入大麻滥用的风险。消费者可以提高自己的限额,但必须事先通知(如提前两周)。与此同时,零售商将必须拒绝超限的购买请求。User-set limits would impinge on no one’s liberty; a consumer who did not want such protection could simply set a high limit to start with. Of course, some would do so, and some would progress to dependency by repeatedly raising their personal as. But others, made mindful of the fact that their consumption was exceeding their original intentions, might leave the limits in place, using them as props to moderation.让消费者自己设定限额,不会妨碍任何人的自由:不希望得到保护的消费者只需一开始将限额设高即可。当然,有人确实会这样做,也有人会一再提高个人限额,慢慢上瘾。但其他人在意识到自己的消费量正在超过最初指标之后,可能不去修改限额,而是把它当作促进节制的机制。Perhaps continued prohibition is the worst option. But turning the business over to a money-hungry industry might well be the second worst. Why not choose better?继续禁止大麻或许是最糟糕的选择。但将生意完全交给唯利是图的行业,恐怕是第二糟糕的选择。为何不选择更好的方案? /201402/275098

As China’s equity markets cool and its currency is devalued, attention will return to the question of whether its property market is heading for a fall. In my view the boom days are over, but with buyers required to put at least 30 per cent cash down, the risks of a crisis are low.随着中国股市降温和人民币贬值,人们的注意力将重新回到中国房地产市场是否步入下行通道的问题。在我看来,房地产繁荣期已经结束,但由于房地产买家被要求付至少30%的首付款,发生危机的风险很低。The housing market is one of the most important parts of the economy, and one of the most misunderstood. Important because residential real estate and construction account directly for more than 10 per cent of gross domestic product. Misunderstood because few observers appear to grasp the structure of the residential property market.住房市场是中国经济最重要的领域之一,也是被误解程度最深的领域之一。重要是因为住宅房地产直接占到10%以上的国内生产总值(GDP)。误解是因为似乎很少有观察人士真正理解中国住宅房地产市场的结构。Under the Communist party most workers have been allowed to buy their government housing at a steep discount to market value, with the result that the home ownership rate is among the highest in the world: 89 per cent, compared with about 64 per cent in the US and the UK. But this does not mean the appetite for new homes has been sated. A large share of homes are substandard, so demand for upgrading is significant. Only 55 per cent of the population is urban, a share that will continue to rise, driving demand for housing.在党管一切的时代,大部分工人被允许以大幅低于市场价的价格购买政府住房,结果是中国住房拥有率高达89%,跻身世界最高水平之列,而美国和英国的住房拥有率大约为64%。但这并不意味着中国人购置新房的愿望都得到了满足。相当大一部分住房不合标准,因此升级需求非常可观。只有55%的人口住在城镇,城镇人口比例还会继续上升,推动住房需求。Almost all new homes sold in China are apartments, not single family homes. Some 80 per cent of those apartments are bought one year or more before construction of the building will be finished, known as presale. That is one reason it takes time for new Chinese cities to fill up.在中国销售的几乎所有住房都是公寓,而非单户住宅。约80%的公寓是在建成一年或更早之前卖出的,这被称为预售。这是中国新城市需要一段时间才会人气上升的一个原因。In Zhengzhou, for example, featured on many lists of “ghost cities”, people bought apartments in a new area with the intention of not moving in for several years, based on the view that house prices would be higher after the subway lines were completed. The first line has since opened, and the new area is thriving. This pattern is repeated across the country.例如,在众多“鬼城”榜单上被列入的郑州,人们在新区买房的意图就是要在几年后才住进去,他们的决策依据是房价将会随着地铁线路的开通而上涨。自那之后第一条地铁开通,新城开始繁荣起来。这种格局在全国各地重复出现。One of the biggest misconceptions about China’s property market is that most buyers are speculators. In fact the residential market is driven by owner-occupiers. Data collected from sales managers across the country reveal that during the past three years less than 10 per cent of buyers were investors.关于中国房地产市场最大的一个误解是,大多数买家是投机者。实际上,住宅市场由自有住房者驱动。从全国各地的销售经理们收集来的数据显示,在过去3年期间,投资买家不足10%。The 9 per cent average annual growth in residential property prices over the past 10 years may appear the hallmark of a bubble, but it was accompanied by 12 per cent average annual nominal urban income growth.过去10年间住房价格年均上涨9%貌似符合泡沫的特征,但与此相伴随的是城镇居民名义收入年均12%的增长。Unprecedented income growth not only supports China’s remarkable consumption story; it also underpins a healthy property market. During the past decade inflation-adjusted urban income rose 7 per cent or more every year, while real rural income increased 7 per cent or more for each of the past nine years. In contrast over the past decade real income rose at an average annual pace of 1 per cent in the US and 0.3 per cent in the UK.史无前例的收入增长不仅持了中国引人瞩目的消费故事,还持了健康的房地产市场。过去10年期间,经通胀调整后的城镇居民收入每年增长7%以上,同时在过去9年间农村居民实际收入每年增长7%。相比之下,过去10年期间美国和英国的实际收入年均增长率分别为1%和0.3%。An important precondition for a bubble in any asset class is a high level of leverage, because in the absence of high leverage the consequences of a sharp price decline are limited. In China there is low leverage among homebuyers because about 15 per cent of buyers in the past three years have paid cash, while for those using mortgages a minimum deposit of 30 per cent is required.任何资产类别出现泡沫的一个重要前提是很高的杠杆水平,这是因为如果没有高的杠杆水平,价格大幅下跌的后果就是有限的。在中国,购房者的杠杆水平较低,因为在过去3年大约15%的买家是全款购房,而贷款购房者被要求最低付30%的首付款。 /201508/393780

China said Friday it will seek to curb domestic debt growth and slash industrial overcapacity in 2014 without hurting growth, reaffirming a longer-term course laid out at a conclave of senior party officials last month.中国周五表示,2014年将在保持经济稳定增长的同时控制国内债务规模增加和解决工业产能过剩问题,即重申了上月中共十八届三中全会制定的中长期改革目标。In a statement at the end of a four-day meeting, the Communist Party#39;s top leaders spelled out their priorities in managing the economy in the short term.在为期四天的中央经济工作会议闭幕时发布的公告中,中共最高领导人列出了短期经济工作的主要任务。The document on state radio and television referred to the role of consumption as an economic driver, a sign the leadership is looking to overhaul the economy and reduce the role of government investment.公告提到了消费对拉动未来经济增长的作用,这一迹象表明中国领导人希望对经济进行重大改革,降低政府投资的作用。中国国有电台和电视台均对公告内容进行了报道。The statement also referred to local government debt, which has worried policy makers, and overcapacity in key sectors such as steel, glass and cement.公告还提到了两个问题,一是令决策者头疼的地方政府债务问题,二是钢铁、玻璃和水泥等关键行业产能过剩问题。UBS China economist Tao Wang agreed with the leader#39;s priorities in addressing the debt, but added, #39;it#39;s hard to tell if they can walk the walk because of the rapid development of shadow lending.#39; So-called shadow banking is lending by non-bank financial institutions, such as trust companies, securities firms and informal lenders.瑞银(UBS)中国经济学家汪涛对中国领导人将解决债务问题作为首要任务表示赞同,但补充称,现在很难说这能否被付诸实施,因为影子业正快速发展。所谓的影子业是指通过信托公司、券公司以及非传统贷款机构等非类金融机构发放贷款。Since 2008, domestic debt has ballooned to 216% of GDP from 128% and could climb to 271% by 2017 if not corrected, according to Fitch Ratings. Economists note similar credit run-ups in countries in Europe, Asia and Latin America have ended in crashes, although few predict an imminent crisis in China.据惠誉国际评级(Fitch Ratings)的数据显示,自2008年以来,中国国内债务占国内生产总值(GDP)的比重已经由128%飙升至216%;若不加以控制,到2017年这一比例将进一步提高至271%。虽然经济学家们曾指出欧洲、亚洲和拉美一些国家类似的信贷猛增最终以崩盘告终,但很少有人预计中国短期内将面临危机。The sharp rise in debt occurred when China began to combat the global financial crisis in 2009 and 2010, and banks ramped up funding of infrastructure, real estate and industrial projects. The credit growth has continued despite the recovery, as the shadow banking sector has increased lending in place of banks.为应对2009年和2010年的全球金融危机,中国国内加大了对基础设施、房地产和工业项目的融资力度,导致中国债务水平激增。虽然中国经济有所回暖,但信贷仍在持续增长,因为影子业取代传统扩大了放贷规模。The statement released by the Central Economic Work Conference, the meeting of top leaders, said that China#39;s policy makers faced the #39;core task#39; of ensuring stable growth amid continuing economic headwinds and troubles with domestic security.中央经济工作会议发布的公告称,中国政策制定者在经济遭遇持续阻力且行业安全问题堪忧的情况下面临确保经济稳定增长的“核心任务”。The conference comes about a month after a conclave of senior Communist Party officials, called the Third Plenum, set out a blueprint for longer-term reforms. On Friday, the leaders said they would maintain #39;the spirit#39; of the plenum, but their focus was on tackling more immediate problems.今年的中央经济工作会议召开前,中共刚刚召开过十八届三中全会,并在全会上为中长期改革制定了蓝图。中国领导人周五表示,将全面贯彻落实党的十八届三中全会精神,但会着重解决当前更突出的问题。Local governments have been among the big drivers of debt, borrowing heavily to finance infrastructure and real-estate projects that are frequently mired in debt.地方政府债务增加是造成国内总体债务水平上升的主要原因,地方政府因大量举债为基础设施和房地产项目融资而经常深陷债务困境。The statement called resolving local debt problems #39;an important economic task,#39; and said Beijing would #39;strictly control the process by which governments#39; raise debt.#39;公告称,要把控制和化解地方政府性债务风险作为经济工作的重要任务,严格政府举债程序。Signaling that the central government didn#39;t envision a large bailout, the statement added #39;every level of government will be responsible for their own debt.#39;公告还称,省区市政府要对本地区地方政府性债务负责任,这暗示中央政府并未考虑向地方政府提供大力援助。Another reason for the debt buildup is borrowing by firms, often state-owned, despite huge production gluts in industries such as steel, solar energy components and shipbuilding. Over the past few years, as the economy has slowed, many companies are finding there isn#39;t enough demand to keep all their production lines running or their workers employed. Often with the political support of local government, the firms have borrowed to avoid major layoffs.中国债务增加的另一个原因是企业(通常为国有企业)借款,尽管钢铁、太阳能组件和造船等行业存在巨大的产能过剩。过去几年,随着经济增长的放缓,许多企业发现国内需求已不足以维持其所有生产线的运作和员工就业。通常是在地方政府的政治扶持下,企业才得以通过借款来避免重大裁员。The leaders pledged to #39;unswervingly resolve industrial overcapacity#39; -- a pledge that Beijing has made before and failed to carry out. For instance, steel capacity has increased in recent years even as factories have been underutilized.中国领导人此次承诺要坚定不移化解产能过剩。中国政府此前也作过类似承诺,但未能付诸行动。例如,在钢厂没有进入全负荷运转的情况下,近年来钢铁产能仍有所增加。But Ms. Wang, the UBS analyst, said the leaders signaled more resolve this time by adding that they would also focus #39;on re-employment of people laid off from industries with overcapacity.#39; Beijing usually does all it can to avoid layoffs, which it fears could lead to social unrest.但瑞银分析师汪涛表示,中国领导人这一次展示出了更大决心,因为他们还提到要重点抓好化解产能过剩中出现的下岗再就业工作。由于担心失业现象会引发社会动荡,中国政府通常会尽一切所能避免企业裁员。Even so, the statement doesn#39;t make clear how much risk Beijing is willing to take to tackle debt and overcapacity. The statement stressed the need for #39;stable#39; growth. although a slowdown in credit is likely to lead to a slowdown in GDP growth.即便如此,公告并未明确说明中国政府愿承担多少风险来化解债务和产能过剩问题。公告强调了维持经济稳定增长的必要性,但信贷的放缓可能会导致GDP增速放慢。Economists have been looking for signs of whether China would maintain a 7.5% growth target for next year, unchanged from this year, or dial back the target to 7%. A lower growth target would signal that the leadership would press harder to resolve structural problems.对于中国是将明年经济增长目标与今年7.5%的水平保持一致,还是会下调至7%,经济学家一直在寻找相关迹象。若增长目标被下调,将意味着中国领导人将加大结构性问题的解决力度。But the document sent mixed messages. Ms. Wang thought the leadership was signaling a 7% target while, Royal Bank of Scotland analyst Luis Kuijs thought it indicated 7.5%.但中央经济工作会议公告所传递出的信息并不清晰。汪涛认为中国领导层暗示的明年经济增长目标为7%,而苏格兰皇家(Royal Bank of Scotland)分析师高路易(Luis Kuijs)则认为是7.5%。 /201312/268920

Aly difficult commutes in China#39;s capital became even more punishing this week, as Beijing beefed up subway security checks in the wake of deadly attacks targeting civilians. 中国首都本就非常严峻的通勤状况本周变得更加糟糕,因为在多起针对平民的致命袭击发生之后,北京加大了地铁安检力度。Hundreds of unhappy commuters stood in long lines across the city Wednesday morning to undergo enhanced security screenings, which now include body checks as well as bag screenings in several stations. At stations in the city#39;s north, subway staff said passengers had to wait between 20-30 minutes to get through the security line, up from about 10-15 minutes prior to the new screening requirements. 周三早晨,几个安检程序升级至“人物同检”的地铁站外排起了好几百人的长队。在北京北部地区的一个地铁站里,工作人员称乘客过安检得排队20至30分钟,而在新安检规定颁布前等待时间只需10至15分钟。The mercury is expected to hit 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius) this week in Beijing, and at some stations, tempers were also climbing. 预计北京本周气温最高将达到100华氏度(38摄氏度),而一些地铁站里人们的怨气也在攀升。#39;This is such a hassle,#39; said Zhi Yajuan, 23, as she stood in line Tuesday at Tiantongyuan North Station. #39;It#39;s just going through the motions. They don#39;t care even if the machine beeps.#39; 23岁的智雅娟周二在天通苑北站排着队,她说这可真麻烦,这只是走走过场,机器响了他们都不管。Another passenger at Longze station complained that he had to wait 20 minutes longer than usual. #39;I#39;m not a terrorist, so I#39;ll take [a different] station later and avoid the long waits,#39; said Zhou Gang. 一位在龙泽站排队的乘客则抱怨称,自己得比平时多等20分钟。周刚说,他不是一个恐怖分子,所以晚点将换一个地铁站以免等这么久。Pictures circulating online showed a sea of passengers penned in by guard rails as they awaited the enhanced security checks. 在互联网上流传的一些照片显示,地铁站外的护栏里挤满了排队等待更严格安检的乘客。#39;Is this Spring Festival travel? No, it#39;s just the Beijing security check,#39; people joked online, referring to the once-a-year period of holiday travel that floods the nation#39;s transportation systems and has been dubbed the world#39;s largest annual human migration. 人们在网上吐槽道,这是春运么?不,这只是北京的安检。For many in Beijing, commutes are aly difficult, as passengers negotiate the capital#39;s urban sprawl. According to the city#39;s traffic bureau, the average commute length in Beijing is 52 minutes, higher than either Guangzhou (48 minutes) or Shanghai (47 minutes). The city#39;s subway system is among the busiest in the world, with more than a dozen lines that see a daily ridership of some 10 million. 对于很多身在北京的人来说,城市的扩张本来就已使通勤变得困难。北京市交管局的数据显示,北京市的平均通勤时间为52分钟,而广州和上海分别为48分钟和47分钟。北京的地铁系统也位居全球最繁忙之列,许多线路的日客运量经常在100万人次左右。Security measures have stiffened across China in recent weeks, following a series of violent attacks since the start of the year. In the most recent incident, 31 people were killed last week in an attack at a market in northwest Urumqi. In March, dozens were killed in an assault by knife-wielding assailants at a train station in southwest Kunming. Authorities have labeled such episodes terrorist attacks and attributed them to separatists in northwestern Xinjiang. AFP/Getty Images北京,警察在一个地铁站外巡逻。受年初以来发生的一系列暴力袭击案影响,最近几周中国的安保措施有所加强。最新一起是上周发生在乌鲁木齐一早市的暴力袭击事件,31人在袭击中身亡。今年3月份,持刀袭击者在昆明火车站砍死20多人。中国政府已将这些袭击事件定性为恐怖袭击,并称这些事件系新疆分裂势力所为。Additional security measures in Beijing now include helicopter patrols, while cities across the country have been further arming their police forces, as well. 北京额外采取的安保措施还包括直升机巡逻,另外全国多个城市也在推行民警配巡逻。On Tuesday, some waiting in line said they understood the need for additional commuter headaches. 周二,一些排队等待安检的上班族表示,他们对增加通勤困难度的必要性表示理解。#39;Safety comes first,#39; said Wang Yang, as he waited in line at Longze Station. #39;This might not be able to totally get rid of the risk of violence or attack...But it could at least frighten those terrorists--at least I hope so.#39; 在龙泽站排队的王阳表示,安全第一,虽然这或许无法完全消除暴力或袭击风险,但至少能震慑那些恐怖分子,至少他希望如此。 /201405/302072

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