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襄阳男科医院官方网襄阳市襄州区人民医院人民医院地址Its one of our most important tools, and holds a prominent place in many ancient philosophies and religions. 这是我们最重要的工具之一,在很多古哲学和古宗教中占有很显著的地位。The ancient Greeks believed that fire–along with earth, water, and air–was one of the four essential elements that made up the world. 古希腊认为,火,土,水和气是组成这个世界的四个基本要素。We now know that the worlds a lot more complicated, with over a hundred elements of matter which can be combined in a tremendous variety of ways. 现在,我们知道世界的构成其实是更加复杂的,由上百种物质组成,而同时这些物质又可以以无数种不同的方式结合。This might leave you wondering where fire fits in. What exactly is fire? 那这就让你感到奇怪了,火是从哪里来的,具体是什么东西呢?Watching a flame dance through the air, you might conclude that fires a gas, like oxygen or carbon dioxide. 看到空气中的跳动的火苗,你可能会觉得火是一种气体,像氧气,二氧化碳那类的。Its not. Fire can burn fuel thats a gas, or a liquid, or even a solid–as in the case of glowing charcoal. 其实不是。火可以使气体,液体甚至是固体燃料燃烧-比如燃烧的木炭。But the fire itself isnt any of these things. 但是火本身并不是这些东西的任何一个。In fact, fire isnt any thing at all. 实际上,火没有自身的形态。Its not its own type of matter; its something that matter can do. 它不是物质,但却起到一些物质的作用。Fire is a chemical reaction. 火是一种化学反应。A fire needs oxygen and some kind of fuel. 火是需要氧气和某种燃料共同作用的。This fuel–whether its candle wax, wood, or gasoline–usually contains big molecules that have carbon atoms inside them. 这些燃料不管是石碏、木头还是天然气通常都会含有大量的碳分子。You can think of these molecules as little containers of energy. 你可以将这些分子想象成小小的储能体。When theyre allowed to combine with oxygen, this energy is released as heat and light. 当它们与氧气结合时,这些能量就会作为光和热释放。Fire is a rapid chemical reaction known as oxidation. 火是一种快速的氧化化学反应。Inside a fire, oxygen molecules break bigger molecules apart into carbon dioxide and water vapor. 在火中,氧分子将更大的分子氧化成二氧化碳和水蒸汽,火中的所有光和热都来自于含碳的大分子同氧气的结合。All the heat and light of a fire comes from big, carbon-based molecules combining with oxygen. 火所有的热和光来源于碳分子和氧气结合的反应。So what is fire? Its not the fuel or the oxygen or the heat or the light. 那么到底什么是火?它不是燃料,不是氧气,也不是光和热。Fire is what happens between all these things. Its a chemical reaction. 火就是它们之间所产生的一种化学反应。201308/251041襄阳市铁路医院男科专家挂号 Skilled labour技工Behind the scenes在幕后What a shortage of workers on film sets in Georgia says about America美国称,乔治亚州电影现场面临工作人员的严重短缺问题THE recent arrival of aliens and murderous youth in suburban Atlanta might seem like cause for concern. But they are merely characters in films shot at the Atlanta Media Campus and Studios, the largest complex of its kind outside California. The lot has hosted the final two instalments of “The Hunger Games” and “The Fifth Wave”, an upcoming science-fiction film. What ought to worry local residents is Georgias inability to produce workers who can build the sets, run the wires or manage the sound for such films. This skills shortage may endanger the billion or so that Jim Jacoby, whose firm plans to redevelop the complex, reckons the film industry could bring to the state this year.在亚特兰大郊区,新到的外侨以及凶残的青年有可能会成为一个令人担忧的问题。但是在亚特兰大传媒学校以及工作室里,这些人却不是电影里的角色。该地已经迎来了“饥饿游戏”系列的两部电影以及电影“第五波”(“第五波”为一部即将上映的科幻片)。让当地居民担心的是,乔治亚州无法自产工作员工,这些员工的工作包括建造电影现场、控制电路或者为这类电影控制声效。这种技能的缺失将会造成大约40亿美元的损失,而这笔钱目恰恰是有重建综合设施的电影计划的吉姆·雅各比预估电影产业今年将产生的利润。Georgia offers generous tax incentives to lure production companies. They can receive a credit for up to 30% of the costs incurred while making movies, as long as they spend more than 0,000. This convinced Mathew Hayden to move his firm, Cinipix, from California to Georgia. But Mr Hayden still imports many workers from Florida and New York. “Its a big concern,” he says. The states movie business will only prove as profitable as its workers prove employable.为了吸引生产公司,乔治亚州开出了大量税率奖励条件。在制作电影时,只要生产公司花费超过50万美元,他们就可以收到实际费用的30%的信贷。马修·海登心动了,为此他把自己的电影公司Cinipix从加利福尼亚州迁到乔治亚州。但是海登先生依然从弗洛里达州和纽约招募大量工作人员。他说,“这是一个很大的问题。”州的电影产业只有在该地的员工可以被录用的情况,才能够产生利润。Georgias skills shortage goes beyond the film industry. For every four tradesmen that retire just one takes their place, even though the states unemployment rate hovers around 7.4%, over a point higher than the national rate. But a similar problem, albeit in less acute form, is in evidence across America. More than half of the countrys tradesmen are aged over 45. According to the Department of Labour, America will need 41,700 more cement masons, 114,700 more electricians and 218,200 more carpenters by 2022. The government aly spends around billion a year trying to close what the president, Barack Obama, calls the “skills gap”. On July 22nd Mr Obama signed laws that he said would make job-training programmes that receive federal money “more effective, more responsive to employers and more accountable for results”.比起电影工业,乔治亚州技工的缺失更为严重。即使州失业率徘徊在7.4%,且远高于国家失业率,四个商人退休也只有一个人顶替。然而,一个类似的问题,尽管没那么急型,在美国却显而易见。超过有一半的商人年龄高于45岁。劳工部称,到2022年,美国将还需要4.17万名泥瓦匠、11.47万名电工以及21.82万名木匠。政府每年已经花费170亿美元,努力去解决奥巴马总统口中的“技能鸿沟”问题。7月22日,奥巴马总统签署了法律文件,该法律将使得由联邦出资的岗位培训项目“更加更加负责”。One such programme is Go Build Georgia, which teaches teenagers a trade. But efforts to train young people as plumbers or pipe-fitters run up against concern from parents. Instead of being proud to raise a future welder, “everyone wants to believe that their child will go to Harvard”, says Matthew Gambill, the director of the Georgia Association for Career and Technical Education. Despite the lower cost of a skills-based education and the solid job prospects, enrolment at technical colleges has dropped 23% since recession-stricken students clamoured for entry in 2010.其中一个项目叫做“建造乔治亚”,该项目教年轻人学会交易。但是训练年轻人成为水管工却引发了父母的担忧。乔治亚职业与技术教育协会的主任马修·甘比尔说道,不以培养一个未来的焊接工为豪,“每个人都希望他们的小孩会去读名校”。暂且不说技工教育的低费用以及坚实的就业前景,自2010年经济不景气学生要求入学,技校的升学率已经下降了23%。Still, Georgia is pouring money into training, and targeting industries such as the movie business that are particularly short of skilled labour. It spent m last year on the teaching of trades in schools, while the states technical colleges received 8m. Some of these institutions are aly collaborating with film studios to design specialist courses. Lee Thomas, the deputy commissioner of Georgias film, music and digital entertainment office, says a stand-alone academy is also in the works for those who wish to become stars behind the scenes.尽管如此,乔治亚州依旧投入大量资金持培训,而且瞄准急需技工的电影产业。去年,就学校教交易课投入2400万美元,而州技校则投入3.18亿美元。一些这样的机构已经与电影工作室合作,开设专业课程。乔治亚影视音乐数字办公室的副总监李·汤姆说,一所独立学院也同样为那些希望成名的幕后工作者提供帮助。Mr Jacoby, though, is taking matters into his own hands. By next summer he wants the Atlanta Media Campus to host a school that will teach students how to work on a film set. American firms spent 2 billion training their employees in 2012. The success of Mr Jacobys investment in Georgia may depend on whether he can bridge its skills gap.雅各比先生正在考虑自行其事。到明年夏天,他希望亚特兰大传媒大学能开设一个教学生如何在电影现场工作的学院。2012年,美国电影业投资1620亿美元来培训工作人员。雅各比先生在乔治亚投资的成功将取决于他能否消除技能鸿沟。 /201408/320551襄阳枣阳市人民医院地址

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襄阳男人阳痿早泄治疗费用 Science and technology科学技术Climate change气候变化Bell weather呈钟形曲线变化的天气A statistical analysis shows how things really are heating up一项统计分析显示出天气究竟是如何变热的ARE heatwaves more common than they used to be?热浪来袭真的比以前更加频繁了吗?That is the question addressed by James Hansen and his colleagues in a paper just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.詹姆斯汉森与他的同事试图在《美国国家科学院院报》上发表的一篇新文章中回答这一问题。Their conclusion is that they are—and the data they draw on do not even include the current scorcher that is drying up much of North America and threatening its harvest.他们得出的结论是,情况的确如此,而且得出这一结论的依据这还不包括最近北美的酷热天气。现在那里的大部分地区已经干旱无比,当地农作物的收成也因此受到了威胁。The teams method of presentation, however, has caused a stir among those who feel that scientific papers should be dispassionate in their delivery of the evidence.然而,詹姆斯汉森与他的同事所采用的展示方案却在一群人中引起了骚动。这些人认为科技论文在表述据时应客观公正,For the paper, interesting though the evidence it delivers is, is far from dispassionate.但有意思的是,该文章在表述据时却远未做到不偏不倚。Dr Hansen, who is head of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, a branch of NASA that is based in New York, is a polemicist of the risks of man-made global warming.总部在纽约的戈达德太空研究所是美国国家航空航天局的一个分部门,该研究所的负责人汉森士能言善辩,他声称人为因素导致的全球变暖将给人类带来危害。Despite his job running a government laboratory, he has managed to get himself arrested on three occasions for protesting against those he thinks are causing such climate change.尽管汉森士主管政府实验室,他却参加过抗议活动,以此来反对那些他认为将造成此类气候变化的行为,而他也因此如愿被警察逮捕过三次。He clearly states in the papers introduction that he was looking for a way of conveying his fears to a sceptical public.汉森士在他的文章序言中明确指出,他正在寻找一种方法,以此让那些对他的观点持怀疑态度的公众体会到他的焦虑。Some of that scepticism is connected with the fact that although changes in the climate will inevitably result in changes in the weather, ascribing any given event—such as a local heatwave—to climate change is impossible.尽管气候变化将不可避免地导致天气变化,但不能将所有特定事件都归因于气候变化,而公众的怀疑态度中有一部分就与这一事实有关。Dr Hansen has therefore tried to go beyond the study of individual causes by demonstrating that what was once unusual is now common.因此,汉森士通过论过去人们眼中的异常天气如今已是十分常见,试图使他的研究不仅仅局限于个别原因。Longer, hotter summers夏天愈加漫长炎热了To do so, he and his colleagues took 60 years worth of data from the Goddard Institutes surface air-temperature analysis.为此,汉森士与其同事从戈达德研究所收集了60年地表气温分析数据。This analysis divides the planets surface into cells 250km across and records the average temperature in each cell.这些分析材料将地球表面分成了一个个宽250公里的区块,并记录了每个区域内的平均温度。The researchers broke their data into six decade-long blocks and compared those blocks statistical properties.研究者将这些数据按十年一组分成了六个时间段,并对这些时间段内的统计特性进行了比较。They looked in particular at the three months which constitute summer in the northern hemisphere.研究者特别关注了北半球夏季三个月的温度。First, they created a reference value for each cell.首先,他们计算出了1951年至1980年每一个区块夏季三个月的平均温度,This was its average temperature over those three months from 1951-80.并将这些数据作为每个区块的参考值。Then they calculated how much the temperature in each cell deviated from the cells reference value in any given summer.接着,研究者又计算在任意指定的夏季内每个区块内的温度分别与各自的参考值存在多少偏差。That done, they plotted a series of curves, one for each decade, that showed how frequently each deviant value occurred.这一步完成后,他们以十年为单位绘制了六条曲线,这些曲线显示出了每一个偏差值发生的频率。Since small deviations are common and large ones are rare, the result of plotting data in this way is a curve shaped somewhat like the cross-section of a bell.由于小的偏差时有发生,而大的偏差则较为少见,因此用这一方法对数据进行描绘,得出的曲线形状就像一个钟的横截面。Such distributions can be modelled by a mathematical function known as the normal distribution—or bell curve.这样的分布状态可以用数学上的一个函数来表示,即正态分布,又称钟形曲线。Whether based on data or a mathematical ideal, such a curve always has two parameters.无论是基于数据还是理想数学模型,钟形曲线都有两个参数。These are its mean and its standard deviation, which measures how wide the bell is.一个是平均值,另一个是它的标准差。The standard deviation is calculated from all of the individual deviations of the data points.标准差可以通过计算所有数值的方差(再开方)得到。To see what was going on, Dr Hansen superimposed the actual curves for each decade from the fifties to the noughties on a normal distribution, which acted as a reference curve.为了弄清气候变化,汉森士以正态分布曲线为参照曲线,将其与六十年中每十年一条的实际曲线相叠加。To make all the curves comparable, he expressed the values of the actual deviations as fractions of a standard deviation, and their frequencies as proportions of their total number.为了使所有这些曲线具有可比性,汉森士将实际偏差值用其与所属样本标准差的比例来衡量,用数据发生偏差数与数据总数的比例表述其频率。As the chart shows, there are two trends.如图所示,钟形曲线表现出了两种趋势。First, the peaks of the data-based curves move right, over time, with respect to the reference curve. In other words, the average temperature is rising.第一,对照参考曲线,随着时间的推移,这种数据型曲线的峰值会向右移,也就是说地球上的平均温度在上升。Second, more recent curves are flatter.第二,时间距离现在越近,曲线越矮胖,A flatter curve means a bigger standard deviation and a wider sp of results.这也就意味着标准差越大,温度数据分布越广。If the mean of each curve were the same, such flattening would imply both more cold periods and more hot ones.如果每一条曲线的平均值相同,那么这种平滑过程也就意味着地球上的寒冷期和炎热期的出现次数都会增加。But because the mean is rising, the effect at the cold end of the curves is diminished, while that at the hot end is enhanced.但由于这些曲线的平均值在增加,因此地球上寒冷期的出现次数会减少,而炎热期的出现次数则会增加。The upshot is more hot periods of local weather.最终导致的结果就是各地出现炎热天气的次数越来越多。Moreover, the bell-curve method makes it possible to say just how much more hot weather there is.此外,有了钟形曲线,人们还能判断炎热天气的出现频率比过去增加了多少。Dr Hansen defined extreme conditions as those occurring more than three standard deviations from the mean of his reference curve.汉森士下了定义:如果在他的参考曲线中某一数值偏离其平均值达到或超过三个标准差,那么这就是极端天气。In that curve, this would be an eighth of a percent at each end, which is more or less the value in the curve for 1951-61.在参考曲线中,左右两端数据中偏离均值超过三个标准差的极端数据应该恰好分别为0.125%,而1951至1961年这一时间段的极端数据分布情况大致上也符合这一特征。Nowadays, though, extreme conditions can be found at any given time in about 8% of the world.但现在世界上约有8%的地区在特定时间内都有极端天气的出现。Local weather patterns do, of course, have local causes. To that extent, they are accidental.当然,各地天气模式的出现的确包含着地方性的原因。在这种程度上说,它们的发生是具有偶然性的。But Dr Hansens analysis suggests that claims there is more hot weather around than there used to be have substance, too.但汉森士的分析表明,各地的炎热天气的确比以往多这种说法也是有依据的。Nothing in his analysis speaks of the cause of that substance. That is deliberate.但他的分析并没有涉及到这种依据的来源,而这也是汉森士有意为之。As he says in the paper, he wants the data to speak for themselves—though he is personally convinced that the cause is human-generated emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide.正如他在文章中所说,他希望数据能说明问题—尽管他本人相信气候变暖是因为人类排放二氧化碳等温室气体造成的。But as the ed States bakes in what may turn out to be a record heatwave, he hopes he might now persuade those for whom global warming is, as it were, on the back burner, to agree that it is real, and to think about the consequences.但现在,一股或许是有史以来最猛烈的热浪正在炙烤着美国。他希望他现在能够说那些跟过去一样搁置考虑全球变暖问题的人,使他们认同全球变暖现象的确存在并考虑其后果。 /201402/276030襄阳市职业病防治医院治疗膀胱炎多少钱鱼梁洲开发区人民医院地址

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