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2019年12月12日 23:21:37 | 作者:普及报 | 来源:新华社
Einstein wants to expand his special theory of relativity into a general theory of relativity, a theory that will explain not just time, but also gravity. 爱因斯坦想扩展狭义相对论成为一种广义相对论,一种将不只是解释时间,而且还解释重力的理论。He realizes he will be fighting more than two centuries of scientific thought and his hero--Sir Isaac Newton.他意识到他将要和超过两个世纪的科学思想及他的英雄艾萨克;牛顿爵士斗争。Its 1907 and the 28-year-old Albert Einstein is still a patent office bureaucrat.这是在1907年,28岁的爱因斯坦仍然是一个专利办公室的官员。Its been two years since he published his special theory of relativity and the ambitious Einstein decides to advance an even more radical interpretation of the universe--a general theory of relativity. 他出版狭义相对论已有2年, 雄心勃勃的爱因斯坦提出了更彻底的对宇宙的解释;;广义相对论。Doing this will require him to take on his scientific hero--Sir Isaac Newton. 这样做需要他去面对他的科学英雄艾萨克;牛顿爵士。In Einsteins time, Isaac Newton was God. 在爱因斯坦的时代,艾萨克;牛顿是神。Newton was the founder of modern science. This is the actual first edition of Newtons Principia Mathematica of 1687. Its priceless artifacts. Its the very very famous book which became the foundation of universal physics for centuries until Einstein upsets the Apple Code. 牛顿是近代科学的创始人。这是1687实际的第一版牛顿原理。它是价值连城的宝物。这是成为几个世纪以来宇宙物理基础非常著名的书,而爱因斯坦扰乱了苹果的代码。Its been almost 250 years since the apple fell from the legendary tree on Isaac Newtons estate, giving Newton the inspiration to formulate his law of gravity.艾萨克;牛顿的苹果落地传奇已经有250年的历史,这给了牛顿开创万有引力定律的启示。Newton said that if an object falls, its because theres a mysterious force called gravity, pulling...牛顿称如果一个物体掉落,那是因为有一个神秘称为重力,拉力的力。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/175869

Books and Arts;Book Review;Classical music;Conjurors;文艺;书评;古典音乐;音乐的魔术;Music as Alchemy: Journeys with Great Conductors and Their Orchestras.音乐就像点石成金——一段与伟大的指挥家和乐团的奇妙旅程。IN “FANTASIA”, Walt Disneys 1940 film of musically inspired animations, each piece begins and ends in the same way, with the silhouetted figure of Leopold Stokowski, a British conductor who died in 1977. He stands alone against a dark red background while the mysterious movements of his hands conjure the music in and out of being. “Fantasia” was hugely popular, and made a notable contribution to cultivating a wider appreciation of classical music. But it also unwittingly peddled the still pervasive myth that conductors are, in effect, magicians—sorcerers who single-handedly extract waves of finely variegated sound out of thin air.1940年沃特·迪士尼拍摄了音乐动画“幻想曲”,每一段的开始和结束都是利奥波德·斯托科夫斯基的剪影。而这位英国指挥家于1977年去世。他独站在深红色背景前,手上的动作充满了神秘色,音乐便随着动作此起彼伏。“幻想曲”获得了巨大的成功,并且它对古典音乐新诠释所做出的贡献也非同一般。但它也无意中增加了指挥家的神秘色,时至今日人们仍然觉得不可思议,好像他们就是魔术师——独自一人就凭空变出变幻莫测的美妙声音。Tom Service, a British radio presenter and writer on classical music, has taken the mysterious business of what conductors actually do as the subject of his first book, “Music as Alchemy”. Conductors, including the ones studied in this book, have been scrutinised before, often in considerable detail. What sets Mr Services book apart, in addition to its breezy tone and infectious, easily worn enthusiasm, is his focus on the relationship between the conductor and his or her orchestral musicians. Many hours have been spent not just in concerts given by the six conductor-orchestra pairs taken as his subject, but in observing them in the rehearsals beforehand and quizzing members of the orchestra about their side of the experience.汤姆·瑟维斯是英国一位与古典音乐相关的电台主持人和作家,他的第一本书《点石成金的音乐》主题就是揭开指挥家的神秘面纱。包括书中提到的每一位指挥家,都曾被详细介绍过,而且可谓到了事无巨细的地步。但瑟维斯先生的书的特别之处不仅在于他活泼的文笔和极具感染力的热情,还在于书中对指挥家与他们乐队关系的解读。作者花了大量时间,不仅探索了作为书中主人公的六位指挥家和他们乐队的音乐会,还深入了解了他们前期的排练,“拷问”乐队成员,从他们的角度寻找。This is not a method that would pass muster in scientific inquiry—few orchestral players would be rude in print about their chief conductor—but it yields some insightful results. The er learns, for example, that most players in the Budapest Festival Orchestra do not really mind when Ivan Fischer lays down the law, but that the players of the robustly democratic Concertgebouw Orchestra most certainly do. Mr Service finds that the London Symphony Orchestra see the benefit of Valery Gergievs high-octane, “everything will be all right on the night” attitude, but that the Berlin Philharmonic rely on a slightly more thorough approach from Sir Simon Rattle.这种方法并不是科学调查方法——几乎没有乐队成员会在书中对他们的指挥发牢骚——但同样也能获得一些极富洞察力的结果。譬如,读者通过本书会了解到,有些布达佩斯节日乐团的成员就不介意他们的指挥伊万·费舍尔发号施令。但相反,皇团的成员就强烈要求民主,不会接受个人号令。瑟维斯先生发现伦敦交响乐团得益于瓦列里·格吉耶夫的高强度风格,坚信“晚上开场前一切都能就绪”,但柏林爱乐乐团就更加青睐西蒙·拉特尔那种略微周密的做事方法。The interviews with the conductors themselves, awkwardly woven into the narrative as full transcripts, are not particularly rewarding. The books strength is in its mix of stories and perspectives, which ably convey the murky process by which orchestras and conductors build a bond of mutual trust.指挥家的专访只是编成文字记录一般的叙述,了无趣味,所以没什么特别的价值。本书的长处在于书中不乏故事和观点,巧妙地叙述了乐队成员和指挥如何建立起相互信任的神秘过程。The most illuminating chapter is perhaps the final one, about the relationship between Claudio Abbado and the Lucerne Festival Orchestra. Famously reticent, Mr Abbado gives little away himself, but his players say it all for him—a fine confirmation of his gifts as a conductor. He is special, the musicians explain, not merely because of his clarity of vision, authoritative analysis or the mysterious energy of his gestures, but rather because of the way he listens. He appears to live the music, inviting them to live it with him.书中最出的一章大概就属最后一章了,描写了克劳迪奥·阿巴多与琉森节庆管弦乐团。阿巴多先生沉默少语是出了名的,所以他自己并没有多说什么,但他的乐团成员完全代劳——成为他指挥天赋的最佳明。成员都说他不一般,不仅是因为他有敏锐的洞察力、权威的阐释和充满神秘力量的手势,而是因为他聆听音乐的独到之法。他能唤醒音乐,并邀请音乐伴他左右。Players need to believe conductors understand what they are doing, and that their individual efforts make a difference. Conductors, in turn, need to trust their orchestras to do everything possible to make the music happen in the moment. The currency of this trust is listening, and one of the most interesting pictures to emerge from the book is that of the conductor as a kind of chief listener. Hand gestures, whether the baton-traced polygons of the textbooks or the mysterious finger-flickerings of Mr Gergiev and Mr Abbado, are construed less as specific directions than as signs of a kind of ultra-responsive listening, a listening which feeds back into how the players hear each other.演奏者要相信他们的指挥知晓他们的一举一动,也明白他们每个人的努力都举足轻重。同样,指挥家也要相信他的演奏者一定会让演奏毫无差错。信任源自倾听,而指挥更像是首席听众,这是书中传达出的最有趣的一点。不论是课本里用指挥棒划出的多边形,还是格吉耶夫先生和阿巴多先生指尖迸出的不可思议的弧度,指挥家的手势都不仅仅是特殊的提示,而是一种无需回应的聆听,只需演奏者相互聆听就够了。As the books title suggests, it may indeed be most appropriate to think of this listening process as a kind of magic. But if so, it is a magic that comes through dedication, not sorcery.就像书名一样,我们的确应该把这种聆听过程视为魔术。就真是魔术,也是表演者们尽心奉献变成的魔法,不会有什么法术。201206/188230

Obituary;Robert Byrd讣告;罗伯特·伯德Robert C. Byrd, doyen of the ed States Senate, died on June 28th, aged 92罗伯特·C·伯德,资深美国参议院议员,逝世于6月28日,享年92岁WHENEVER Robert Byrd walked the corridors and chambers of the Senate, he went in a crowd of people. Some were his constituents, in camouflage caps and T-shirts, gape-mouthed among the gilt and marble, come to talk to him about the problems of Marsh Fork Elementary School or their uncles black lung. But he also saw Henry Foote of Mississippi wielding his pistol, Sam Houston of Texas whittling wooden hearts for the ladies, and little John Randolph of Virginia strutting past with his hunting dogs; and Cicero in the shadows, and just behind him Cato the younger, whispering “I would not be beholden to a tyrant.”无论什么时候罗伯特·伯德行走在参议院的走廊和房间里,总有一群人相伴而行。一些是他的选民,戴着迷帽,穿着T恤,瞠目于参议员的金碧辉煌,他们是来找他谈马什福克小学或者他们叔叔的黑肺之类的问题。但他也见过密西西比的亨利·富特挥舞手,萨姆·休斯顿为女士们制作木心,还见过矮小的约翰·伦道夫昂首阔步走过参议院;还有阴影中的西塞罗,和他身后的小卡图,喃喃:“我不沾暴君的光。”The Roman Senate fascinated Mr Byrd almost as much as the American. When it declined, the Republic fell. And why had it declined? Because it had become passive, failed to raise its voice; and especially because it had handed meekly to Caesar and Sulla the power of the pursestrings. Mr Byrd therefore spent his career—the longest Senate service in American history, incorporating six years as majority whip, 12 years as majority or minority leader and 20 years as chairman or ranking minority member of the Appropriations Committee—learning, describing and expertly applying the rules that kept the Senate a force in government. He was constantly alert both to executive overreach and to weakness in his own beloved chamber, “the anchor of the Republic, the morning and evening star in the American constitutional constellation”.伯德对罗马元老院的着迷不亚于美国参议院。随着元老院的衰退,罗马共和国也灭亡了。它为什么会衰退?因为它变得消极,不再高声疾呼;特别是因为对于凯撒与苏拉,它将财政拱手相让。因此,伯德终其一生——美国历史上任期最长的参议员,包括6年的多数党党鞭,12年多数党或少数党领袖以及20年拨款委员会主席或高级少数党成员——学习,描述,而且巧妙地应用这些规则,使得参议院仍旧是政府的一股力量。他时刻警惕滥用职权和自己受爱戴的内阁的弱点,“共和国之栋梁,美国宪法星座中的启明星和长庚星。”Dignity was his byword: three-piece suits, velvet waistcoats and the rolling oratory of a man who had been a fine lay preacher before he left West Virginia. His courtesy was instinctive, his thank-you notes reliably there the next day. The point of all this, though, was to uphold the worth of the Senate. At meetings with the president he insisted on taking a staff person, because the president had one, and the branches were equal. He kept laptops out of the chamber, but voted for televised proceedings, so that the Senate would be visible to the people to whom it belonged. The constitution, as he reminded listeners, pulling it from his left breast pocket where he kept it over his heart, had made the American people sovereign and mentioned their Congress first. Now, like him, they had to revere and defend it.高雅是他的座右铭:3件套装西,天鹅绒马甲和圆熟的口才——他离开西弗吉尼亚前曾是一个优秀的非神职布道者。他的礼节毫不做作,他的感谢信从不迟到。然而,这一切的意义都在与维护参议院的形象。会见总统时,他坚持要带上一名工作人员,因为三权领导等级相同,而总统带了一个。他不允许在会议室里用笔记本电脑,但却持电视直播议程,好让该看见的人看见参议院的样子。宪法让美国成为一个主权国家,它把国会放在第一位,他在提醒听众时,从左胸口袋里拿出了他一直保存在心上的宪法。现在,像伯德一样,他们也要尊重和维护它。He grappled masterfully with 11 presidents, and liked them less as he got older. George Bush junior he detested, a reckless and arrogant man who, on Iraq, overrode the war-declaring powers of Congress while the Senate stood pitifully by. “In this terrible show of weakness”, Mr Byrd wrote, “the Senate left an indelible stain upon its own escutcheon.” Some Democrats pleased him little better. Though most of his 18,500 votes went with his party, he had an old southerners conservative streak, besides a West Virginians tenderness for coal-mining and steel-making; and party ran second to the Senate, in any case. Bill Clintons bid to seize the pursestrings from Congress in the 1990s with the line-item budget veto was opposed by Mr Byrd in 14 separate one-hour speeches, learned by heart, to slow up debate. He had filibustered before, the old-fashioned way: in 1964 for a straight 14 hours 13 minutes, to try to kill the Civil Rights Act.他巧妙地与11任总统周旋,并且随着年长,越来越不喜欢他们。他憎恶小布什,在伊拉克问题上,布什越过了国会的宣战权,而参议院还在可怜地等待。“在这次严重的示弱行为后,”伯德写道,“参议院在自己的盾上留下了不可磨灭的污点。”有些民主党人也讨不得他的欢喜。虽然他的18500票中,党内人士居多,但他有着老南方的保守性格,和西弗吉尼亚人对炼钢和煤矿的温柔;而且在任何情况下,参议院优先于党。九十年代,比尔·克林顿曾企图通过项目预算否决权,从国会那里接管财政,被伯德反对,并以分别的14个一小时演讲,全部脱稿,拖延了议程。他以前也曾以老式的方式阻挠议事:1964年,一次长达14小时13分钟的演讲,试图遏止人权法案。This he later regretted. He was sorry, too, that he found himself slipping into talk of “white niggers” and “race mongrels”, and that he was exposed as an active member of the Ku Klux Klan, charging 150 friends and colleagues membership and robe-and-hood hire to form a chapter in 1943 in Crab Orchard, West Virginia. He had briefly joined the Klan for its anticommunism, he explained, and for the platform it gave him, a mere butcher and fiddle-player, to organise people locally. This, with his spirited playing of “Rye Whiskey” and “Turkey in the Straw”, soon got him elected to the state House of Delegates in 1946, the US House of Representatives in 1952 and, by 1958, at 40, the Senate, which through almost nine terms he never left.之后他也对此感到后悔。他也对自己不知不觉开始大谈“白黑鬼”和“黑白杂种”,还有他被揭穿是3K党的活跃成员,1943年在西弗吉尼亚州的螃蟹果园。曾向150个朋友和同事收取10美元的会费以及会员必备的绳子和兜帽的3美元租金,表示抱歉。他解释说,他曾经短暂的加入3K党,因为他们的反共和他们提供给他召集本地群众的平台,即屠夫和小提琴手。随着他动人的曲目《黑麦威士忌》和《草丛中的火鸡》,这个平台很快让他在1946年被选入州参议院,1952年被选入美国众议员,而且到了1958年,他40岁的时候,到达了参议院,并且几乎任满9期从未离开。Yet his heart was in West Virginia, a poor and backward state of mountains and coal mines, where foster-parents had brought him up without power or running water and he had finished college, in a decade of night classes, five years after he joined the Senate. His years on Appropriations were spent not just juggling favours and nitpicking on procedure, but also proudly channelling money to the hills and hollows: making gravel tracks into Robert C. Byrd Freeways, turning fetid lock-ups into Robert C. Byrd Correctional Institutions, setting up the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to look at the stars. This, too, was what the Senate was for.然而他的心仍在西弗吉尼亚,一个多山,多煤矿的,贫穷落后的州,在那里,他的养父母在没有电和自来水的情况下把他养大,而在他进入参议院5年后,他为期10年的夜校课程,才算读完了。他在拨款委员会的几年,不只是尽力帮人的忙和挑剔手续,他还把资金送到了丘陵和洼地:让石子路变成了罗伯特·C·伯德高速公路,把恶臭的拘留所变成了罗伯特·C·伯德惩教所,设立罗伯特·C·伯德绿堤望远镜用来观星。这些,也都是参议员存在的意义。On the mountain top在山巅上In one of his weekly online columns he mused on the beauty of mountains, where God had revealed himself to Moses and Elijah had challenged the false prophets of Baal. A blogger or two pointed out that the lopped-off, naked mountains in the south of his state owed much to Mr Byrds votes for uninhibited mining. He was unrepentant. Mining brought jobs, and burning coal kept America going. The people powered America; the Senate was the peoples house; and the man who preserved the Senate, in all its glory and prodigality and arcane complexity, was Robert C. Byrd, King of Pork and senator senatorum.有一次,在他的每周线上论坛上,他赞叹山的壮丽,上帝就是在山上向西展示真身,而以利亚也是在山上挑战巴力神的假先知的。几位客作家指出,他们南方家乡的斑驳光秃的山都归咎于伯德对无限制采矿的持。他却并不后悔。采矿带来工作,而燃煤保障美国的前进。人民赋予美国力量;参议院是人民的议院;而保护参议院所有的荣光,奢侈和深不可测的那个人,正是猪肉王,参议员中的参议员,罗伯特·C·伯德。 201207/192861

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