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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月14日 15:11:22
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America and the second world war美国和二战That special relationship那种特殊的关系Those Angry Days: Roosevelt, Lindbergh, and Americas Fight Over World War II, 1939-1941. By Lynne Olson.书名:《那些愤怒的日子:罗斯福、林白及美国对是否参加二战的争论,1939至1941年》作者:Lynne OlsonWHEN “the chips are down”, David Cameron declared on a visit to Washington last year, Britain and America know that they can always count on each other. Standing beside Barack Obama on a sun-drenched White House lawn, Britains prime minister invoked the memory of their respective grandfathers, serving in the same campaign to drive Hitlers forces from France. The message was clear. Seven decades on, when the British need to claim a special relationship with America, nothing approaches the second world wars talismanic power.去年,卡梅伦在访问华盛顿时说:在“危急时刻”,英美两国明白,双方总是可以互相信赖的。卡梅伦首相与奥巴马一同站在白宫洒满阳光的草坪上,卡梅伦唤起了双方对各自先辈的回忆:他们并肩作战,将希特勒的军队从法国驱赶出去。卡梅伦传达了一条明确的信息:七十年后的今天,当英国需要与美国保持一种特殊关系时,什么也比不了二战的特殊魔力。In truth, for two terrifying years after it declared war on Germany, Britain did not know that America would come to its aid. Winston Churchills government wavered between a conviction that President Franklin Roosevelt did not want Hitler to control the whole of Europe and so would send help, and a suspicion that many in his government dreamed of scavenging the assets of a doomed British empire. Britain made an extraordinary effort to bring America into the war before it was too late. With Roosevelts tacit approval, hundreds of British agents flooded neutral America, secretly spying on isolationist politicians, Axis diplomats and Nazi sympathisers and more openly wooing public opinion with lectures, radio broadcasts and stories planted in friendly newspapers. Marrying a historians thoroughness with a biographers eye for human nature, Lynne Olsons magnificent new account shows what a close-run thing their campaign was.实际上,在英国向德国宣战后可怕的两年中,英国不知道美国会对其提供帮助。丘吉尔政府摇摆不定,时而坚信罗斯福不会让希特勒控制整个欧洲,因此会向英国提供援助;时而又怀疑罗斯福政府中的一些人,认为他们梦想着大英帝国会毁灭,然后蚕食其资产。英国竭尽全力及时地拉动美国参战。在罗斯福的默许下,数百名英国间谍涌入中立的美国,秘密监视孤立派政治家、轴心国外交官和纳粹的同情者,他们还发表演讲、进行电台广播,同时在亲英的报纸上刊登故事,来更加公开地争取民心。在这部精绝伦的新书中,作者Lynne Olson结合历史学家的全面性和传记作家对人性的探寻,向读者展示了他们的行动是如何地惊险。“Those Angry Days” describes a divided America that is little remembered now, amid praise for the greatest-generation years that followed. She depicts an anti-war country in which bars near army bases sported signs banning soldiers, and generals wore mufti to testify on Capitol Hill, lest their uniforms provoke isolationist members of Congress.《那些愤怒的日子》一书描述了一个现在鲜为人知的分裂的美国,字里行间也体现了对之后数年内最伟大一代的赞许。她描述了一个反战的国家,在那里,军事基地附近的酒吧挂着禁止士兵入内的标识,将军则在美国国会山身穿便作,以免他们的制惹恼议会中不主张美国参战的人。In defence of that pacifism, she explains how Americans felt that their country had been dragged into the first world war by clever British propaganda and promises that Americans killed in Europes mud were making the world “safe for democracy”. Twenty years later, many Americans believed that Europes squabbling powers once again seemed unwilling or unable to defend democracy. Less defensibly, a series of grandees—whether army officers, senators, press barons, or students at Yale and Harvard—are shown questioning whether there was any great moral difference between Britain and Nazi Germany, a view that was often tinged with anti-Semitism.美国人感到正是英国人狡猾的宣传和保才把美国卷入了第一次世界大战,这些感受还是有原因的。作者为反战主义辩护,解释了美国人为什么这样想。二十年后,许多美国人认为欧洲争吵不休的大国再次似乎不愿意或不能够保卫民主。作者还较客观地指出:一系列的大人物—不管是军官、议员、报业巨头或是耶鲁和哈佛大学的学生—都在质疑英国和纳粹德国之间是否存在任何道义上的不同,这种观点常常带有一丝反犹太主义色。Many pages are devoted to an isolationist leader whose clay feet are well known: the transatlantic air pioneer, Charles Lindbergh (pictured), who came grievously close to sympathising with the Nazis. But the books power lies in its finely shaded portraits of figures more usually remembered in poster-bright hues of heroism.作者还用了许多笔墨来描述一位孤立派领导人,他就是跨大西洋飞行员查尔斯-林白,他的致命弱点广为人知:他十分接近于同情纳粹。但是本书的妙处就在于作者擅于用委婉的手法对一些人物进行描述,这些人物在当今人们的眼中英雄色更浓一些。George Marshall, who would later become a great war commander, is shown resisting help for embattled Britain until late in 1941. Marshall never quite rebelled openly, but he shielded aides as they leaked and schemed against government policy. Several senior officers were“essentially pro-German”. For his part Roosevelt is shown as perilously indecisive, poring over opinion polls and “waiting to be pushed into war”, as he told his treasury secretary. Even after the attack on Pearl Harbour, which was greeted with champagne by British officials in America, the president hesitated, detecting a “lingering distinction” in public opinion between war with Japan and a second front with Germany. In the end, Hitler made the decision for him by declaring war on America.本书写道:后来成为战时指挥官的马歇尔一直拒绝向四面楚歌的英国提供帮助,这种情况一直持续到1941年年末。尽管马歇尔基本上从来没有公开反对向英国提供援助,但是当来自美国的援助一点点流向英国时,他对之进行了阻止;马歇尔还暗中反对政府的政策。几名美国高级军官“实际上是亲德的”。在本书中,罗斯福优柔寡断至极、埋头研究民意调查、“等着被推入战争”—罗斯福就是这么告诉他的财政部长的。珍珠港袭击发生后,在美的英国军官用香槟酒庆祝,甚至在那以后,罗斯福总统仍然犹豫不决,认为“向日本开战”和“在第二战线与德国开战”这两种民意“一直存在区别”。最后,希特勒率先向美国开战,从而为罗斯福做了决定。The British are not let off scot-free. In addition to planting propaganda, British agents broke American laws with a will. The British tapped phones, opened letters and even forged a map given to Roosevelt, supposedly showing Nazi plans to take over Latin America. Snobbery played into Britains hands. The book could be sub- titled “Wasps at War”, as east-coast anglophiles and Wall Street millionaires pushed their country towards engagement, against isolationist forces drawn from the prairies and small towns of middle America.英国人的所作所为我们可不能不追究。除了四处播撒言论,英国间谍还大肆破坏美国的法律。英方窃听电话、私拆信件、甚至虚造了一幅地图给了罗斯福,让他以为纳粹可能有占领拉丁美洲的计划。英国人正是利用某些美国人的势利眼而达到了自己的目的。该书的副标题可作“战时的VIP们”,因为那时美国东海岸的亲英派和华尔街百万富翁将美国推向了参战之路,尽管那些来自北美大牧场和美国中部小镇的孤立派反对这么做。Among the heroes are Wendell Willkie, the Republican presidential candidate in 1940, who after his defeat backed Roosevelt and vitally campaigned for Americans to be conscripted and trained for war and for Britain to be sent aid. That enraged many in Willkies party, but may have helped avert a Nazi victory.温德尔?威尔基是众多英雄之一,他在1940年是共和党总统候选人,在总统竞选失败后他持罗斯福,并积极动员美国人为战争应征入伍并接受训练、推动为英国送去援助。这激怒了很多共和党人,但这很可能扭转了战局,防止了纳粹的胜利。In the end, the public was ahead of many in the elite. Even before Pearl Harbour, polls showed Americans preferring entry into the war to a German victory over Britain. Japan had hoped its bombs would demoralise Americans. Instead, America was united by the attack. Two years of savage debate had aly aired every argument for and against war, Ms Olson notes. Democracy was Americas strength, as an anxious Britain had hoped it would be. It was a point despotic enemies could never have understood.最后,民众反而走在了很多上层人士的前面。甚至在珍珠港事件发生以前,民意测验就显示美国人更倾向于美国参战,而不是德国战胜英国。日本原本希望在珍珠港投下的炸弹能使美国人人心涣散;然而,那场袭击让美国人团结一心。作者Olson指出,在两年的激烈辩论中,人们可以听到各种持和反对美国参战的言论。民主是美国的力量所在,而这正是焦虑的英国所希望能做到的。而这一点是任何专制的敌人永远也不会明白的。 /201405/296629Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:In the past month, I have received three e-mails from different people asking me to send a deposit, after which they will forward a winning lottery ticket to me. In exchange for cashing it for them, I will get a portion of the money.在过去的三个月里,我接收到来自三个不同的人发给我的电子邮件,要求我给他们汇款,然后会寄给我的票。我帮他们兑现票,作为交换,他们会给我一部分佣金。I know these are scams, but Im sure there are a few people who might fall for them. What do I do with these e-mails?-Palmdale, Calif.我知道这些都是骗人的把戏,但我相信肯定会有人上当受骗。我应该怎么处理这些邮件呢?——来自加利福利亚,帕姆代尔市。Dear Palmdale:亲爱的帕姆代尔:Most such scams involve people claiming to be Nigerian officials or surviving spouses of former government officials, who very politely offer to give you money if you will help them transfer funds out of the country. You are then asked to provide your bank account number and some money to cover legal and transaction fees. You may even be encouraged to travel to Nigeria or a border country to complete the transaction. Sometimes, the con artists will produce fake money to verify their claims.大多数类似的骗子都自称是尼日尼亚的官员或者是前政府官员的未亡人,他们会非常有礼貌地请你帮忙把钱转出国,并给你钱作为报酬。然后要求你提供你的卡账号和一些钱,以付法律和交易费用。他们还会邀请你去尼日尼亚或是邻国以完成交易。有时候,这些骗子还会印假钞做幌子。People who have responded have been beaten, subjected to threats and extortion, and in some cases, murdered. And, of course, there is a stream of excuses why there was never any transfer of funds to your account. If you receive e-mail from someone claiming to need your help getting money out of another country, do not respond.受骗的人则会被殴打、遭受恐吓,敲诈勒索,甚至被谋杀。当然他们还会编造无数的理由说从来没有向你的账户转过账。如果你接收到请你帮忙把钱转到国外的电子邮件,千万不要理睬。原文译文属!201304/237097

Money-market funds货币市场基金Faking the buck伪造面值America sets new rules for a common short-term investment美国针对常见短期投资设定监管新规IT IS a huge investment class: a 2.8 trillion one, to be exact. And it had long been thought of as a mundane one, just a notch more adventurous than a current account. Yet writing new rules for Americas money-market funds, which invest in short-term commercial and government debt, has been “one of the most flawed and controversial” deliberations ever undertaken by the Securities and Exchange Commission, Wall Streets main regulator, according to Luis Aguilar, the only one of the five commissioners in office throughout the process.货币市场基金是一个巨大的投资产业:准确而言,其资产规模达2.8亿美元。它长期以来都被认为无甚特别,只是比活期账户稍具风险性罢了。然而,据美国交会办公室五个委员之中唯一参与整个监管新规制定进程的路易斯阿吉拉尔称,美国券交易委员会目前针对投资于短期商业和政府债务的货币市场基金出台了新规,这份规章是作为华尔街主要监管机构的交会有史以来“最具缺陷的和争议”的商议之一。By a 3-2 vote on July 23rd, the SEC at last approved two big changes. The first allowed funds to impose fees on redemptions or suspend them for up to ten days to prevent runs. The second requires that the most volatile funds, which cater to institutions and invest in corporate debt, disclose the value of a share to a fraction of a penny.7月23日,美国券交易委员会的五名委员以3比2的投票结果批准了两项监管规定的大变革。其一是允许基金在赎回时征收流动性费用或将赎回期暂缓十天,以防止挤兑;其二是要求投资公司债券、面向机构投资者的优质市场基金不再维持每单位1美元的固定股价。The second change is more important than it sounds. By convention, money-market funds are priced at a steady dollar a share; changes in value are reflected only in the interest they pay. Variations in the value of the underlying assets are small because they mature in a matter of days, but they do occur. In the past, that has been hidden by tiny amounts of rounding. Though this ruse will now be banned for some funds, those that cater to individual investors will still be allowed to use it.第二个变革比听起来更加重要。按照惯例,货币市场基金的价格固定为每单位1美元,价值的变动仅仅反映在付的利息上。因为数日后即已到期,其资产价值变动很小,然确实有变化。在过去,资产价值的变动一直被微量的四舍五入所隐藏。虽然现在一些资金已禁止进行此类处理,那些面向个人投资者的基金仍被允许继续使用这种手段。That matters, since the fixed value contributed to the impression that money-market funds offered the safety of bank deposits with higher returns. In September 2008 that notion was punctured when the Reserve Fund, which had a little over 1% of its assets invested in debt issued by Lehman Brothers, was forced by the investment banks collapse to “break the buck”: reveal a decline in the value of its shares to slightly less than 1. That sparked panicked redemptions at it and other funds.这很能说明问题,固定价值给人的印象便是货币市场基金拥有可比拟存款的安全性,且能提供更高收益。然而就在2008年9月,这一概念被撤下神坛。主要储备基金将其略高于1%的资产投资于雷曼兄弟发行的债券,其后,雷曼投行破产,储备基金的单位资产净值“跌破面值”:每单位价格下降至略低于1美元,引发储备基金和其他基金大规模恐慌性赎回。The panic, in turn, crunched credit for firms that relied on short-term debt and fanned fears of a systemic meltdown. In response, the Treasury provided temporary guarantees for money-market funds, now lapsed. In 2010 and again in 2012 the SEC tightened restrictions on the kinds of securities funds could buy. But it rejected a plan to require funds to hold buffers of capital like banks, for fear it would further dent a battered business.这股恐慌情绪反过来影响到依靠短期债务的企业信贷,激起人们对系统性崩溃的担忧。对此,美国财政部不得不对货币市场基金提供临时担保。在2010年与2012年,美国券交易委员会加强了对各类券资金的购买限制。但它否决了一项要求基金如般持有缓冲资本方案,以免其进一步削弱遭受重创的业务。Mary Jo White, the SECs chairwoman, says the new rules will “protect investors and the financial system in a crisis.” But the two dissenting commissioners fear they may do more harm than good. Allowing funds to suspend redemptions may actually spark runs, as investors rush to pre-empt any curbs, argues one of them. The other worries that the changes will divert the gullible to even more misleading investments, notably “stable value” funds. These cater to much the same niche as money-market funds and, despite their name, offer no guarantees. Rather than trying to protect investors from risk, the SEC might do better to ensure that the risks they are running are clearly disclosed.美国券交易委员会的女主席玛丽?乔?怀特说,新规则将“于危机中保护投资者和金融体系。”但是存有异议的两个委员担心此举可能弊大于利。其中一人认为,由于投资者遇到困境时总会匆匆先发制人,基金的暂缓赎回实际上可能激发挤兑风潮。另一人则担心这些变革将轻信的人转至更为误导性投资,尤其是“稳定价值”基金上。略去它们的名称,这类基金与货币市场基金面向大致相同的市场,且未提供担保。比起试图保护投资者使他们免于面临风险,美国券交易委员会最好还是确保对运作中的风险进行明确披露。 /201407/315256

  Its time to go again to the A Moment of Science mailbag. A listener writes:又到了科学一刻的读信时间,一位听友写道:Dear A Moment of Science,亲爱的《科学一刻》栏目:Everyone gets bored from time to time. But I was wondering–what is boredom exactly, scientifically speaking?每个人时不时都感觉到对某事的厌倦。但是我想知道---从科学的角度看,厌倦具体指的是什么呢?Boredom is one of those really common things that, partly because its so common, is rarely investigated with much rigor. But a study by researchers in Canada aims to change that. In fact, theyve come up with a definition of boredom.厌倦是一个普遍存在的现象,因为它是如此普遍,因此人们很少花费时间精力对它进行调查研究。加拿大研究人员试图改变这种现状。事实上,他们已经对厌倦给出了定义。According to the study, boredom is “an aversive state of wanting, but being unable, to engage in satisfying activity,” arising from failures in one of the brains attention networks.调查研究表明,厌倦是指“渴望但又无法从事令人满意的活动的一种反感状态”,起因是大脑注意力网络故障。In other words, youre bored when you cant quite focus on stuff–such as thoughts or things happening around you–that allows you to engage in absorbing activities. And, to make it worse, youre sort of aware that you cant pay attention, which makes you feel listless and, well, bored.换句话说,当你无法完全集中精力在某些事情上,例如思考问题或者发生在你周围的事无法吸引你的注意力时,你便会感到无聊。更糟糕的是,你意识到自己不能集中注意力,这会让你更加无精打采进而产生厌倦情绪。Boredom is linked to many psychological, social, and health problems. For example, being bored at work can make you less productive and, in some jobs, can lead to serious accidents. Also, boredom has been linked to substance abuse and other health issues.厌倦与许多心理学、社会学还有健康问题相关联。例如,对于工作的厌倦会让工作效率低下,对于某些工作来说可能导致严重的事故。同时,厌倦与滥用药物以及其他健康问题密切关联。There are all sorts of ways to try to avoid becoming bored, or snapping out of it when you feel bored. But this research could be a first step towards developing more scientific ways to curb boredom.其实有各种各样的方法可以让你避免陷入厌倦的困境或者及时从厌倦的状态中脱身。此项研究仅仅是开发更多科学方式以抑制厌倦的第一步。 /201306/243671

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  Science and technology科学技术New transistors新型晶体管Mechanical advantage机械优势Two new types of transistor may lead to simpler, more efficient computers两种新型晶体管或许会导致更加便捷高效计算机的出现WHEN baking a cake it helps to have all the ingredients within reach,当你在烧烤蛋糕的时候,它有会让所有的一切都变得触手可及,rather than wasting time and energy making frequent trips to the pantry.而不是让你在食品柜繁琐的开关之间浪费时间与精力。Something similar is true of the logic circuits in computersmicroprocessors.这也同样会真正应用于电脑微处理器中的某些逻辑电路。These could be made faster, and would consume less energy, if they were able to store information themselves instead of fetching it from separate memory chips or hard drives.如果这些微处理器自己能够储存一些信息,用来取代从原来相互独立的芯片或手工操作中获得的信息,它们的速度将会变得更快,能耗将会更低。The problem is that the transistors used to make logic circuits hold their electronic state, and therefore any data they contain, only when powered up.问题是,用来制造逻辑电路的晶体管中保留着它们的电子态,因此当这些晶体管通电的时候,它们会包含任何可能的数据。The choice engineers face is thus between supplying continuous power to a transistor, so that it can retain its memory,因此,工程师们面临的选择就是要么对晶体管提供一个持续的电源,让晶体管保持自己的记忆,and ferrying data that would otherwise be lost to and from so-called non-volatile memory devices that do not require continuous power.否则从所谓的非易失性半导体存储器中传输的数据就有可能丢失,不过它不需要持续的电源。Cracking this problem—so that transistors can act as their own non-volatile memory—would make all computers faster.解决这个问题——以便于让晶体管使用自身的非易失性半导体存储器—将会让所有的电脑运行速度更快。It would be particularly valuable, though, for mobile devices.虽然这对于移动设备来说,显得特别昂贵。These could be made smaller and lighter, since they would require fewer components.不过移动设备因此可以做得更小,更轻盈,因为它们需要的元件更小。And they could go for longer between charges.并且两次充电的时间间隔将会变得更长。To this end, Hiroshi Mizuta of the University of Southampton, in England, and Tsuyoshi Hasegawa of the National Institute for Material Science in Tsukuba, Japan, are proposing a marriage between two novel types of transistor that could hardly be more different.为此,英国南安普顿大学的Hiroshi Mizuta和日本筑波国立材料科学研究所的Tsuyoshi Hasegawa提出了将两种完全不同新型材料混合起来。One, the atomic transistor, draws on the latest advances in nanoscience.其中一种就是原子晶体管,它利用了最新的纳米科技。The other, the mechanical transistor, sounds as if it has been lifted from the annals of the industrial revolution.另外一种就是机械晶体管,这听起来就像是从工业革命史册中发掘出来的玩意儿。The atomic transistor works, as its name suggests, by shuffling individual atoms around within the device.原子晶体管的工作方式就像它名字所示的那样,是通过移动该元件内部的单个原子进行工作的。The atoms in question are copper, and the result of the shuffling is to create or destroy a conductive pathway between two crucial bits of the transistor, the source and the drain, thus switching the device on or off.这里所说的原子指的是铜原子,移动的结果主是在晶体管的两个十字位置构建或消除一个传导通路,它的源极和漏极因此就会开启或关闭。That is possible because this part of the transistor is made of tantalum pentoxide, a material whose atoms are arranged in a lattice which contains holes large enough for copper atoms to squeeze through.这是有可能实现的,因为这部分晶体管是由五氧化二钽制造的—这种材料可以将它自身的原子排布在晶格中,这些晶格包括一些足够大的孔,可以让铜原子挤过去。The mechanical transistor, more properly called a nano-electromechanical systems transistor, creates and destroys the connection between source and drain mechanically.机械晶体管,更确切地可以称之为纳米电子机械系统晶体管,它可以在源极和漏极之间机械地构建或消除连接。When a voltage is applied across two beamlike electrodes made of aluminium, which are separated by a gap of around 50 nanometres,两个柱状的铝电极间隔约50纳米,当电压加在这两个电极之间时,它们就会相互通电,charge builds up on each, creating an attractive force between them, until a critical point is reached.在二者之间会形成一股引力,直至达到一个临界点。At that moment one of the electrodes flips towards the other, causing the two to make contact.在达到临界点的那一刻,其中一个电极就会移向另一个电极,这两个电极就会形成通路。This closes the circuit and turns the transistor on. Apply the opposite charge and the electrode flips back, breaking the circuit.这样就会接通电路,打开晶体管。利用相反的电荷,电极就会复位,进而断开电路。What makes these two very different types of transistor attractive is that both the copper and the aluminium stay put when the power is turned off.这两种完全不同类型的晶体管如此吸引人的地方就在于断电后,如何让铜原子和铝电极待在原地。They can thus act as memories as well as processors.它们可以应用于储存芯片和处理器。The on state represents one type of binary digit and the off state represents the other.开的状态表示二进制中的一个数字,关的状态可以表示另一个数字。Dr Mizuta and Dr Hasegawa are therefore using the novel transistors to try to make the worlds first non-volatile processor chip.Mizuta士和Hasegawa士因此都在使用新型的晶体管,力图制造出世界上第一个非易失性处理器芯片。Ideally, such a chip would have only one sort of transistor, since that would mean it was much easier to manufacture.理想的这种芯片将只有一种晶体管类型,因为这意味着它将会更加容易制造。However, transistors come in two varieties, n-type and p-type.不过,晶体管却有两种,一种是N型,一种是P型。Both are needed in a logic circuit, but atomic devices can be only n-type.逻辑电路都需要这两种晶体管,不过在原子设备中,只需要N型。The alternatives, then, are to make the circuit entirely out of NEMS transistors,那么另一个方案就是完全用NEMS晶体管制造电路,or to mix the two by using atomic devices where an n-type transistor is needed and NEMS ones where a p-type is required.或者是将利用N型晶体管的原子设备和利用P型晶体管的NEMS晶体管混合起来。Dr Mizuta and Dr Hasegawa have opted for a mixture,士Mizuta和Hasegawa士选择了二者的混合,because atomic transistors are much smaller than NEMS ones, and the saving of space outweighs the awkwardness of mixing them together.因为原子晶体管比NEMS更加小巧,这样节省的空间就会消除二者的混合的尴尬。If their recipe works, it will mean far fewer electronic trips to the pantry and a quicker baking time for whatever answer the new chip is trying to cook up.如果他们的方案成功的话,这意味着食品柜中的开关将会大大减小,实现更短的烹饪时间。 /201305/239036Namibia. But today Riemvasmaak is fully restored, 纳米比亚。但是今天里福马萨克可是人满为患, an unlikely settlement with famous past and quite possibly a future full of visitors like me. 一个不太可能有着著名过去和将来的地方挤满了像我一样的游客。But before I head out into the Green Kalahari, 但是在我走进绿色的喀拉哈里沙漠之前,lets take an aerial look at the route Ive prepared.让我们从空中看看我已经准备好的一条路线。From the centre of Riemvasmaak, Ill be heading west towards the Orange Valley, 从福马萨克的中心,我将径直西去至奥兰治谷,over undulating ground until the way literally disappears beneath my feet.越过起伏的地面,直到道路消失在我脚下。This is the Molopo Gorge, the dramatic path of a river that hasnt flowed here for generations.这是莫洛坡峡谷, 世代没有在这里流淌戏剧性的一条河流。The cliffs eventually shorten and the valley widens as the riverbed makes its way downhill to join the consistent waters of the Orange.悬崖最终变短而河谷扩大,因为山下的河床加入到奥兰治河一致的水域当中。201311/263947If you thought erasable ink was cool, wait until you hear about today’s topic on A Moment of Science: electronic ink.如果你觉得可擦墨水很酷的话,那就等你听完今天所讲的这个话题---电子墨水后再下结论吧。To begin with a slightly technical explanation, electronic ink consists of three parts: millions of tiny, microscopic capsules, an oily liquid filling the capsules, and negatively charged colored chips or spheres floating inside the capsules. Electrical charges cause the colored chips or spheres to arrange themselves into letters, numbers, and other characters when the ink is sp on a surface.理论上来讲,电子墨水主要由三部分组成:数以百万的细小微型胶囊,填充胶囊的油状液体以及浮在胶囊里的带有负电荷的色芯片(或球体)。当墨水洒在物体表面时,色芯片在电荷的作用下就会形成字母、数字或文字。If that description is slightly confusing, try imagining electronic ink as consisting of millions of clear beach balls. Each ball contains hundreds of white Ping-Pong balls floating in blue dye. The Ping-Pong balls make the top of the beach ball appear white, while the bottom appears blue.如果我这么讲你有点难以理解的话,那就把电子墨水想象成是由数以百万的沙滩球组成。每个沙滩球球内都含有数百个白色的乒乓球浮在蓝色液体中。乒乓球会让沙滩球顶部呈现白色,而底部呈现出蓝色。Now imagine that you’ve sp millions of these beach balls on a wide, flat surface and gone up in a helicopter for a bird’s-eye view. You see an all-white field. Using a device to control the movement of the Ping-Pong balls, you cause some of them to sink, revealing the blue dye. With precise control, you could use the resulting patterns of light and dark to create characters.现在想象一下你将这些沙滩球放在一个宽而平的表面上,然后乘上直升机从上面俯瞰。你会看到一片白色。然后,你用设备来控制乒乓球的运动,让某些球下沉,呈现出蓝色。通过准确的控制颜色的深浅,你就可以写出字了。In a nutshell, that’s how electronic ink works. So what’s it good for? Electronic books, for one. In the near future we may leaf through a volume written with electronic ink that contain hundreds of different texts. With the push of a button, Shakespeare may morph into Dr. Seuss. Another push and the ink re-arranges itself into Crime and Punishment. No matter how it’s used, electronic ink is sure to jolt our understanding of the printed page.简单来说,这就是电子墨水的工作原理。那么电子墨水有什么好处呢?就拿电子书来举个例子,在不远的将来,我们可能会阅读用电子墨水写成的书卷,这些书卷包含着数百种书籍。只要轻轻一摁,莎士比亚就会变成瑟斯士,再摁一下,就会变成罪与罚。电子墨水无论怎么样被使用,它终将颠覆我们对于印刷页面的理解。

  Triceratops protects itself with a bony shield called a frill. They can fend off an attacker with a pair of one-meter-long swords.三角龙使用一种装饰性角状结构的盾状骨骼保护自己。它们还可以用一对一米长的犄角对抗攻击者。You’ve got to crush it. The only way to deal with this huge, curved, cantilevered, composite armor is a crushing blow with multiple teeth.你需要击败他。而对付这种巨大弯曲,悬挂式的复合盔甲,唯一的方法就是使用许多牙齿将它咬碎。But defeating a Triceratops takes more than just teeth. It also requires power. Triceratops’ most dangerous weapons are mounted on a skull that can swivel 360 degrees. 但是想要咬碎三角龙的盔甲,仅仅依靠牙齿是不够的。力量也十分重要。三角龙最危险的武器就是可以360度旋转的头骨。Triceratops would want to keep that horns and the frill pointed right at T-Rex. 三角龙想要用犄角和装饰性角状结构对抗雷克斯霸王龙。For a T-Rex, the key to defeating a Triceratops is his huge jaws, driven by two sets of powerful muscles. The first runs from the top of the skull down to the bottom of the jaw. These muscles give this carnivore’s bite its spear. The second set are muscles which make up almost 50% of the muscles in the head, and wrap around the lower jaw, tying it to the roof of the mouth. They give T-Rex’s bite its 3 tons of force, twice the biting power of a great white shark. And not only that. Just like a python, T-Rex can dislocate its jaw. 对于雷克斯霸王龙来说,击败三角龙的关键就是它巨大的颚,这是由两条有力的肌肉控制的。第一条从头骨上延伸到颚的底部。这些肌肉使雷克斯霸王龙的咬击像矛一样有力。第二条肌肉的大约50%都在头部,并缠绕在下颚,连接上颚骨。这使雷克斯霸王龙的撕咬力可达3吨,这是大白鲨的两倍。不仅如此,像巨蟒一样,雷克斯霸王龙还能够使腮关节脱臼。Cranial kinesis is basically the ability to swallow things larger than your own head. That’s because the skull expands as it opens up—snakes swallowing whole chicken eggs. A snake head that’s, you know, much smaller than the egg, and it will swallow that whole egg. There’s not a lawyer in this world that’s too fat that this T-Rex couldn’t swallow him whole. 吞下比头部大的物体基本上靠的就是颅运动的能力。这是因为当嘴巴张开时,头骨就会扩张,就像蛇能吞下整个鸡蛋一样。大家知道,蛇的脑袋比鸡蛋小很多,但是它还是能吞下整个鸡蛋。虽然律师通常很胖,但是胖到雷克斯霸王龙不能整个吞下的律师还没有出生呢。Tyrannosaurus Rex is a carnivorous monster that uses sheer force to overpower well-defended prey.雷克斯霸王龙是一种食肉型巨兽,它使用它撕咬的力量来捕杀防御力强的猎物。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201402/276011Any list of the worlds top ten most famous paintings will surely include da Vincis Mona Lisa.在任何世界名画前十名的列表中,一定都会有达芬奇的“蒙娜丽莎”。Part of the paintings appeal is its mystery.其吸引力部分来自于它的神秘。Those lucky enough to have an unobstructed view of the Mona Lisa at the Louvre often stare in awe, baffled by the smile that seems to flicker and fade.那些有幸可以在卢浮宫自由欣赏蒙娜丽莎的人们眼神中常常都充满了敬畏,他们也对蒙娜丽莎那看似一闪即逝的微笑也感到困惑。Gazing at a reproduction of the workproduces the same effect.即使看它的复制品也会产生同样的效果。Now shes smiling, now shes not.似笑非笑。Whats the deal with Mona Lisas smile?蒙娜丽莎的微笑是怎么回事呢?Harvard neuroscientist Margaret Livingstone is pretty sure shes solved the puzzle.哈佛大学的神经科学家Margaret Livingstone很确信自己已经解开了这个疑惑。Presumingnothing, Livingstone reasoned that the famous portraits flickering smile is caused by the way we see.其实没什么其它原因,Livingstone将蒙娜丽莎这个著名画像的如闪即逝的微笑的原因归为我们看它的方式。Our eyes use two separate regions to see.我们是用两个分隔开的眼睛看东西的。One is the fovea, a central area used to see colors andpick out details such as fine print.一个就是视网膜中央凹,一个用来看颜色并察觉出细节的中间地带。The area around the fovea is better at detecting motion,shadows, and stark, black and white contrasts.而这个区域周围的地方则更擅长察觉位移、影子、光亮及黑白对比。When we look at a persons face, according to Livingstone, we usually focus centrally on the eyes.照Livingstone所说,当我们在注视一个人的脸时,我们经常都会集中注意在眼睛上。Gazing at Mona Lisas eyes, our less accurate peripheral vision notices the mouth, picking upshadows from the cheekbones.在凝视蒙娜丽莎的眼睛时,我们并不是那么精准的视力就注意在嘴巴上了,而嘴巴上则覆有脸颊骨的阴影。The shadows play visual tricks, hinting at the curve of a smile.就是这个阴影在视觉上给我们开了玩笑,它隐藏了微笑的曲线。But when we look directly at themouth, our central vision doesnt see the shadows, and so the smile suddenly disappears.但当我们直视她嘴巴的时候,我们的中心视力并不能看到该阴影,所以微笑就立刻消失了。As oureyes scan different parts of the portrait, Monas smile seems to fade in and out.随着我们眼睛看画像部位的不同,蒙娜丽莎的微笑也就时有时无。Did da Vinci intend to create this flickering smile effect?是达芬奇有意营造这么一个“似笑非笑”的效果吗?Perhaps. In any case, he was geniusenough to paint shadows subtle enough to astound viewers for half a millennium.或许吧。反正,他的天赋好的让他将阴影画的如此微妙,细致到震惊了半个世纪的观赏者。Meanwhile,Mona Lisa will keep smiling. And not.同时,也让蒙娜丽莎的笑一直这样时有时无。 /201406/304674

  

  

  Business商业报道Starbucks星巴克Just add water加水即成The ailing giant turns to instant coffee for a pick-me-up亏损巨头靠速溶咖啡来提神NO ONE can accuse Howard Schultz of inaction since he returned as chief executive of Starbucks,没有人可以指责重回星巴克的首席执行官霍华德·舒尔茨的无所作为,the firm he built into a multinational only to watch it stumble under his successor.他只是没想到看着他一手建起的跨国公司绊倒在他的继任者脚下。Barely a month has gone by over the past year without the firm announcing some new initiative or other.在过去的一年公司没有公布任何新的咖啡饮料,仅仅不到一个月,The latest came on February 17th in New York, when Mr Schultz unveiled Via, an instant coffee which, he claims,2月17日在纽约,舒尔茨先生推出Via,一种速溶咖啡,他声称,tastes just as good as Java brewed in the shop by one of the firms baristas.其味道和星巴克咖啡大师在店里调配的Java一样香醇。Mr Schultz hopes to win a share of the billion or so the world spends on instant coffee—a product which, he sniffs, has not improved in decades.舒尔茨先生希望赢得全球花在速溶咖啡约170亿美元上的一点份额—速溶咖啡,他嗤之以鼻地说,在过去的几十年里一点儿没改进。Starbucks itself has spent 20 years pursuing the holy grail of an instant coffee that tastes as good as the fresh stuff.星巴克用了20年所追求的圣杯速溶咖啡的味道和新磨的一样好。Don Valencia, the firms first head of research and development, who created the blended and frozen frappuccino drinks that earn Starbucks billion a year,唐?瓦伦西亚,星巴克公司研发部的首席研究员,他研发的法布奇诺咖啡为星巴克每年赢得2亿美元,could never find a way to scale up an instant formula he had developed at home.他在家里研究时一直不能找到一种好的方法即规模化生产的速溶配方。When Mr Schultz returned as chief executive, he noticed that there had been some technological advances, allowing finer grinding, for example.当舒尔茨先生重新回到星巴克任行政长官,他注意到,有了一些技术的进步,例如能够使咖啡豆更精细研磨。So he asked the Ramp;D team to repeat the recently deceased Valencias experiments, and found that we had broken the code.因此,他要求研发团队重做最近已故的Valencia实验,结果发现, 我们已经破译了密码 。The name Via is a hat-tip to Valencia—though during development it was known as Jaws.把这款速溶咖啡命名Via是向Valencia致敬,但在开发过程中它被称为大白鲨。Starbucks says it has patents that should prevent competitors from quickly replicating Via, which will go on sale in some American stores next month.星巴克表示,它拥有专利,可以防止竞争者迅速仿制Via,下个月美国的一些星巴克将开始出售Via。The opportunity may, however, be biggest in other countries: in Britain over 80% of coffee sold is instant, compared with just 10% in America.不过,在其他国家机会可以更大:英国80%以上的咖啡是速溶的,相比之下,美国速溶咖啡只有10%。Assuming Starbucks drinkers decide that Via tastes good, the company will have to get the price right.假设星巴克客人认为Via好喝,公司将不得不把价格定合适。At first, it will come in packets of 12 or 3 individual servings, for 83 and 98 cents a cup respectively.首先,它会分为3袋装或12袋装,分别为83美分和98美分一杯。That is much more than other instants, but much less than a cup of coffee at one of Starbucks stores.这比其他速溶咖啡贵很多 ,但远远低于任何一个星巴克的门店的一杯咖啡。The risk is that the firms existing customers may abandon counter service and start making their own cup of instant.市场的风险在于,公司现有的顾客可能会放弃柜台务,而开始泡速溶咖啡。That would encourage them to visit Starbucks less often, a trend that is aly gathering pace with the recession.这将促使他们去星巴克消费的次数下降,这一趋势已经在加快衰退的步伐。The nickname Fourbucks has not helped at a time when consumers have become cost-conscious.当消费者已经开始省钱时,绰号Fourbucks的人是不会来星巴克消费的。For the first time in Starbucks history, same-store sales have fallen.这是在星巴克的历史上,第一次同一店面销售额开始下降。Mr Schultz has had to accelerate the store-closure programme that he had started in order to correct the over-expansion which prompted his return to the helm.舒尔茨先生不得不加快店铺关闭方案,他已经开始关闭店面以便纠正过度扩张,从而使他重回咖啡王国。To keep customers coming to remaining outlets, he might experiment with discounts such as cheap combination meals of a drink and food.为了让顾客常来剩下的店铺,他可能会尝试打折,如廉价的套餐的饮料和食品。He also wants a visit to a Starbucks shop to be a uniquely uplifting experience.他还希望顾客访问星巴克是一个独特的振奋的体验 。Improving the smell in stores by changing the cheese used in breakfast sandwiches was a start.替换三明治早餐里的奶酪来改善店里的进餐气氛就是一个开始。But ensuring that staff are enthusiastic will be especially difficult when jobs are disappearing.但要确保员工的工作热情将是特别困难的,当工作岗位正在减少时。Mr Schultz remains hostile to unions, but has decided to maintain the firms popular health benefits, while cutting his own pay.舒尔茨先生仍然敌视工会,但决定保持该公司广受欢迎的医疗保险,同时降低自己的工资。Will all this be enough?这样做就够了吗?So far, investors seem sceptical:迄今为止,投资者似乎持怀疑态度:Starbucks share price remains barely a quarter of its all-time high in 2006.星巴克的股票价格仍然是2006年历史最高水平的四分之一。 /201304/237089

  With the discovery of the Stanley plot, the privy chamber went into locked out.随着斯坦利阴谋的发现,这个小房间成了外人永远不能踏足之地。Previously, its working was transparent, but with the new security overhaul, only those who would best content the king were admitted.以前,它的工作是透明的,但是随着新的安全检修,只有那些最好的内容才能被国王认同。So at the heart of this glittering household was an institutional black hole, whose working was known only to Henry himself.所以这个表面光鲜的家族核心其实是一个由来已久的黑洞,其工作仅仅亨利本人知晓。Inside the privy chamber, things were changing.在小私室内,一切都发生了改变。Henry was obsessed with control, especially when it came to money.亨利痴迷于控权,特别是提到钱的时候。The remit of his privy chamber treasure was expanding.他的职权范围之内的小私室财宝被扩大。These books are chamber accounts.这些书是皇室的账目。They are books of payments and whats interesting about these books is that they represent Henrys very personal control of finance.这是账单册而且关于这些书有趣的地方是,它们代表亨利非常个人的财务控制。These account books are brought to him, and he would look down everything and he would sign it at the bottom.这些帐册都会呈给亨利,他会仔细浏览一切,然后在最底下签字。We have everything from wages for trumpeters, for barbers, queens ministrants, the princes trumpeters, falcons bought from Hungary.我们已经掌握了从号手,理发师,女王的侍从,王子的号手,从匈牙利购买回猎鹰的薪金。Falcons bought from Hungary, brilliant.从匈牙利购买回的猎鹰,太棒了。Its quite a journey.那段旅途可真够漫长的。Brilliant.非常棒。Historian Sean Curriham has been studying Henrys account books.历史学家肖恩?克里姆一直在研究亨利的帐簿。This one shows money coming directly to Henrys personal coffers, and these pages are written by Henry himself.这一条目显示钱直接送入亨利的个人保险库,而这几页是亨利自己签字。He loved this entry in particular.他尤其喜爱这一条目。He had many delivered in old weighty crowns.他运送了许多旧的王冠。You can sense him weighing in his hand.你可以感觉到他在自己手里掂分量的情景。Thats right.是的。Picking his weighty crown.挑选他沉重的。Oh, thats good.哦,那很好。And then I like these good crowns.我喜欢这些好的王冠。These are some good crowns we have here.这些都是一些我们这里好的王冠。 201311/264921

  Its easy to tell, even at a glance, that people and moose are pretty different.很显然,即便只是匆匆一瞥,也能轻易看出人和糜鹿是完全不同的动物。Moose, at leastmales, have big, wing shaped antlers.糜鹿,至少是雄性糜鹿拥有大型的、像翅膀一样的鹿角。People have no antlers. Moose are herbivores, eating only plants.而人是没有角的。糜鹿是食草动物,只吃植物。We eat mostly junk food.我们却几乎总吃垃圾食品。Despite their salad only diet, moose can weigh as much as 1400pounds.尽管“色拉”是糜鹿唯一的食物,它们的体重却能达到1400磅。Even the fattest humans top the scales at only around 1000 pounds.而我们人类中最胖的也只有1000磅。The list goes on.二者间的差异数不胜数。And yet, in some ways, people and moose are similar.但是在某些方面,人与糜鹿是相似的。For example, both suffer from arthritis.例如,两者都饱受关节炎的困扰。And thats interesting because how and why moose develop arthritis may be able to tell us something about the pathology of the human variety.这个问题很有趣,因为研究糜鹿患上关节炎的过程和原因,可能有助于我们发现一些人类患关节炎的病理。For example, researchers working in Michigans upper peninsula have been studying moose there for decades.例如,位于密西根湖上游半岛的研究人员已经对糜鹿进行了数十年的研究。And one thing theyve found is while arthritis in moose is partly genetic, its also triggered by the environment.他们发现糜鹿患关节炎在一定程度上是由基因引起的,同时也受到环境的影响。Specifically, the researchers have observed that moose that suffer from arthritis seem to have not had access to proper nutrition early in life.特别需要提到的是,研究人员观察的那些患关节炎的糜鹿似乎幼年都营养不良。Perhaps they were born during a drought when there werent enough berries and other plants toeat.可能是因为它们出生于旱期,没有足够的浆果和其他植被可以食用。Whatever the case, even if those moose had plenty to eat later on, their very early nutritional deficits appear to have doomed them to an adult life of aching joints.无论情况如何,即便那些糜鹿后来有足够的食物,它们幼年的营养匮乏使它们的成年生活注定与关节疼痛相伴。The take away for scientists who study arthritis, and doctors who treat it in people, is that how and what we eat, even as babies, may lay the foundation for chronic arthritis and other health problems later in life.研究关节炎的科学家和治疗关节炎的医生得出结论:我们怎么吃、吃什么可能会为后来生活中的慢性关节炎和其他健康问题埋下隐患。And thanks to the moose, those scientists are also beginning to better understand the sorts ofdiets that could lower those risks.得益于对麋鹿的研究,那些科学家也开始更好地了解能降低患关节炎风险的饮食种类。 201404/288733

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