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古诗词汉译英:《论语中英文版 第十三章 子路篇(3) -- :58: 来源: 子路曰:“衛君待子而為政,子將奚先?”子曰:“必也正名乎!”子路曰:“有是哉,子之迂也!奚其正?”子曰:“野哉由也!君子於其所不知,蓋闕如也名不正,則言不順;言不順,則事不成;事不成,則禮樂不興;禮樂不興,則刑罰不中;刑罰不中,則民無所措手足故君子名之必可言也,言之必可行也君子於其言,無所苟而已矣”   Zi Lu said, "The ruler of Wei has been waiting you, in order with you to administer the government. What will you consider the first thing to be done?" The Master replied, "What is necessary is to rectify names." "So! indeed!" said Zi Lu. "You are wide of the mark! Why must there be such rectification?" The Master said, "How uncultivated you are, You! A superior man, in regard to what he does not know, shows a cautious reserve. If names be not correct, language is not in accordance with the truth of things.  If language be not in accordance with the truth of things, affairs cannot be carried on to success. When affairs cannot be carried on to success, proprieties and music will not flourish. When proprieties and music do not flourish, punishments will not be properly awarded.  When punishments are not properly awarded, the people do not know how to move hand or foot. Theree a superior man considers it necessary that the names he uses may be spoken appropriately, and also that what he speaks may be carried out appropriately. What the superior man requires is just that in his words there may be nothing incorrect."    子路曰:“卫君待子而为政①,子将奚先②?”子曰:“必也正名乎③?”子路曰:“有是哉,子之迂也④!奚其正?”子曰:“野哉⑤,由也!君子于其所不知,盖阙如也⑥名不正,则言不顺;言不顺,则事不成;事不成,则礼乐不兴;礼乐不兴,则刑罚不中⑦;刑罚不中,则民无所措手足⑧故君子名之必可言也君子于其言,无所苟而已矣⑨”    子路问:“卫君等待老师去执政,您会先做什么?”孔子说:“那一定是订正名称了”子路说:“有这个必要吗?您太迂腐了,这何必去订正呢?”孔子说:“仲由啊,你太卤莽了君子对于他不了解的事,就不发表意见名称不辩正,说话就不顺当;说话不顺当,事就办不成;事情办不成,礼乐就没法振兴;礼法不振兴,刑罚就不会得当;刑罚不得当,民众就无所适从所以君子确定了名称就一定能说出用这个名称的理由,说出的就必定能施行君子对自己的话,是一点都不马虎的”    ①卫君:卫国的君主  ②奚先:以何为先奚:何,什么疑问词  ③正名:张岱年在《中国古典哲学概念范畴要论中说:“孔子所谓‘正名’,意指确定事物名称的含义,规定事物的正确名称”  ④迂:迂腐  ⑤野:粗野,鲁莽  ⑥阙如:存疑,保留阙:同“缺”  ⑦中:适当,符合事实  ⑧措:放,置  ⑨苟:苟且,马虎    孔子的“正名”就是端正名分,以礼规范人的行为,使处在不同地位的人,各就其位,各司其职,不得僭越“正名”的基本精神,是使人们的行为制度化、规范化,其前提和基础是各行为主体要有道德自觉,一旦出现道德不自觉就应克,以使处在不同政治地位、社会地位的人,在行为上符合职位职守身份的应有要求孔子所说的正名,主要指君臣父子各安其位,各守自己的名分如果社会上出现“君不君,臣不臣,父不父,子不子”的乱名分行为,不予纠正,就会引起社会,所以治理政事,先得从正名开始  名称问题,不单是用词准确与否的问题,首先是概念是否明确的问题概念明确,才能正确表达意思,才能相互沟通其次是文风学风作风不正派,名不副实再次是心存偏见,有意歪曲,甚至罗织罪名,强加于人无论那种不正之名,都会使民众厌听其言不正名、不平反、不洗冤,不使名副其实,想做成功什么事,那是很难的

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