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福州通水去那比较好服务分享福州市二医院检查封闭抗体多少钱

来源:龙马共享    发布时间:2019年07月22日 01:59:40    编辑:admin         

A major reason why many cancers are so dangerous is that they metastasize. This means that instead of staying in one place, the cancer cells migrate from their original site to other parts of the body. No wonder that scientists are busy studying the mechanism that enables cells to move around, in hope of finding a way to control this migration.癌症的危险因素主要在于癌细胞转移。换而言之,癌细胞不会老实地待着,可以从原发部位转移到身体其他部位。科学家苦心研究转移细胞的原理,希望能抑制癌细胞“迁移”。Whether it’s an immune cell going off to battle infection, or a cancer cell making its way to a new area of the body, the underlying mechanism for its movement is the same. All non-blood cells are surrounded by a fibrous material known as the extracellularmatrix. Anyway, cells on the go use a point-to-point adhesion system, which functions like tiny hooks, to grab the materials that make up the extracellularmatrix.无论是“冲锋陷阵”抵御感染的免疫细胞,还是在“迁移”的癌细胞,它们运动的基本原理是相同的。除了血细胞,其他细胞均由纤维物质细胞外基质包围。移动的细胞采用点对点附着体系,就像小钩一样捕捉构成细胞外基质的物质。So, basically, in order to move, a cell climbs hand-over-hand along the extracellularmatrix until it reaches a blood or lymphaticvessel and penetrates it. From there, it’s smooth sailing. By the way, the thinner walls of lymphaticvessels are easier to penetrate, which is why examining lymph nodes plays a major role in cancer detection.基本而言,细胞顺着细胞外基质移动,一旦发现血管或淋巴管,穿透血管和淋巴管,这样就畅通无阻了。因为淋巴管壁很薄,极易穿透,所以通过淋巴的检查可以诊断癌症。The trick then, is not only to figure out all the factors that affect the chemical reactions that enable cells to move around, but also to figure out how to control these reactions selectively. Because cell movement is necessary for healing wounds and fighting off diseases, stopping it completely isn’t an option. Instead, scientists will have to figure out how to block movement in select locations, like in the extra-cellular matrix around growing tumors.而关键不仅仅是找出所有因素影响细胞自由运动的化学反应,还要明白如何能有选择地控制化学反应。因为细胞运动对于伤口愈合和抵抗疾病都至关重要,完全抑制细胞运动并不可取。科学家必须解决如何抑制某些部位的运动,比如恶化的肿瘤周围的细胞外基质。 /201303/229383。

fight tooth and nail全力拼In our civilized, modern life, we use our teeth for eating only, and our fingernails and toenails are used hardly at all, except for decoration. Among animals, however, teeth and nails are often used to collect food or catch prey. More aggressive animals, such as tigers and bears, use teeth and nails to attack other creatures or defend their territory. If attacked themselves, they will fiercely ;fight tooth and nail; to avoid being wounded or captured.在现代文明生活中,我们只用牙齿吃东西,但是手指和脚趾却鲜有派上用场的时候,除了用来装饰。然而动物则经常使用牙齿和指甲来采集食物或者追捕猎物。攻击性更强的动物,例如老虎和熊,则用牙齿和指甲攻击其它动物或者保卫自己的领土。如果自身被攻击,它们会拼命用牙齿咬,挥舞爪子,以避免受伤或者被俘。From that animal origin, we have imported this idiom into our civilized, modern life to represent any situation where we humans feel we must fight aggressively for some cause or purpose. It does not mean to fight physically, as animals do, but to fight verbally using ideas and arguments.从动物身上,我们将这一习惯用语引入到文明的现代化生活中,来表示我们人类为了某些原因或目的,去全力拼搏的情况。不一定是像动物一样来肉搏,而是指用各种想法和争论,从言语上力拼到底。原文译文属!201208/194642。

Science and Technology Materials science Stronger when stricken科技 材料科学 越敲越结实A new material that gets stiffer when it is stressed一种受外力时硬度提高的新材料ONE of the valuable properties of bone is that when it endures repeated stress it responds by becoming denser and stronger.骨头有一种很珍贵的属性,那就是当受到反复的击打时,其质地反而会变得更加紧密,坚硬度变得更高。A living material can do that. A non-living one cannot.只有活性材料具备这种特征,非活性材料则不具备。It has no way of adding the extra matter needed to provide the extra density. But it would help engineers a lot if non-living stuff could at least stiffen in response to stress—and that may now be possible.用添加必要物质来让材料获得更高密度的方法是不可行的,但如果非活性材料起码可以在外力作用下变得坚硬—目前达到这一点是可能的,那么这对工程师们来说有非常大的借鉴意义。Brent Carey, a graduate student at Rice University in Texas, thinks he has found a way to make it happen.布伦特凯利是一名德州莱斯大学的研究生,他认为他已找到了实现这一设想的办法。Mr Carey made his discovery when he was testing the properties of a material made of carbon nanotubes (cylinders of carbon atoms a few billionths of a metre across) and a rubbery polymer called polydimethylsiloxane.凯利在测试一种材料的属性时有所发现,该材料的成分包含碳纳米管(直径为几纳米的碳原子圆柱体)和一种名为聚二甲基硅氧烷的橡胶聚合物。He created this composite by growing a forest of nanotubes using hot hydrocarbon gases and an iron catalyst, and then filling the space between the tubes with the polymer.材料的合成过程是这样:首先,他使高温碳氢混合气体和铁催化剂相互作用产生密集的碳纳米管群,然后再用聚合物充填碳纳米管间的空隙。The surprise came when he discovered how his new material responded to repeated stress.当他注意到新材料受到连续作用力而产生反应时,令他惊讶的现象出现了。He found this did not cause any of the damaging fatigue that would be expected.据他观察,预期中的材料损毁性疲劳并未产生。Indeed, his initial inspection suggested the stuff was actually growing stiffer.实际上,他的初步监测显示材料变得更加坚硬了。Fascinated by this result, he took his finding to his supervisor, Pulickel Ajayan, and they assembled a team to study the new material.这个结果让凯利喜出望外,他马上找到了自己的导师普里克尔阿贾扬,随后他们成立了一个小组,专门研究这种新型材料。They gave the composite a real workout. They compressed it five times a second for a week. That caused its stiffness to increase by 12%.他们给这种合成材料做了次实验:对该材料施加5.5倍的压力,时间持续一周,结果材料硬度提高了12%,Moreover, the effect showed no sign of abating,并且这种状态没有减弱的迹象。which led them to suspect that if it were exposed to more stress it would grow stiffer still.研究小组由此设想,如果对其施以更大的作用力,这种材料的硬度是否会变得更高。Why this happens is still a mystery.产生这种效果的原因还是个谜。Mr Carey and his colleagues report in the American Chemical Societys journal Nano that heating the new material did not eliminate the response.凯利和他的同事们发表在美国化工科学院的期刊杂志《Nano》的文章中说,即使对这种新型材料加热,也不能消除已产生的变化。This suggests that the self-stiffening is not the result of chemical changes in the polymer, which can usually be undone by heat.这说明材料强度提高并不是聚合物发生化学反应造成的,一般这种变化在加热状态下是可逆的。The researchers do have one lead, though. Because of the regular alignment of the nanotubes, they were able to stress the material from various directions.不过研究人员已有所发现。由于碳纳米管呈规律状排列,他们能够从不同的方向对材料施加作用力。They found that when the direction of stress was at right-angles to the tubes, it stiffened by 5.9%.当施力方向与碳纳米管成直角时,材料硬度提高5.9%;When it was in the direction in which tubes were pointing, the increase was only 4.3%.当作用力与碳纳米管所指方向一致时,材料硬度仅提高4.3%。What that means is still unclear, but it may be the key to understanding the phenomenon—and thus being able to replicate it with other ingredients.现在尚无法对其中的原因作出解释,但或许对于理解材料硬度变化是非常重要的—进而在其他原材料身上复制这类变化也有了可能。 /201212/217570。

Kids These Days!现在的孩子们!M: Kids these days! They have no respect; they dont know the value of dollar;they cant pay attention to anything for long.现在的小孩子们不懂得尊重(别人),不知道钱的价值,也不能把注意力长时间放在一件事上。F: Actually, that last one may be true. Well,the older generation always complains about kids. But researchers who study the effects of television actually have data to suggest that young people today dont pay attention in the way their parents do.事实上,最后一个或许是真的。上一代人老是抱怨孩子。但是研究电视(对人的)影响的研究人员真的有数据可以实现在的年轻人并不能像他们的父母一样集中注意力。M: Whats the connection to TV?跟电视有什么关系?F: Annie Lang and her colleagues at Indiana University have done a series of studies in which college-age people and middle-aged people were shown a string of t.v. and movie clips. In one trial, they showed images that changed at a fast rate—over eleven shots every thirty seconds. Other trials had images that changed at slower rates—five to six changes, or zero to three changes, every thirty seconds. People from all three groups were quizzed after watching the s to see how much they could remember.印第安纳大学的Annie Lang和他的同事们对做了一系列的研究。(研究人员给)大学年龄层的年轻人和中年人展示了一系列的电视节目和电影剪辑。他们一组用很每30秒超过11次的速度快速给他们展示了图像。另两组,他们又以更慢——每30秒5到6次或是0到3次的速度(展示)。看完录像后,三组人会被测试能记忆多少内容。M: The results?结果是?F: The results differed depending on a couple of factors, such as how arousing the images themselves were. But in general they found that young people have a much harder time than adults in paying attention to, and remembering, slower-moving material.结果受一些因素的影响而有所不同。比如说图像本身振奋人心的程度。但是总的来说,研究人员发现未成年人比成年人更难对慢速移动的东西集中注意力并且记忆住。M: I knew it, those lazy kids!我知道了,懒惰的孩子们!F: Its not quite laziness. They try, but slow material is hard for them. And adults fared worse at remembering fast-moving material.也不一定是懒惰。他们有尝试,但是(运动)慢的东西对他们来说很难(集中注意力并且记忆住)。而成年人在记忆快速移动的东西上更遭。 /201208/196135。

The greatest challenge for the team-making frozen planet was the extremely remote of their locations. Many of the shoots lasted almost the time and needed a number of clues to join forces. One location that world classic of see the Antarctic was Mount Aribarse, and Antarctics most active volcano. This magical mountain does not give up her secrets. To capture the 4 story of Mount Aribarse from top to bottom required 4 different film clues. The Cave Team was dropped off of toal thousand feet, post the greater. In hauling winds and thin oxygen, their challenge is to find a way into the volcano itself. They are eventually into the unknown. Somewhere below are spectaluar ice caves, noted all by volcano steam. Getting the team safely underground is a relief for director Charpen Hunter.Excellent, its not warm down here. Its freezing on there, minus 29. With him is a cameraman Gaven Thriston. You saw the forget thing in here. You are actually in sort of volcano. You know Barves is Im below this in barbiling liver. And go to least which is how this caves were made. Its also in Crister, came outside here. As the Cave Team have came deeper dangerous volcano gases make breathing different. The talk is taking, they were not having long to find the caves of crystals.Above ground the Aril Team is pushing to the summit to the Alps.对于这个团队来说,在冰冻星球最大的挑战是距离他们的临时根据地非常遥远。许多人花费大量时间却走了冤枉路,需要大量的线索融入到调查当中。阿尔卑斯山是一处世界经典的可以看到南极的地方,而这是南极最活跃的火山。这座神奇的山一直也不放弃她的秘密。山从顶到山底征阿尔卑斯山需要4种不同的胶卷线索。洞穴队伍下降到总共1000英尺,只为了探索更深。在风的呼啸和稀薄的氧气下,他们的挑战在于如何找到一种如何进入火山的道路。他们最终进入未知的领域。下面是特别的地方冰洞穴,见着所有的火山蒸汽。让团队安全达到地底的是导演查普bull;亨特。非常绝妙,下面并不是非常温暖。在那里真冷,气温达到了零下29度。随他而下的是摄影师吉文bull;特瑞斯通。你在这里能看到被遗忘的东西。你实际上也是这种类型的火山。你知道巴弗斯在我现在所处更深的地方。那里至少能解释这个洞穴形成的原因。还有克里斯特,也来到外面这里。隋着洞穴队伍更深入的深入这座危险的火山,火山气体使人们的呼吸也变得异常。谈话无疑于浪费生命,他们没用多长时间就找到了洞穴的晶体。而地面团队一直致力于到达阿尔卑斯山的顶峰。注:听力文本来源于普特201202/171182。

Is it something we should be nervous aboutthe worlds second largest economy steaming to storm?还有什么比世界第二大经济体滑向世界经济的低迷风暴,更让人感到不安吗?Well, you think so Emily. And itdefinitely, its more proved thatChinas been impacted by the globalslowdown we’ve all talked about. For example, we saw the second quarter of GDPcome at 7.6%, that was its weakest level in more than 3 years. And just today,ChinasPMI came in at that 8 months low than you’d mentioned. Now take a look at thenumbers.Chinasofficial Purchasing Managers Index for July, PMI came in as 50.1%. Last monthit came in at this: 50.2%. So we’re not talking about the big drop right. Butthis is a drop nonetheless. The good news is thatChinahas been expanding for all ofthis year at least. Take a look at these, these numbers here. The bad news isthat it’s getting to that all important 50-mark and I raised that becauseanything below 50 indicates contraction. And last summer we saw that was backhere in November. Now still HSs chief economist Qu Hongbin, he was all thatimpressed about todays numbers. This is what he thought aboutChinasJuly data. He said this: This is far from inspiring, asChinas growth slowdown has notbeen reversed meaningfully, and he also added: and downside pressures persistwith external markets continuing to deteriorate. He also added we still alsoexpect Beijingto step up a policy easing in the coming month just support growth andemployment. But of the back of todays PMI data not all, not all that greatstill growing. Beijingdid pledge to keep economic growth stable and did cheering investigators to buyinto the stocks today and has mentioned earlier. The Shanghai Composite andHang Seng did both rise while all the other markets did end in the run. 哦,艾米莉,您是这样理解的。很显然,更多据表明,中国深受被人们天天挂在嘴边的全球经济衰退的影响。举例来说,数据显示第二季度GDP增长为7.6%,这是三年多来的最低水平。如您所说,就在今天,中国采购经理指数(PMI)滑向8个月来的最低点。现在让我们看一下这些数字,官方制造业采购经理指数(PMI)7月份下滑至50.1%,上个月还是50.2%。虽然这并不是最大幅度的下降,但是它下降了。如果说有好消息,那就是中国经济今年继续扩张。再看一下这些数据。坏消息是:一个非常重要的指数,汇丰(HS)制造业采购经理指数终值低于50点(荣枯分界线),我提请大家注意这一数值,因为低于50则意味着紧缩。去年夏天,及11月都曾低于50点以下。汇丰(HS) 首席经济师曲宏斌对今天的数值也很担忧。他是这样分析中国7月份的经济数据的,“情况不容乐观,中国经济下滑的趋势并没有显著回转。”他还补充道,“伴随着外部市场持续恶化,下滑压力继续存在”。他认为,“我们还是期待北京能够加速制定持增长和就业的政策,以缓解接下来几个月的压力。但是,今天的PMI数据没有这么糟糕,经济增长幅度不大,但仍在增长。北京曾保要保持经济稳定增长,并鼓励投资者买进股票。上海综合指数和恒生指数也都有所增长,但其他股票市场没有显示增长。201210/203968。