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来源:新华知识    发布时间:2019年09月23日 18:12:04    编辑:admin         

Netflix went live with its streaming television service in nearly every country across the world on Wednesday, an unexpected acceleration of the company’s aggressive quest for global ubiquity by the end of 2016.周三,Netflix几乎在全世界所有国家正式启动了其流媒体电视务,该公司以此意外之举加速进程,为求在2016年年底前达成其全球普及化的进取目标。Yet one major region on Netflix’s world map remains dark: China, home to nearly a quarter of the world’s broadband households. And in many of the 190 countries where Netflix now is available — including Turkey, Russia and Poland — the service is available in English, but not the local language.然而,Netflix的世界地图上一个主要区域仍是灰暗的:那就是中国,一个拥有全世界近四分之一宽带用户的国家。而且,虽然Netflix现已在190个国家推出务,其中包括土耳其、俄罗斯和波兰,其务在大部分国家里都只提供英文,没有本地语言。“We still have a lot of work to do,” Reed Hastings, chief executive of Netflix, said in a telephone interview Wednesday afternoon. “Because of the number of countries, it seems like we are ahead of plan. But we still have China — we still have a quarter of the world to go.”“我们仍有很多工作要做,”Netflix的首席执行官里德·哈斯廷斯(Reed Hastings)在周三下午的电话采访中说。“因为国家数目众多,我们看似提早完成了计划。但我们仍有中国——我们仍有世界的四分之一未能覆盖。”Mr. Hastings’s cautious demeanor on the phone was in contrast to the more commanding pose he struck hours earlier when he announced at International CES, the consumer electronics show in Las Vegas, that Netflix had simultaneously added more than 130 countries to its world service map.哈斯廷斯在电话上的谨慎态度与其数小时前在国际消费类电子产品展(Internatinal CES)上挥斥方遒的姿态截然相反。在的这次消费电子展中,他宣布Netflix在其世界务版图中一举增加了130多个国家。“Right now, you are witnessing the birth of a global TV network,” Mr. Hastings said from the stage in a keynote address.“此时此刻,你正在见一个全球性电视网络的诞生,”哈斯廷斯在台上发表主题演讲时说。A montage of global flags scrolled in the background followed by a map of the world emblazoned with the hashtag #netflixeverywhere.世界各国国旗的蒙太奇画面在背景中滚动,随后出现了一张世界地图,上面印有#netflixeverywhere的标签。“Whether you are in Sydney or St. Petersburg, Singapore or Seoul, Santiago or Saskatoon, you now can be part of the Internet TV revolution,” Mr. Hastings added.哈斯廷斯还说:“无论你是在悉尼或圣彼得堡,新加坡或首尔,圣地亚哥或萨斯卡通,现在都可以成为互联网电视革命的一部分。”The proclamation was a bold move from Netflix to address growing skepticism about whether it can sustain its breakneck expansion and deliver on its promises.这个宣言是Netflix的一个大胆举动,以图藉此打消越来越多关于该公司能否继续维持惊人扩张和兑现承诺的怀疑。Costs are running high for Netflix. In addition to its global rollout, the company plans to spend more than billion in cash on programming in 2016, offering more than 600 hours of original series, films and other content. And after running roughly at break-even profitability through this year, Netflix has pledged to deliver material global profits starting in 2017.现在,Netflix的成本不菲。除了在全球推出务外,该公司还计划2016年在节目上投放逾60亿美元的真金白银,提供超过600小时的原创剧集、电影和其他内容。然后在今年的盈利状况达到大约收平衡后,Netflix已承诺要在2017年获得可观的全球利润。International expansion is increasingly crucial for the company as growth slows in the ed States.对该公司来说,当其在美国的增长放缓,国际扩张就变得越来越重要。The opportunity is big. While the ed States has about 100 million broadband households, according to SNL Kagan, that is just a fraction of the 730 million total global broadband households.那将带来很大的机会。美国市场研究公司SNL Kagan称,美国有大约1亿宽带用户,而那仅是全球7.3亿宽带用户的一小部分而已。Yet there are steep challenges, including whether Netflix will be able to land programming rights to series that appeal to customers around the globe and compete with local streaming rivals.但那也会带来严峻的挑战,其中包括Netflix能否获得能吸引全球用户的系列节目的版权,与本土流媒体对手竞争。“International is really the place where people have a bigger sense of debate,” said Michael Nathanson, a media analyst with MoffettNathanson Research. “It has never been attempted before.”“针对国际市场,人们真的是有更大的争论,”莫菲特内桑森研究公司(MoffettNathanson Research)的媒体分析师迈克尔·内桑森(Michael Nathanson)说。“这是从来没有过的尝试。”Mr. Hastings said that Netflix was now in about 70 million homes and he expected the number of customers outside the ed States to surpass the number domestically at some point in 2017. Netflix’s long-term goal is to reach 60 million to 90 million subscribers in the ed States, but has yet to set a similar target internationally.哈斯廷斯说,Netflix现已进入7000万户家庭,他预计在2017年内,美国以外的用户数量能超过美国本土的用户数量。Netflix的长远目标是美国用户数量达至6000至9000万,但在国际方面则未定下类似目标。Around the globe, Netflix will be available for one monthly price — in India that is 500 rupees, or about .50 — and global subscribers will be able to watch Netflix original series as well as a library of licensed television shows and movies.在全球范围内,Netflix将按月收费并提供务,其在印度的月费为500卢比(约7.5美元)。全球用户可以观看Netflix的原创剧集以及其持有版权的诸多电视节目及电影。Netflix said that in 2016 it planned to release 31 new and returning original series, 24 films and documentaries, 30 original children series and stand-up comedy specials. They will become available to all subscribers at the same time around the world.而且,Netflix表示,该公司计划在2016年播出31部新拍或续拍的原创剧集,24部电影和纪录片,以及30部儿童剧集和单口喜剧特别节目。这些节目将同时向全球观众推出。Netflix also announced that it was including Arabic, Korean and simplified and traditional Chinese to the 17 languages aly available.该公司还宣布,在已经持的17种语言基础上,新增阿拉伯语、韩语、简体和繁体中文。The service will not be available in Crimea, North Korea and Syria because of ed States government restrictions on American companies.由于美国政府对本国企业的限制,其务在克里米亚、朝鲜、叙利亚无法使用。China remains the major unanswered question, analysts said.分析人士表示,中国仍是一个尚未解答的重大问题。“That is the big wild card that Netflix and investors are waiting for,” said William V. Power, analyst at Baird Equity Research. “The questions are: Just how do you tackle that market with the various governmental or regulatory obstacles? Can they go it alone or do they partner with somebody?”“那是Netflix和投资者一直在等待解决的不确定因素,”贝尔德券研究公司(Baird Equity Research)分析师威廉·V·鲍尔(William V. Power)说。“问题就是,该怎么搞定那块有着各种政府和监管障碍的市场?他们能自己解决吗,还是要与别人合作?”Mr. Hastings said that Netflix continued to explore its options in China but that establishing a service there could take many months or even some years. “We are building relationships and trying to be very patient,” Mr. Hastings said. “The strategy is to think very long term, to be like Disney, Apple or Starbucks in China.”哈斯廷斯表示,Netflix仍在继续探索在中国经营的选项,但在那里提供务可能要花好几个月,甚至几年时间。“我们正在经营关系,努力保持极大耐心,”哈斯廷斯说。“战略是要考虑得很长远,像迪士尼、苹果、星巴克在中国做的那样。”Wall Street is watching Netflix’s moves carefully. The company’s share price surged 135 percent in 2015, making it the top performer on the Standard amp; Poor’s 500-stock index. But some analysts question whether the company can maintain the momentum. On Monday, Netflix shares dropped after an analyst downgraded the company’s stock, citing concerns over weaker-than-expected subscriber growth in the ed States.华尔街密切关注着Netflix的一举一动,该公司股价在2015年大涨135%,成为了标准普尔500指数中业绩最好的个股。但一些分析师质疑该公司能否维持当前的势头。一位分析师下调了该公司股票的评级,理由是美国付费观众的增长不如预期,于是Netflix股价周一出现下跌。Mr. Power, the analyst at Baird who downgraded the stock, outlined other risks, including escalating content costs, international expansion and rising competition from Amazon, Hulu and YouTube.下调该公司股票评级的就是贝尔德券的分析师鲍尔。他还列举了其他风险,包括内容成本激增,国际扩张的成败,以及来自亚马逊(Amazon)、Hulu和YouTube的竞争加剧。“Given Netflix’s high valuation, any missteps could prompt outsize movement in the stock,” Mr. Power said.“考虑到Netflix的高估值,任何闪失都可能造成股价出现不成比例的大幅波动,”鲍尔说。On Wednesday, Netflix shares increased about 9 percent.周三,Netflix股价上扬约9%。 /201601/421946。

In the journalistic shorthand of his native Russia, Pavel Durov is unfailingly described as his country’s Mark Zuckerberg. Though flattering, the comparison with the Facebook founder does not seem quite right to me: it overstates Durov’s commercial success while, if anything, understating his personal accomplishments.在帕韦尔尠坧夫(Pavel Durov)的祖国俄罗斯,新闻报道一直将称他为俄罗斯的马克丠克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)。尽管这是恭维之语,将他与Facebook创始人相比在我看来并不十分恰当:这夸大了杜罗夫的商业成功,却没有充分反映出他的个人成就。Like Zuckerberg, the boyish tech entrepreneur from St Petersburg created his country’s most popular social network, VKontakte, which revolutionised the Russian internet. But in 2011 Durov fell foul of the Kremlin by refusing to close down the pages of opposition activists as protests swelled against the returning president, Vladimir Putin. He became a target of increasing police harassment and was, in effect, forced to sell out of VKontakte to pro-Kremlin investors. Fired as the company’s chief executive in 2014, he quit Russia with 0m in his pocket and founded a new messaging app, Telegram. He now wanders the world preaching the virtues of secure communications and libertarianism.像扎克伯格一样,这位来自圣彼得堡、带着孩子气的科技企业家创建了俄罗斯最具人气的社交网络VKontakte,为俄罗斯互联网带来了革命性变化。但在2011年,抗议普京重任总统的声浪扩大之时,由于拒绝关闭反对派活动人士的页面,杜罗夫触怒了克里姆林宫。警方对他的侵扰日渐增加,他事实上被强迫将VKontakte卖给了亲克里姆林宫的投资者。2014年,他被解除了公司首席执行官的职务,带着3亿美元离开了俄罗斯,并打造了一款新的消息应用Telegram。他现在环游世界,宣扬安全通信和自由主义的价值。Comparisons aside, Durov has certainly packed a lot into his 30 years and retains grandiose plans for the future. So I am a little surprised when a slim, unassuming man slips into a sleek Italian restaurant in Mayfair and introduces himself in quiet, near-flawless English. His appearance, all-black clothing and rebellious instincts have led to innumerable comparisons with the mysterious action hero Neo in the Matrix films. But Durov’s pale complexion, jet black hair, and doe eyes remind me more of a dreamy prince in a Disney cartoon.抛开这样的比较,杜罗夫在他30年的人生里完成的事情无疑不少,他对未来还有不少宏伟计划。所以,当一个纤瘦谦逊的人,悄然走入伦敦梅菲尔区(Mayfair)一家典雅的意大利餐厅,轻声用近乎完美的英语介绍自己时,我有点吃惊。他的外貌、一身黑衣的打扮和叛逆的本性像极了电影《黑客帝国》(Matrix)中神秘的动作英雄尼奥(Neo)。但是他白皙的肤色、乌黑的头发以及小鹿般的眼睛,又让我觉得他更像迪斯尼(Disney)卡通片里的梦幻王子。He tells me that he chose Quattro Passi for lunch because he is staying nearby and likes the cooking. “Italian food is simple and healthy, and it’s easier for a vegetarian to choose something from the ,” he says. It perhaps also reminds him of his childhood: Durov spent several years in Italy, in Turin, because his father Valery (who holds a PhD in philology and is an expert on ancient Rome) was employed there. “I was born in the Soviet Union. Then when I was three or four we moved to Italy and by the time we got back there was no more Soviet Union,” he says.他告诉我,之所以选择来Quattro Passi吃午餐,是因为他就住在这附近,而且他喜欢这里的菜。“意大利美食简单又健康,素食者在这里更容易点菜,”他说。意大利餐厅可能也勾起他的童年回忆:因为父亲瓦列里(Valery,语言学士、古罗马专家)的工作,杜罗夫在意大利都灵待过几年。“我出生在苏联。我三四岁的时候,我家搬到了意大利,等我们回去的时候,苏联已经不复存在了,”他说。The restaurant is a hedge fund manager’s heaven of silver decorations, mirrors and taupe furnishings. We study the . Durov orders burrata and plain spaghetti with cheese for the main course. “White?” the waitress enquires. “White and, please, no salt or a minimal amount of salt. Thank you,” he replies. After asking whether they have any rye b (they have none), he orders some homemade brown b instead. This makes my order of minestrone and monkfish with cherries seem racy.这家店配有对冲基金经理最喜爱的银色内饰、镜子和灰褐色家具。我们看了看菜单。杜罗夫点了布拉塔芝士(burrata)和一份只加芝士的意大利面作为主菜。“加白汁?”侍者询问道。他回答:“请加白汁,不要加盐或者只加一点点盐。谢谢。”在询问他们是否提供黑麦面包(他们没有)以后,杜罗夫改为点了一些黑面包。这让我点的意大利浓菜汤和鮟鱇鱼配樱桃显得有些太丰盛了。I ask him about his lifestyle as an international nomad. Durov, who says he is addicted to big cities but does not like the concept of countries, explains how he and a core team of four engineers from Telegram take their work with them round the world. “We choose a place and stay there for two or three months, then we relocate to the next place. Adiós.”我询问他这种浪迹各国的生活方式怎么样。杜罗夫说,大城市让他着迷,但他不喜欢“国家”这个概念,解释了为什么他和由4名工程师组成的Telegram核心团队带着工作环游世界。“我们选一个地方,在那里停留两到三个月,然后说声再见,再去下一个地方。”He travels on a passport from St Kitts and, over the past year, he and his team have worked out of San Francisco, New York, London, Paris and Berlin, and he is off again soon to Finland. The peripatetic lifestyle also suits his business, given that one of its great selling points is security. “Since the day we started Telegram 18 months ago we haven’t disclosed a single byte of user data to third parties, including government officials.”他使用圣基茨和尼维斯(St Kitts and Nevis)签发的护照旅行。过去一年,他和他的团队在旧金山、纽约、伦敦、巴黎和柏林工作过,他马上又要去芬兰了。这种四处流动的生活方式对他的业务也有好处,因为其最大卖点之一就是安全。“自18个月前我们创立Telegram以来,我们从未向包括政府官员的任何第三方泄露过哪怕一个字节的用户数据。”Though Telegram is registered as both a British and a US company, it does not disclose where it rents offices or the legal entities it uses to rent them. This helps shelter his team from any “unnecessary influence”, he says, and enables the company to protect its 62m users from data requests from government. Telegram uses a distributed network of servers in several different jurisdictions, rather than a central hub like most other messaging apps.尽管Telegram是一家同时在英国和美国注册的公司,该公司并未披露其租用的办公地点位于何处,或者用来租用这些办公地点的法人实体是什么。这有助于其团队避开“不必要的影响”,杜罗夫说,这可以使公司保护其6200万用户,免于被政府索要数据。不同于使用一个中央枢纽的大部分消息应用,Telegram的务器网络分布在好几个不同司法管辖区。The initial impulse for both of his companies has stemmed, Durov says, from satisfying a personal need: the wish to communicate with his university friends in the case of VKontakte, and the necessity of creating a secure messaging system with Telegram. He had the idea for the latter after he came under intense scrutiny from the Russian authorities in 2011. Armed police attempted to storm his apartment in St Petersburg and he realised that his communications were being tapped. He wanted a means of communicating securely with his 34-year-old brother Nikolai, a mathematician and engineer who helped found VKontakte and later developed the encryption code for the Telegram app.杜罗夫说,他创建两家公司的最初动力,是满足个人需求:想和大学朋友交流的愿望使他创建了VKontakte,打造一个安全消息系统的必要性让他创建了Telegram。他的后一个想法是在2011年俄罗斯政府对他进行严密监视后萌生的。当时配有武器的警察试图闯入他在圣彼得堡的公寓,他意识到自己的通讯被监听了。他想要一种能与哥哥安全通讯的方式。杜罗夫的哥哥尼古拉(Nikolai) 34岁,是一名数学家和工程师,他帮助杜罗夫创建了VKontakte,后来又为Telegram应用开发了加密代码。“Our right for private communication and privacy is more important than the marginal threats that some politicians would like to make us afraid of. If you get rid of emotion for a minute and think about the threat of terrorism statistically, it’s not even there. The probability that you will slip on a wet floor in your bathroom and die is a thousand times higher than the probability of you dying as a result of terrorism.”“我们进行私人通讯和保有隐私的权利比一些政治人士想让我们为之感到恐惧的微不足道的威胁重要得多。如果你能抛开情感一分钟,从统计上想一想恐怖主义的威胁,就会发现其根本不存在。你在浴室的湿地板上滑倒而死的可能性要比死于恐怖主义的可能性高一千倍。”But those statistics can be used to support different conclusions, I counter. Maybe they show that the security services are gleaning vital information from data intercepts and are preventing many more terrorist attacks. Doesn’t end-to-end encryption, such as he uses, only tilt the field in the terrorist’s favour?我提出反对,这些统计数据也可以被用以持不同的结论。它们或许表明,安全部门通过数据截取搜集到了关键信息,大大防止了更多恐怖袭击发生。端对端加密技术,正如杜罗夫所使用的,难道不是仅仅为恐怖分子制造了有利条件吗?He argues it is simplistic to assume the relatively rare occurrence of terrorist incidents in the west is necessarily a sign of government’s effectiveness. Given the ease of committing terrorist acts, maybe it reflects the lack of terrorist intent. “I think we in western civilisation tend to overestimate our own abilities to solve the problems and challenges that we face,” he says.他表示,认为西方恐怖事件相对很少发生必然显示出政府打击得力,这种看法过于简单化了。考虑到实施恐怖主义行动的容易程度,或许这反映了恐怖主义意图并没有那么多。“我认为,西方文明中的我们倾向于高估我们解决所面对问题和挑战的能力,”杜罗夫表示。For example, he continues, the pharmaceuticals industry persuades us we need to take pills to keep healthy. “But I don’t use anything pharmaceutical companies have to offer and I’m still healthy. Maybe we shouldn’t be too dependent on the advertisements companies want us to believe. Maybe we shouldn’t be too dependent on politicians trying to make us believe that we are safe only because of their actions.”他继续说,比如,制药行业说我们相信,我们需要吃药才能保持健康。“但我从不用制药公司生产的任何东西,我依然很健康。或许我们不应该太依赖公司想要我们相信的广告,也不应该太依赖政治人士——他们想要我们相信,我们之所以安全,完全是因为他们采取了行动。”Moreover, if the security services really want to access a user’s data, he says, they can try going to Google and Apple. “Since there is always the probability that these companies can allow the security agencies direct access to your device, nobody can be 100 per cent sure, but one thing Telegram does is make mass surveillance impossible.”此外,杜罗夫表示,如果安全部门真的想获取一位用户的数据,它们可以试着去找谷歌(Google)和苹果(Apple)。“因为这些公司允许安全机构直接访问你的设备的可能性始终存在,没人能够百分之百确定,但Telegram所做的其中一件事就是断绝大规模监视的可能。” /201510/406175。

The Use of the Decimal System十进制的使用According to the oracle inscription shown on tortoiseshells or animal bones,Chinese people in the Shang Dynasty was aly able to use 13 words-one,two,three,four, flue,six, seven,eight, nine,ten,hundred,thousand,and ten thousand-to denote any number within 100,000.However,the largest number that can be found is 30,000. The notions of odd,even,and multiple also appeared on the oracle inscriptions.据甲骨卜辞记载,商代的人们已经学会用一、二、三、四、五、六、七、八、九、十、百、千、万这13个单字记十万以内的任何数字,但是现在能够实的当时最大的数字是三万。甲骨卜辞中还有奇数、偶数和倍数的概念。An example of how the ancient Chinese used the decimal system may be seen in an inscription from the thirteenth century ,in which “547 days” is written “five hundred plus four decades plus seven of days.”The Chinese wrote with characters instead of an alphabet. In the Western alphabet, when writing out numbers greater than nine,new words are used(for example,ten,eleven,and so on ).With Chi-nese characters,ten is ten-blank and eleven is ten-one(zero was left as a blank space:405 is “four blank five”).This was much easier than inventing a new char-acter for each number. Having a decimal system from the beginning was a big ad-vantage in making mathematical advances. The first evidence of decimals in Europe is in a Spanish manuscript of AD 976.根据公元前13世纪的甲骨文记载,“547天”被写作“500天加40天再加7天”,从此例可以看出中国古人是如何使用十进制的。和别的语言不同,汉语用的是文字而不是字母。西方语言在记载大于9的数字时,使用新词(例如10,11,等)。汉语中,10为十,11为十一(零留作空位:405为“四百零五”),较西方语言中每个数字以一个单词来对应而言,这种写法容易得多。中国古人从最初就使用十进制进行运算,就数学发展而言,存在很大优势。而在欧洲,有关十进制的最早记载是在公元976年的一份西班牙手稿中。The decimal system,as a very important invention by the Chinese,boasts great significance in world mathematic history. Joseph Needham(1900一1995),a famous scientific historian who specialized in Chinese sciences,noted that it was virtually impossible for human beings to have a unified world without the decimal system,and the Chinese numeral system in the Shang Dynasty was basically more advanced and scientific than that of contemporary Babylon and Egypt.十进制是中国人民的一项杰出创造,在世界数学史上有重要意义。著名的英国科学史学家李约瑟教授曾对中国商代记数法予以很高的评价,“如果没有这种十进制,就几乎不可能出现我们现在这个统一化的世界了”。李约瑟说,“总的说来,商代的数字系统比同一时代的古巴比伦和古埃及更为先进更为科学。” /201512/410693。

Development of Pottery陶器的发展The existence of pottery was a hallmark of the Neolithic Age in primitive society.陶器的发明是原始社会新石器时代的一个重要标志。Pottery shards of more than i0000 years ago were discovered in the Fairy Cave site in Lishui County of East China’s Jiangsu Province, and shards of sandy red pot-tery dating back 10000 years ago were found in the Nanzhuang Culture site in Xushui County of North China’s Hebei Province.我国已发现距今约10000年新石器时代早期的残陶片。河北徐水县南庄头遗址发现的陶器碎片经鉴定为10800~ 9700年的遗物。The site of the Peiligang CultLrre in Xinzheng of Central China’s Henan Province and the site of the Cishan Culture in Wu’an of Hebei Province are early Neolithic sites found in northern China, dating as far back as 7900 years ago. They wereearlier than Yangshao Culture, and potteries of that period were mostly plain color without decorative designs.河北武安发现的磁山文化和河南新郑发现的裴李岗文化,是黄河中游地区新石器时代的代表,距今7900年以上。它们早于仰韶文化,该文化的陶器以素面无文者居多。The site of the Hemudu Culture in Yuyao County of East China’s Zhejiang Prov-ince is another early Neolithic site that flourished 7000 years ago. Grey pottery, red pottery, charcoal-mixed black pottery, and even an occasional piece of painted pottery were found at all these ancient sites.浙江余姚河姆渡发现的河姆渡文化距今7000年左右,在该文化遗址也出土了大量的陶器。河姆渡文化的陶器为黑陶,造型简单,早期盛行刻画花纹。The site of the Yangshao Culture at Yangshao Village in Mianchi County of Henan Province, and at Banpo Village in Xi’an of North China’s Shaanxi Province,inhabited by people who lived in prosperity in a matriarchal clan society, are more than 6000 years old. Large quantities of fine painted pottery were aly made at that time.在河南渑池仰韶村的新石器时代遗址,和陕西省西安市郊的半坡遗址都发现了大量做工精美,设计精巧的陶。这两个新石器时代遗址都属于母系社会遗址,有6000年以上的历史。With the development of the society, the quality of pottery steadily improved.By the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, a clear-cut division of labor had aly ap-peared among potters. Elegant designs and pictures of flowers and birds were carved on pottery ware during the Warring States Period.Potters in this period intro-duced lead glaze, which made the surface of pottery smooth and fine and added luster to the vessels.随着社会的不断进步,陶器的质量也逐步提高。到了商代和周代,已经出现了专门从事陶器生产的工种。在战国时期,陶器上已经出现了各种优雅的纹饰和花鸟。这时的陶器也开始应用铅釉,使得陶器的表面更为光滑,也有了一定的色泽。In the Western Han Dynasty the art of glazing pottery became widesp.Multi-colored glaze was also introduced in the Han Dynasty. The renowned Tang Dynasty tri-color pottery with lead glaze was the invention of potters who introduced white, yellow, blue, green, brown, and purple glazes and skillfully applied them in combination. The appearance of Tang tri-color glazed pottery marked the entry of pottery art into an era of greater variety and color.到了西汉时期,上釉陶器工艺开始广泛流传起来。多种色的釉料也在汉代开始出现。有一种盛行于唐代的陶器,以黄、褐、绿为基本釉色,后来人们习惯地把这类陶器称为“唐三”。唐三是一神低温釉陶器,在色釉中加入不同的金属氧化物,经过焙烧,便形成浅黄、赭黄、浅绿、深绿、天蓝、褐红、茄紫等多种色,但多以黄、褐、绿三色为主。唐三的出现标志着陶器的种类和色已经开始更加丰富多。 /201512/410746。

Huawei, the Chinese telecoms company, has been given the all-clear over fears it may compromise UK national security.针对华为(Huawei)是否可能损害英国国家安全的担忧,这家中国电信设备制造商如今已经获得了“完全健康通知”。Risks from using equipment provided by the company have been “sufficiently mitigated”, according to the first report into the operation that vets its technology in the UK.针对华为在英国供应的技术,首份审查评估报告称,使用该公司所提供的设备的风险已被“充分缓解”。Huawei is one of the UK’s largest providers of telecoms equipment, with deals in place to provide critical national infrastructure as well as the technology behind services from companies such as BT, EE, Virgin Media, O2 and Sky.华为是英国最大的电信设备供应商之一,按照已经签署的协议提供关键的国家基础设施,也向英国电信运营商,如英国电信(BT)、EE、维珍媒体(Virgin Media)、O2和Sky,提供技术设备。However, concerns have been raised in countries such as the US and Australia about potential links to the Chinese government and the People’s Liberation Army in spite of strong denials from the group.不过,在美国和澳大利亚等国家,有人对于华为与中国政府和解放军的潜在联系提出了关切,尽管该集团强烈否认存在这种联系。A cyber security evaluation centre in Banbury was established in 2010 by Huawei to take apart the physical equipment and software used in the UK to mitigate risks to national security.2010年,华为在英国班伯里(Banbury)建立了一个网络安全评估中心,负责分解并剖析在英国使用的硬件设备和软件,以缓解对国家安全构成的风险。In the report for the national security adviser, the centre’s oversight board said the “technical assurance” provided by Banbury was of “sufficient scope and quality to meet its obligations”.该中心的监督委员会在提交国家安全顾问的报告中表示,班伯里提供的“技术保”具有“足够的涵盖范围和质量,足以履行其义务”。Huawei has also pledged further funds to expand the centre.华为还承诺提供更多资金以扩大这个中心。A management audit by Ernst amp; Young showed the centre was sufficiently independent from Huawei, which will address concerns about the centre and its staff being fully funded by the Chinese group.安永会计师事务所(Ernst amp; Young)的一项管理审计显示,该中心已经足够独立于华为公司,这将化解有关该中心及其工作人员完全由这家中资集团资助的担忧。Three concerns were identified by the report, although these were rated as “low risk”. They included difficulties in recruiting staff owing to a lack of cyber security skills as well as the reluctance of potential new recruits to complete security clearance.报告提出了三项关注,尽管它们都被评为“低风险”。它们包括:缺乏网络安全技能所导致的招聘困难,以及潜在的新聘人员不愿接受安全审查。Ernst amp; Young found some staff working at the centre without developed vetting clearance — the most comprehensive type of security vetting — although this has now been reduced to just two.安永发现,在该中心工作的一些工作人员尚未通过“高度审查”(developed vetting,简称DV),即最全面的安全审查,尽管其人数已减至两人。The report also found “tensions” between teams working in the centre and the Huawei response team in Shenzhen, but decided they did not have a “detrimental effect on the security of the UK networks”.报告还发现,在班伯里中心工作的团队和华为在深圳的响应小组之间关系“紧张”,但得出结论认为,这并未“对英国网络安全造成不利影响”。Senior government representatives visited Huawei in Shenzhen in January 2015, according to the report, when the company provided further reassurances.报告称,英国政府高级代表2015年1月在深圳走访了华为,当时该公司提供了进一步的保。David Pollington, former Microsoft cyber security expert, has been lined up to replace retiring chief Andy Hopkins at the Banbury centre.微软(Microsoft)前网络安全专家戴维#8226;波林顿(David Pollington)已被任命为班伯里中心的下一任负责人,接替即将退休的首席安迪#8226;霍普金斯(Andy Hopkins)。Huawei has also sought to alleviate concerns over corporate governance with the appointment of former BP chief executive Lord Browne to head a UK board of directors to oversee British operations.华为还任命英国石油(BP)前首席执行官布朗勋爵(Lord Browne)执掌一个英国董事会,由其监督在英业务,以求减轻有关公司治理的担忧。In a statement, Huawei said it was “pleased to be playing its part in providing reassurance to its UK customers of the quality of our products and solutions”.华为在一份声明中表示,该公司“很高兴能够发挥自己的作用,就本公司产品和解决方案的质量向英国客户提供保”。 /201503/366743。