时间:2019年07月16日 07:11:30

Chinese people are, quite rightly, proud of their food. However, when foreigners like Britons and Americans think of Chinese food, their impression of it is different to what you might think.中餐理所当然一直是中国人的骄傲。然而,当诸如英、美等西方国家的人提起中餐时,他们的想法可能会出乎你的意料。Growing up in the UK, the Chinese food I was used to eating was food I now recognize as being from Guangdong. For example, a typical dish I would order growing up would be pork in sweet and sour sauce, probably with some rice and spring rolls on the side. This is the type of food we generally eat because most Chinese immigrants to the UK have come from Guangdong.我从小在英国长大,现在才知道原来常吃的中餐其实是粤菜。比如我常点的经典菜糖醋排骨,可能还配有米饭和春卷。我们通常吃的就是这类中餐,因为大多移民英国的中国人都来自广东。You can tell, because when most British people try to imitate the sound of Chinese, they actually imitate the sound of *Cantonese – hearing *Mandarin Chinese is sometimes a shock to British people who have grown up thinking it sounds completely different!这个你可以听出来,因为大多数英国人所模仿的汉语发音实际上是粤语——有时,土生土长的英国人听到普通话会很吃惊,因为跟粤语相差太远。British attitudes to Chinese food may be changing, though.然而,英国人对中餐的态度也许正在发生改变。Chinese-American chef Ken Hom has been on British TV for 30 years, and he told B Food: “Chinese food at the beginning of the 80s (in the UK) was sweet and sour pork, mainly. Most Brits had a very *stereotypical view of Chinese food… Now you are seeing more regional Chinese food from Sichuan, Hunan and other areas of China. It is no longer just Cantonese food.”美籍华人厨师谭荣辉已在英国电视荧屏活跃了30年,他对英国广播公司美食频道说:“80年代初英国的中餐清一色的糖醋排骨。当时,大多数英国人对中餐的看法就是刻版化的粤菜……但现在英国已经可以看到类似川菜、湘菜等更多中国地方菜系了。已经不再只是粤菜的天下了。”Similarly, to most Americans, Chinese food doesn#39;t go too far past orange chicken and fortune cookies, but more regional cuisines are becoming successful, especially in big cities like New York.同样,对大多美国人来说,中餐依旧摆脱不了陈皮鸡和幸运饼的印象,但更多的地方菜系已经在纽约这样的大城市扎稳脚跟。Attitudes have not quite changed completely, though. Many foreigners who live in China will be familiar with this question from a relative back at home: “Have they given you dog yet?” Yes, perhaps because people still know too little about Chinese culture, many people believe that Chinese people love to eat dog meat. And of course, some people do eat dogs, which to Americans is like “eating a member of one#39;s family” according to Vision Times.然而,人们对中餐的看法并没有彻底改观。许多生活在中国的老外经常会听到家里的亲戚这样问:“你吃过肉了吗?”是的,也许因为人们对中国文化还是了解太少,许多人依旧认为中国人喜欢吃肉。当然,有些人确实吃。视觉时代称,吃肉对美国人来说就像“吃掉一个家庭成员”。Also, Chinese people eat many other things people in the West do not –chicken claws, duck heads and some animals#39; organs.当然,中国人也吃许多西方人不吃的东西——鸡爪,鸭头和某些动物器官。But what do foreigners think when they come to China and taste real Chinese food? You#39;ll be glad to know that in my experience, the impressions have been very good.但是,当外国人来到中国,品尝真正的中餐时,他们作何感想?告诉你一个好消息,我个人对中餐的印象非常好。My personal favorite cuisine is Yunnan food, and every foreigner I#39;ve eaten it with has been amazed by the different spices and flavors when they#39;ve tried it.我个人最喜欢的是云南菜,和我一起吃过云南菜的每个外国人都对云南菜独特的配料和味道赞不绝口。Everyone, that is, except my friend who lived in Yunnan for a year, who says she still hasn#39;t had “proper Yunnan food” since. That#39;s the problem when you finally eat real Chinese food –you become picky!真的是每个人,除了我那个已经在云南待了一年的朋友。她坚称自己还没有吃到“正宗的云南菜”。这就是当你吃过真正的中餐后才会有的问题——你的嘴变得太挑了! /201504/372137

There are many things believed to make a woman more attractive in a man#39;s eyes – but a curved spine isn#39;t usually thought to be one of them.女人有很多方面可以让男人觉得具有吸引力,但是弯曲的脊椎一般来说不被认为是其中之一。However, researchers claim men are particularly attracted to a women with a back that curves exactly 45 d egrees above the top of her bottom.但是研究人员称女人的脊惟和臀部如果呈45度的话对男人来说特别具有吸引力。The findings provide a new explanation as to why voluptuous celebrities such as Kim Kardashian and Jennif er Lopez are considered to be so attractive, with extra mass around the buttocks enhancing the curvature c the spine.这项发现解释了为什么像卡戴珊和洛佩慈这样的名人特别具备吸引力了,臀部越大就越强化了脊椎的弯曲度。Such an angle would have given a woman an advantage while pregnant in early hunter-gatherer societies and so has evolved as beingseen as attractive around the world, they claim.在早期的采集狩猎社会里,这样的角度会给怀的妇女以优势,随后演变成了具有吸引力的特征,研究人员称。However, the researchers also found that a physical curvature of the spine - known as vertebral wedging - was seen as more attractive than extra buttock mass.然而,科学家发现脊椎的弯曲度比大臀部更加具备吸引力。Dr David Lewis, a psychologist at Bilkent University in Turkey, said: #39;It#39;s an independent and previously undiscovered standard of attractiveness.来自土耳其比尔肯大学的心理学家David Lewis说:;这是一个独立的、先前没被发现的吸引力标准。;#39;(The curve) would have enabled ancestral women toshift their centre of mass back over their hips during pregnancy, a time during which there is a dramatic forward shift of their centre of mass.“这样的曲线将能允许古代的妇女在怀时将质量中心转移到臀部上方,因为在怀期间妇女的质量中心会大量的向前转移。;This benefit is critical: without being able to do this, women would experience a dramatic increase in h ip torque (pressure)subjecting them to risk of muscular fatigue and injury.这个优势非常重要:如果无法这么做,妇的臀部扭矩(压力)将大大增加,就会有肌肉疲劳和损伤的风险。”#39;Consequently, ancestral women who possessed this degree of lumbar curvature would have been able to forage longer into pregnancy and would have been able to carry out multiple pregnancies with a reduced risk of spinal injury.#39;;所以,拥有这种脊椎曲线的古代妇女在怀期间就可以进行更加长久的觅食,就可以进行多胎妊娠,而且脊椎受伤的风险变小。Dr Lewis said that this trait would have becomesexually attractive to men due to the evolutionary advantage it gave.David Lewis说,由于具备了进化上的优势,这个特征对于男人来说具备了性吸引力。Without such a curve, the pressure on a woman#39;s hips during pregnancy increases by nearly 800 per cent, rendering her largelyimmobile and increasing the risk of health problems.如果没有这样的曲度,妇女怀期间臀部所受的压力将增加800%,这将导致妇几乎无法移动并且增加了患病的风险。A 45-degree angle was optimal because it would have aided movement, yet would not have been so great so as to expose women to the back pain and risk of slipped discs that can come with excessive spinal curvature.45度是最理想的,因为这有助于人们行动,但是也有不好的地方,因为如果脊椎过度弯曲,将会导致背痛或者有椎间盘突出的风险。For the study, which was published in the journal Evolution and Human Behaviour, the psychologists showed 300 men silhouettes of women withdifferent angles of curvature.这份研究发表在了《进化和人类行为》期刊上,为了进行研究,心理学家向300名男子展示了不同脊椎弯曲度的妇女的轮廓。They were then asked to rate the images accordingto how attractive they found the silhouette.然后每个男子根据这些图像的吸引力做出评分。Most of the men were significantly more attractedto those with a spine curve of 45.5 degrees, the researchers found.研究人员发现,大部分男子觉得拥有45.5度脊椎的女性更加有吸引力。Analysis of the results also found that the preference for this level of spine curve was #39;unequivocally not a by-product of a preference for buttock mass#39;, they added.对结果进行分析后发现人们对这种弯曲度的偏好并非是人们对臀部偏好的副产品。Men who think they like big bottoms may actually bemore into spines, Dr Lewis said.那些以为自己喜欢大臀部的男性其实更加喜欢脊椎,Lewis士说。He said: #39;Men may be directing their attention to the butt and obtaining information about women#39;s spines, even if they are unaware that that is what their minds are doing.他说:;男人们可能将自己的注意力放在臀部上了,从而获得有关女性脊椎的信息,尽管他们没有意识到这正是他们的脑袋正在做的事情。;#39;Alternatively, men may have preferences for both lumbar curvature and buttock size.;或者,男性对脊椎曲度和臀部大小都有偏好。;#39;Future research is needed to better understand the latter.#39;;未来将对后者进行更多研究。; /201503/362859

1.;If you want to know what a man#39;s like , take a good look at how he treats his inferiors , not his wquals.;   —Sirius Black , Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire  如果你想知道一个人到底怎么样,那就好好看看他是怎么对待比他卑微的物种的,而非和他平等的人。——小天狼·布莱克《哈利·波特与火焰杯》 /201502/359040

Why do some travelers squabble about overhead bin space? Or feud over an armrest? Why, when a passenger reclines his seat, does another respond with rage befitting the pages of “Lord of the Flies”?为什么有些旅客会为舱顶行李箱或扶手发生口角?为什么前排乘客把椅背向后调,后排乘客会用简直可以写进《蝇王》(Lord of the Flies)式的狂怒去回应?What makes rational travelers like you and me suddenly explode?为什么你我这样理智的旅客会突然之间勃然大怒?Some factors are environmental (packed planes, teeming gates); others are internal (stress, fatigue). Together, they can make a perfect storm. Last month at least three flights were diverted because passengers got into fights about reclining seats (and that’s to say nothing of the other unruly passenger incidents that regularly transpire). While the percentage of flights diverted each year is low — it’s been well under 0.40 percent since at least 2004, according to the Bureau of Transportation Statistics — even a handful of diversions due to passengers who can’t play nice is too many. We may be animals, but need we prove it on a flight to West Palm Beach?有环境方面的原因(拥挤的机舱和入口处的排队等候);也有旅客自身的原因(压力、疲惫)。这些因素结合在一起很容易让人发怒。上个月,至少有三个航班因为有乘客向后调节椅背导致打架而改变航线(更不必说其他难以约束的的乘客事件也经常发生)。虽然每年航班改道的比率很低——据美国运输统计局称,至少从2004年起,远低于0.40%)——但就算只有几起改道航班事件是由不友好的乘客引起的,也还是显得太多了。我们也许真的是动物,但我们需要在飞往西棕榈滩的航班上明这一点吗?One of the most obvious catalysts is, of course, a crowded cabin. Many seats are thinner and narrower than in the past, and planes like some 777s, which used to have only nine seats across in coach, now cram 10 across.当然,一个最明显的催化剂是拥挤的机舱。很多飞机的座位比过去更窄,比如,波音777的某些飞机过去一排有九个座位,现在却挤了十个。“When you crowd people together, there is a point at which they are no longer able to function appropriately,” said Leon James, a professor of psychology at the University of Hawaii who has studied road and air rage. Crowding breeds feelings of alienation, cynicism and anonymity. It leads, as Dr. James put it, to “a breakdown of ordinary social inhibitions” — such as controlling one’s explosive emotions.“如果你让人们挤在一起,到了一定程度,他们就不再能做出适当的行为,”夏威夷大学研究路上和机上愤怒的心理学教授利昂·詹姆斯(Leon James)说。拥挤会滋生异化、利己和匿名的感觉。就像詹姆斯士说的,它会导致“普通社交控制力的崩溃”——诸如控制情绪爆发等能力。Planes today are, in a word, antisocial, he said. Little wonder that people recline their seats without a friendly warning. “They just do it,” said Dr. James, adding that it’s a sign of “impersonal hostility among passengers,” an atmosphere “created by the airlines by the way they manage the passengers.” Most airlines don’t encourage social cabin environments (more on how to do that later). Rather, he said, their service changes have reinforced the hostile climate. By increasing fees for checked bags, passengers on a budget have had to compete for overhead bin space. By eliminating hot meals in coach, travelers have resorted to carrying on their own sometimes odoriferous food at the expense of their seatmates’ noses.他总结说,如今的飞机是反社交的。难怪人们调节座椅时不会友好地提醒后座的人。“他们就这么做了,”詹姆斯说。他补充说,这是“乘客间冷漠敌意”的一个表现,这种气氛是“航空公司对待乘客的方式造成的”。大部分航空公司不去营造彼此交流的机舱氛围(我后面再具体谈谈如何改善这一点)。他说,相反,航空公司务的改变强化了这种敌意气氛。由于托运行李费用增加,节省的乘客们不得不争夺舱顶行李箱。由于取消机上热餐,乘客们就自带食物,有时食物的味道不太好闻,邻座的鼻子就会遭罪。I find myself thinking of John B. Calhoun’s seminal overpopulation research, published in Scientific American in the 1960s, which found that as rats were increasingly crowded together they became ever more aggressive and exhibited “behavior disturbances” from “frenetic overactivity” to “pathological withdrawal.”我想起了20世纪60年代约翰·B·卡尔霍恩(John B. Calhoun)在《科学美国人》(Scientific American)上发表的一项关于人口过剩的重要研究。他发现,老鼠所在的空间越拥挤,它们就越好斗,表现出“疯狂的过度活跃”或“病态退缩”等“行为障碍”。In a congested plane, it’s not just other passengers from whom we feel estranged, though.不过,在拥挤的飞机上,我们不只是对其他乘客感到疏远。“You feel a distance from your sense of self,” said Emma Seppala, the associate director of the Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education at Stanford University School of Medicine. “You lose self-awareness,” she continued, referring to one interpretation of a psychological theory known as deindividuation, “and it’s been shown to lessen rationality.”“你对自己的自我意识感到疏远,”斯坦福大学医学院同情与利他研究教育中心的副所长艾玛·斯帕拉(Emma Seppala)说。她继续说道,“你失去自我意识”——这是对“去个体化”(deindividuation)心理学理论的一种解释——“有据表明,这会降低理性”。The cabin is perhaps the most glaring environmental factor contributing to air rage, but there’s also the theater of getting to the airport and checking in: stop-and-go traffic, the obstacle course of suitcases on the curb, noise bouncing off the terminal walls, snail-like security lines, endless pings from your smartphone as work emails continue to land even as you remove your shoes and shove them into an X-ray machine.机舱可能是最明显的导致机上愤怒的环境因素,但是去机场、办理登机手续也让人烦躁:交通状况不好,路边的行李箱带来障碍,航站楼中回荡的噪音,安检队伍像蜗牛爬行一样缓慢,智能手机的提示音不停作响——因为工作邮件还是会不断到来,就算你脱掉鞋子,把它们塞进安检机后,手机还是响个不停。“Evolutionarily we’re currently experiencing more stimulation than we ever have before,” Dr. Seppala said. Many people feel overtaxed and depleted, especially when traveling, and “that really impacts our self-control and willpower,” she said.“从进化角度看,我们现在感受到的刺激超过之前任何时候,”斯帕拉士说。很多人感到负担过重,筋疲力尽,特别在旅行时,她说,“那真的会影响我们的自控力和意志力。”Self-control, however, is not a neat, unitary concept. It’s not as if some people have it and some people don’t.不过,自控不是个简单、单一的概念。不是说有些人有,有些人没有。“There are multiple ways to fail at self-control, and each of these are supported by different brain circuits,” said Joshua W. Buckholtz, an assistant professor in the department of psychology and center for brain science at Harvard. “As it turns out self-control is this heterogeneous construct, and we’re only now beginning to parse it and understand what these distinct faculties are.”“很多因素会让我们失控,每个因素由大脑的不同回路控制,”哈佛大学心理系和脑科学中心副教授约书亚·W·巴克霍茨(Joshua W. Buckholtz)说,“结果发现,自控是个包含很多因素的复杂机制,我们现在刚开始分析它,想弄清它由哪些不同的机能组成。”What we do know is that certain things can affect our capacity for self-control, particularly stress and sleep deprivation — which tend to be as much a part of travel as luggage.我们确切知道的是,某些因素会影响我们的自控力,特别是压力和睡眠不足——它们和行李一样,是旅行的一部分。A study by neuroscientists at New York University, published last year in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found that “even mild stress can make it difficult to control your emotions.” Other studies have shown that stress can make you more self-focused, said Dr. Seppala, resulting in tunnel vision for whatever it is you want, and woe be to anyone who gets in the way.纽约大学的神经系统科学家们去年在美国国家科学院学报上发表了一项研究。他们发现“甚至连轻微的压力都会让人很难控制情绪”。斯帕拉士说,其他一些研究表明,压力会让你更专注自我,视野狭隘,只关注自己想要的东西,厌烦任何妨碍你的人。Being jet-lagged, or simply not having had a good night’s rest, also makes you vulnerable.时差或睡眠不足也会让你变得脆弱。“Sleep deprivation can play a really important role in making people act much more emotional,” said Iris Mauss, an associate professor in the department of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. A study by her colleague Matthew Walker, director of the university’s Sleep and Neuroimaging Laboratory, found that “without sleep, the brain had reverted back to more primitive patterns of activity,” he said in a news release, “in that it was unable to put emotional experiences into context and produce controlled, appropriate responses.”“睡眠不足真的会让人变得更情绪化,”加州大学伯克利分校心理系副教授艾丽斯·莫斯(Iris Mauss)说。她的同事、该校睡眠与神经影像研究室主管马修·沃克(Matthew Walker)做过一项研究,他在新闻发布会上说,“大脑在缺乏睡眠的情况下回到更原始的运行模式,无法把情绪体验放在具体环境中思考,无法做出克制的适当反应。”Stress and sleep deprivation also hurt our ability to interpret other people’s intentions and mental states. For instance, you might jump to the conclusion that the person who reclined his seat onto your lap is a jerk, when in fact maybe he’s a tired soldier returning from duty, or someone with a disability. “The very rich representations of other people’s minds become degraded and impoverished when we are stressed and sleep deprived,” said Dr. Buckholtz of Harvard. “Your predictions about other people are wrong.”压力和睡眠不足还会影响我们对他人意图和精神状态的理解。例如,前排的人把椅背向后调,压到你的手提电脑,你可能会马上认定他是个蠢货,而实际上他可能是个疲惫的退伍士兵或者残疾人士。“在有压力、缺乏睡眠的情况下,你会简单粗暴地理解他人头脑的丰富表现,”哈佛大学的巴克霍茨士说,“那时你对他人的理解是错误的。”Even those who pick fights at 35,000 feet?甚至包括那些在3.5万英尺的高空寻衅滋事的人?“They may be really nice people, but in that situation they got really deindividuated,” said Dr. Seppala of Stanford, referring to a loss of self-awareness. When we see another person act badly, we conclude, often incorrectly, that he or she is a bad person. Psychologists call this “fundamental attribution error.” After all, when we ourselves act badly, we simply say, “I had a bad day,” or “I wasn’t myself.” We don’t define ourselves as bad.“他们可能是很好的人,但是在那种情况下,他们真的失去了自我,”斯坦福大学的斯帕拉士说。她指的是自我意识的丧失。当我们看到有人行为恶劣时,经常会错误地认定他/她是个坏人。心理学家们称之为“基本归因错误”。毕竟,我们自己表现恶劣时会说,“我今天心情不好”或者“我平常不是这样的”。我们不认为自己是坏人。In a heated exchange, it can help to view the other person as someone who is fundamentally good, yet going through something stressful. Some people are obviously better at doing that — and at regulating their emotions — than others. They’re resilient, able to distance themselves from a stressful situation while others in the same situation fall apart. Are these stoics just born that way? Scholars like Dr. Mauss of the University of California, Berkeley, are still trying to find out. But she said being good at regulating emotion seems to be something that’s learned either early in life from, say, your parents, or later in life through conscious reflection on yourself as well as analysis of situations in which you learn to think, “this will pass,” or “it’s not relevant in the grand scheme of things.”在激烈争吵时,想想对方本质上是个好人,只是现在有些压力,会对情况有所帮助。有些人明显更擅长于此,能控制住自己的情绪。他们更有弹性,能让自己从紧张情况中脱离出来,而其他人在同样的情况下可能已经崩溃了。这些镇定的人是天生如此吗?加州大学伯克利分校的莫斯士等学者仍在努力弄清这个问题。不过她说,善于控制情绪似乎是早年从父母那里学来的,或者是后来在生活中通过有意识的自我反省或者通过分析情况养成的——在这个过程中你学会这样想:“这会过去的”或者“从更广阔的角度看,这无关紧要”。When our emotions are high and we’re physiologically aroused, however, it’s difficult to reason with ourselves. Thankfully, there are other ways to control the mind. Take breathing, for instance. Dr. Seppala cited a study that showed that different emotions such as joy, anger, fear and sadness, each have distinct patterns of breathing (like faster and shallow when afraid, she said). What’s revolutionary, she added, is that the study also showed that by breathing in different ways, people were actually able to generate different emotions.不过,当我们在情绪上和生理上很激动时,我们很难理智思考。幸好还有其他方法来控制大脑。比如,深呼吸。斯帕拉士说,一项研究表明,处于高兴、生气、恐惧和悲伤等不同的情绪之下,会有不同的呼吸方式(她说,比如恐惧时呼吸会更快、更浅)。她补充说,具有革命意义的是,这项研究还发现,用不同的方式呼吸真的能产生不同的情绪。“It’s the only autonomic process that can be controlled,” said Dr. Seppala, who is also the lead author of a study published last month in The Journal of Traumatic Stress that found that a breathing-based meditation was able to decrease post-traumatic stress in American military veterans. “We can learn to have an impact on our nervous system,” she said.“它是唯一可控的自发过程,”斯帕拉士说。她也是上月发表在《创伤压力杂志》(The Journal of Traumatic Stress)上的一项研究的主要作者。那项研究发现,以呼吸为基础的冥想能减轻美国退伍军人的创伤后压力。“我们能学会对自己的神经系统施加影响,”她说。The breathing-based meditation that was used by the researchers is known as Sudarshan Kriya Yoga, and it has also been shown to increase self-reported “optimism and well-being” in college students, and to decrease self-reported anxiety in people with general anxiety disorder. Don’t have time for meditation or yoga? Experts say to make time, because the better you are, the better your fellow travelers will be.研究者们所使用的呼吸冥想被称为净化呼吸法,大学生练习后自称变得“更乐观、健康”,有焦虑障碍的人练习后自称焦虑减轻。没时间冥想或做瑜伽?专家们说,那就腾出时间来,因为你变得更好,跟你同行的旅客们也会变得更好。“Taking care of yourself,” Dr. Seppala said, “is the most unselfish thing you can do.”斯帕拉士说,“照顾好自己是你能做的最无私的事情。”There’s plenty the airlines could be doing, too (aside from configuring planes with seats that actually fit their ticket holders). For example: Improve the cabin atmosphere.航空公司也有很多方面需要提高(除了把机舱座位设计得可以真正容纳购票者之外)。比如,改善机舱气氛。“They have to think of the crowd as a potential community,” said Dr. James of the University of Hawaii, and enact certain community-building principles. One simple tactic is what he refers to as live demography: a flight attendant standing in front of the cabin asking questions like “How many of you are going home?” or “Raise your hand if you’ve never been on an airplane before.” It may sound like a kindergarten exercise, but it encourages passengers to relax, be friendly and communicate with one another. “It breaks the anonymity and the hostility,” Dr. James said.夏威夷大学的詹姆斯士说,“他们必须把机上乘客当成一个潜在团体”,并且采取某些团体建设的方法。一个简单的方法是他所谓的现场人口统计:一位空乘人员站在机舱前问一些问题,比如“你们中间有多少人是返乡?”或者“以前从未坐过飞机的请举手”。这可能听起来像幼儿园活动,但它能帮助乘客放松,让他们更友好,愿意相互交流。“它能打破隔膜和敌意,”詹姆斯士说。Airline personnel also need to be trained, or better trained, to be more compassionate in how they handle people, he said, be it demonstrating sympathy when problems arise or simply being specific when asked about delays, saying “20 minutes” instead of just “a few more minutes,” which creates uncertainty and increases frustration.他说,航空公司的人员还需要接受更多培训,以便在对待乘客时更有同情心,不管是在问题出现时表现出同情心,还是在乘客询问延误时间时具体地说“20分钟”,而不是“几分钟”,后面这种说法给人一种不确定的感觉,让人更沮丧。“The airlines have to learn how to help people cope,” he said. “If they don’t, it’s going to get a lot worse.”“航空公司必须学会如何帮助乘客应对糟糕情况,”他说,“否则,情况会变得糟糕很多。” /201412/349716

This is the year of the niche athlete, the retroactive sport, the shirtless uniform. It’s an opportunity to travel to remote destinations to watch those who believe that competing with the elements, as well as with one another, makes for a neat challenge.今年会有很多小众赛事、历史悠久的赛事和赤膊上阵的赛事,这些运动员们认为与自然环境和其他选手竞争是最高尚的挑战。想去偏远的地方旅游看比赛,现在正是良机。Since its public outing as a demonstration sport at the Winter Olympics in Sochi, competitive ice climbing has hit new highs with spectators, which the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (U.I.A.A.) hopes to parlay into a bona fide slot at the 2018 games in Pyeongchang, South Korea.自从攀冰在索契冬奥会开幕式上公开展示之后,这项运动的观众人数达到了历史新高,国际登山联合会(UIAA)希望借机使它成为2018年韩国平昌冬奥会上的一个真正的比赛项目。Ice climbing is no gradual ascent up Everest. It’s a test of speed and agility, during which climbers scale slick 75-foot multitowered ice structures with 70-degree overhangs using nothing but crampons, ice axes and their own strength. You can catch the U.I.A.A. Ice Climbing World Championshipslive in two chilly but intriguing destinations: first, in Rabenstein, Italy (Jan. 30 to Feb. 1), and later in Kirov, Russia (March 6 to 8). And in between there’s the French World Cup in Champagny (Feb. 5 to 7).攀冰不是慢慢爬上珠穆拉玛峰,而是对速度和敏捷的考验,攀登者要爬上光滑的多层冰架,高达75英尺,其中包括70度悬岩,只能依靠钉鞋、冰斧和自己的力量。你可以在两个非常寒冷但十分有趣的地方现场观看国际登山联合会举办的攀冰世界锦标赛:第一个是在意大利的拉本施泰因(1月30日至2月1日),第二个是在俄罗斯的基洛夫(3月6日至8日)。这两个赛事之间,还有在尚帕尼举办的法国攀冰世界杯(2月5日至7日)。Though most know it as a misfit fusion sport for millennials, stand-up paddle boarding has been doggy-paddling toward legitimacy as a competitive sporting event for the last three years at the International Surfing Association’s annual World StandUp Paddle and Paddleboard Championship. The fourth annual (May 10 to 17) moves from Nicaragua to Sayulita, Mexico, an easy-to-reach destination that the I.S.A. hopes will draw more fans and provide choppier waters for competitors. The true test of legitimacy? If Hawaii, which competes separately from the ed States and is considered one of the best teams in the world, joins in to give the reigning Australian champs a run for their money.虽然大多数人认为立式单桨冲浪是一项搭配不当的融合运动,属于千禧一代,但是过去三年,国际冲浪协会每年都举办世界立式单桨冲浪锦标赛,使它渐渐成为一项正统的竞技性体育赛事。第四届锦标赛(5月10日至17日)从尼加拉瓜搬到了墨西哥的萨尤利塔,后者更易到达,国际冲浪协会希望这里能给选手们提供更汹涌的波浪,还能吸引更多粉丝。对这项赛事正统性真正的考验是什么?是夏威夷队——它不是美国队的一部分,而是单独组队,被认为是世界上最棒的队伍之一——能否和卫冕冠军澳大利亚一决高下。Scotland’s Cowal Highland Gathering on Bute island in the Firth of Clyde (Aug. 27 to 29), on the other hand, does not want for crowds. After more than a hundred years it has established itself as the biggest display of traditional Highland Games in the world. Sturdy kilt-wrapped men and women tossing trees and lead balls are at the heart of it all, but in recent years the simultaneous World Highland Dancing Championship has begun to overshadow the games with hundreds of dancers from all over the world competing for titles each day. (Needless to say, there will be no shortage of pipers to accompany them.)苏格兰克莱德湾比特岛上的科瓦尔高地运动会(8月27日至29日)可不缺观众。在举办一百多年之后,它已成为世界上最大的传统高地运动赛事。其核心项目是身穿苏格兰裙的健壮男女们扔树和铅球,但是近几年同时举办的世界高地舞蹈锦标赛开始抢去了它的风头,每天来自世界各地的成百上千名舞蹈者在这里争夺冠军(不用说,绝不会缺少风笛手为他们伴奏)。Relay horse-racing, another sport deeply rooted in tribal culture, considers itself the oldest extreme sport in North America, according to the Professional Indian Horse Racing Association. The races, during which riders jump from one horse to another while galloping at high speeds, are believed to date back more than 400 years to when American Indians honed their relay skills for war, to hunt buffalo or to capture wild horses.接力赛马是另一项深深植根于部落文化的运动。印第安职业赛马协会认为它是北美最古老的极限运动。比赛中,骑手们从一匹飞驰的赛马跳到另一匹上。这项运动可以追溯到400多年前,当时美洲印第安人为了打仗、捕猎野牛或野马而锻炼接力技巧。They’ve continued since, though mostly in small numbers on reservations in the northern Plains or at rodeos, but a recent boost in interest inspired the association to sponsor the first All Nations Indian Relay Championships in 2013. The next, in Sheridan, Wyo. (Sept. 11 to 13) will feature 30 teams from at least 12 nations.这项运动流传了下来,虽然主要是在北部平原的印第安保留地或牛仔竞技表演上偶尔出现,但是近几年人们对这项运动的兴趣渐长,因此,该协会在2013年举办了第一届印第安各族接力赛马锦标赛。下一届比赛将在怀俄明州谢里登举行(9月11日至13日),届时将有来自至少12个印第安族群的30队伍参赛。Speaking of powerful animals, it shouldn’t be surprising that Red Bull, the energy drink maker, has become the de facto sponsor of almost every sporting event designed to make a viewer’s heart stop. Luckily, most are set in relaxing environments like Bilbao, Spain, where the Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series will have divers dropping from the La Salve Bridge to fall 80 feet against the backdrop of the Guggenheim Museum and into the Nervión River.提到勇猛的动物,不出人们所料,功能性饮料制造商红牛是许多惊险体育赛事的实际赞助人。幸运的是,大多数赛事安排在令人放松的环境中,比如西班牙的毕尔巴鄂——红牛悬崖跳水世界系列赛将在那里举行,选手们将从拉撒尔夫桥上下落80英尺,跳入内尔维翁河,古根海姆物馆充当这一赛事的背景。For something a bit closer to the ground (though not by much) Red Bull also sponsors the Art of Motion, a free-running and parkour showcase of athletes who bounce, tuck, roll and leap over the rooftops of Santorini, Greece (Oct. 3).红牛还赞助了另一项更接近地面的运动(虽然也不是太接近)——移动的艺术(Art of Motion),它将展示自由奔跑和跑酷技术,届时运动员们将在希腊圣托里尼岛的屋顶上弹跳、蜷缩、翻滚、跳跃(10月3日)。 /201501/355034

文章编辑: 爱口碑