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来源:安咨询    发布时间:2019年09月19日 10:59:02    编辑:admin         

Political Reforms of Shang Yang商鞅变法Lord Shang Yang introduced two political reforms to the state of Qin in the Warring States Period (475—221).战国时期(公元前475年至公元前221年),商君商鞅在秦国推行了两次政治变革。Shang Yang was born in an aristocrat family in the state of Wei.商鞅生于卫国一个贵族家庭。In 356, he was appointed governor to introduce the first political reform to reward farming and weaving, abolish hereditary privileges of the nobility and encourage farming and fighting for the country, set up a unitary administrative system down to household registration at the grass roots.公元前356年,他被任命为主管推行第一次变法以奖励农耕和编制,取消贵族的世袭特权,鼓励农耕和为国家而战,建立了下至基层户口登记的一元统治体系。Shang Yang carried the reform in strict terms and when the son of the king violated laws, his teacher got punished.商鞅严格执行变法,当王子触碰法律时,他的老师就会受到惩罚。In such a way he told people to be law-abiding, and political reform achieved great success.通过这样的方式,他教会人们遵纪守法,变法也取得了很大的成功。The first reform brought rapid development to the state of Qin.首次变法为秦国带来了迅速的发展。Two years later, the capital was shifted to Xianyang and the second political reform was then introduced to establish the political system of county in which the State of Qin was divided into 31 counties, to abolish the nine-square system and make land private, and unify weights and measures,两年后,国都迁至咸阳,第二次变法被推行以在秦朝的31个郡县中建立郡县制、废除井田制、实行土地私有制、统一度量衡。thus laying the foundations for the state of Qin to become strong and eventually unify China for the first time in history.这些措施为秦朝的强大和史上首次统一中国奠定了基础。 /201509/397299。

Chinese men now smoke one-third of all the world’s cigarettes, and a third of all young men in China are doomed to eventually die from the habit, scientists in China and Britain have concluded.中英两国的科学家推断,眼下中国男性抽的香烟数量占全世界的三分之一,且中国三分之一的年轻男性注定终究会死于吸烟这个习惯。Their study, published last week in The Lancet, estimated that two-thirds of all males in China smoked, more were still taking up the habit and more were starting as teenagers, which adds risk.上周,他们的研究论文发表在了《柳叶刀》(The Lancet)上。文章估计,中国三分之二的男性吸烟,此外还有更多人正在沾染吸烟的习惯,从十几岁就开始吸烟的人也增多了。从十几岁就开始吸烟会加剧健康风险。With population growth stagnant, the number of men 60 or older is expected to double by 2030, and the number dying of smoking-related ailments each year will triple, hitting three million a year by 2050.随着人口增长停滞,到2030年,60岁或以上的男性人数预计会翻一番,而死于和吸烟有关的疾病的人数每年都会增加两倍,并在2050年达到每年300万。More smokers are stopping by choice, the study found, but still only 9 percent did so.研究发现,选择戒烟的吸烟者增加了,但依然只有9%的人戒烟。By contrast, smoking rates among women in China have dropped sharply; about 10 percent of older women smoke, but only about 1 percent of middle-aged women do. However, another recent study detected rapid increases among teenage girls in some regions.相比之下,中国女性吸烟者的比例显著下降。年纪较大的女性中,大约10%的人吸烟,但在中年女性中,吸烟者仅占大约1%。然而,最近的另一项研究发现,部分地区十几岁的女孩中吸烟者人数增加迅速。Before China achieved prosperity, the Lancet study said, smokers typically started at age 25, more smoked pipes and many could not afford multiple cigarettes every day.《柳叶刀》上的文章称,中国经济繁荣之前,吸烟者通常是从25岁开始的,并且抽烟斗的人更多,很多人负担不起每天吸好几根烟。The study estimated future smoking-related deaths from many causes, including lung cancer, obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, heart failure and other cancers. Lung disease rates are aly high in China, even among nonsmokers, owing to urban air pollution and to indoor wood fires used by the rural poor.文章预计,未来和吸烟有关的死因会有很多,包括肺癌、阻塞性肺病、中风、心力衰竭和其他癌症。在中国,因为城市的空气污染和农村地区贫困人口在室内烧柴,即便是在不吸烟的人群中,肺病的发病率也已经相当高了。The study was led by scientists from China’s Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and the University of Oxford.领导该研究的科学家来自中国疾病预防控制中心、中国医学科学院和牛津大学。Antismoking efforts in China face a difficult political situation: The central government has a monopoly through the Chinese National Tobacco Corporation, and more than 7 percent of government revenue comes from it.中国的禁烟行动面临困难的政治形势,中央政府通过中国烟草总公司实行烟草专卖,超过7%的政府收入来自该公司。According to an editorial accompanying the study, myths about smoking persist in China: that Asians are less susceptible to its dangers, that it is an ancient Chinese tradition and that quitting is easy.与该论文一同发表的一篇文章称,在中国,有关吸烟的谬论经久不衰,如亚洲人不那么容易受吸烟的危害、吸烟是中国的古老传统,以及戒烟很容易。 /201510/403526。

Some pet owners across the US can now take time off work to grieve properly after losing their beloved companions.如今,部分美国人可以向公司请“失宠假”,去悼念他们死去的宠物了。At least three national companies have now chosen to offer pet bereavement days to their employees, CBS reported.据CBS报道,至少有三家美国公司允许员工请假去悼念他们的宠物。Trupanion, a pet insurance firm, offers its staff one paid day of pet bereavement. Kimpton Hotels and Restaurants, the largest chain of boutique hotels in the US, grants them up to three days away from the office.宠物保险公司“真伴”允许其员工带薪休假一天,来与死去的宠物说再见。美国最大的精品酒店连锁集团“金普顿”则准许员工请三天假。And Maxwell Health, a software company that sells HR management products, encourages employees to take time off whenever they need it—including to mourn the loss of a recently departed pet.主打人力资源管理产品的麦克斯韦尔健康软件公司的请假规定甚至更为宽松,旗下员工有事便可请假,其中包括了悼念亡宠。#39;We allow people to actually do that grieving process and just be able to heal. I think you need closure when you lose a pet, and it#39;s important to have the time to do that,#39; Dani Kahn, a pet coordinator at Trupanion, said on CBS.真伴公司的宠物主管丹尼·坎恩告诉CBS:“我们允许员工花时间悼念死去的宠物,并平复心伤。我认为,当一个人失去了自己的宠物,必定需要一段时间来调整自己,这一点很重要。”Taking time off work might be necessary so that employees can regain a sense of normality and be able to function again, pet loss counselor Janet Zimmerman told the channel.“失宠”顾问珍妮特·齐默尔曼也表示,员工的确需要请假来调整自己,之后才能再投入工作。#39;I#39;ve seen people who can#39;t get out of bed at all. They can#39;t eat, they don#39;t accept phone calls, they are so lost,#39; Zimmerman added.她补充道:“我见过许多悲痛欲绝的人,卧床不起,滴水不进,连电话也不接。他们真的伤透了心。”Erica Lee, a sales team lead at Trupanion, took a day off and stayed with her son after losing her cherished American Staffordshire Terrier, Chief.艾丽卡·李现为真伴公司的一名销售领队。她就曾请过一天“失宠假”,与儿子一起悼念死去的爱犬,一条名为奇夫的美式史坦福猎犬。#39;Being able to stay home with him and grieve with him was invaluable. It was so, so important to me,#39; she told CBS.她告诉CBS:“对我而言,能和儿子待在家里一起悼念亡犬,弥足珍贵,意义重大。”Pet bereavement leave is not required by law and can be allocated at the employers#39; discretion.当然,“失宠假”并不在法定假期之列,如何实施全由雇主决定。A third of pet owners might need to mourn for six months or longer, a 2009 study suggested.2009年的一项调查指出,失去了宠物的主人通常需要半年以上时间,才能疗愈心伤。A team of researchers at the University of Hawaii asked 106 of them to describe how they felt after the death of their pet.夏威夷大学的一研究团队采访了106名调查对象,询问他们失去宠物后有何感受。About 30 percent of them said they had experienced feelings of sadness and grief for at least six months.其中,有三成对象表示,整整半年他们都感到哀伤。Only five to 12 percent of the pet owners interviewed during the study said they suffered from major pathological disruption.而5%到12%的受访人士称,他们深陷悲伤,甚至难以自拔。 /201603/432716。

U.S. President Barack Obama told dozens of students gathered on the South Lawn of the White House Monday night that they could be the ones participating in the first missions to Mars within the next two decades.星期一晚上,美国总统奥巴马对聚集在白宫南草坪上的数十名学生说,他们可能在未来20年中参加首次火星之旅。The president hosted students, teachers, astronomers, engineers and space enthusiasts from across the country for the second-ever White House Astronomy Night. Obama joined the attendees in stargazing through a high-powered telescope, holding genuine space artifacts and meeting the nation#39;s top scientists and astronauts.这是白宫第二次举行航天之夜活动,奥巴马总统招待了来自美国各地的学生、教师、宇航员、工程师和航天爱好者。奥巴马和与会者们一起通过一架高倍望远镜观看夜空,并与美国顶尖科学家会面。Obama emphasized his administration#39;s efforts in preparing more young people to pursue studies in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, commonly referred to as STEM.奥巴马强调,他的政府致力于鼓励更多的年轻人钻研科技、工程和数学。他说,鼓励新一代探索、发明、创造和发现。Among the guests Monday was Ahmed Mohamed, the Texas teenager arrested for bringing his homemade clock to school where it was mistaken for a bomb.阿哈马德·默哈迈德也参加了白宫航天之夜活动。默哈迈德是得克萨斯州的学生,他曾把一个自制钟表带到学校,被误认为是炸弹,结果他被逮捕。The president had personally invited Ahmed to the White House and told him to bring his ;cool clock.;奥巴马亲自邀请默哈迈德到白宫作客,并请他务必带上那个“酷酷的钟”。 /201510/404947。

Xi Wuyi, an expert on Marxism at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, recently wrote on her Sina Weibo account that she advises against national legislation on halal food.近日,中国社会科学院马克思学院的专家习五一在她个人的新浪微上写道,她反对国家对清真食品立法。Xi said such legislation ;violates the principle of separation of State and religion; and if the bill is enacted, it will interfere with the practices of religious followers in different regions and may threaten ;China#39;s national security strategy.;习五一表示,这样的立法将违背政教分离的原则,如果该法案生效,它将影响到不同地区教徒的行为,可能会威胁到中国国家安全策略。She refused an interview request from the Global Times on Sunday, explaining that the topic is too ;sensitive.;上周日,她拒绝了《环球时报》的采访请求,并解释称这一话题“太过敏感”。The State Council entrusted the Ethnic Affairs Committee of the National People#39;s Congress (NPC) with drafting national regulations on halal food in 2002.2002年,国务院委托全国人民代表大会民族事务委员会起草关于清真食品的国家规范。After reviewing a proposal by lawmakers saying that disputes were triggered by issues related to halal food, the Ethnic Affairs Committee of the NPC suggested speeding up passage of the legislation in both 2012 and 2015, saying that the legislation is ;reasonable and necessary; as it relates to ;national unity and social stability,; according to the committee#39;s official website.据委员会官方网站显示,在初步审议了立法者的提案后,关于清真食品事件的争议一触即发,2012年和2015年,全国人民代表大会民族事务委员会都建议加快立法进程,称该立法是“合理和必要的”,因为它和国家团结、社会稳定息息相关。Several Muslims smashed the facilities of a bakery in Xining, Northwest China#39;s Qinghai Province in May 2015 after discovering non-halal ingredients, such as pork sausages and ham, in its delivery van.2015年5月,几个穆斯林砸毁了中国西北青海省西宁市一家面包店的设备,因为他们发现送货车里有猪肉、香肠和火腿之类的非清真食品成分。Hundreds of Muslims in Xi#39;an, Shaanxi Province, also took to the streets in May 2015 to demand a ban on local halal restaurants#39; sale of alcoholic beverages, which are forbidden by the Koran.同样是在2015年5月,陕西省西安市的上千名穆斯林游街要求禁止当地清真餐厅售卖酒精饮料,这一规定是被《古兰经》所禁止的。Ma Yuxiang and Ma Zhipeng, professors at Northwest University for Nationalities in Lanzhou, called for the legislation in 2014, saying misconduct by halal restaurants has jeopardized national unity.2014年,兰州西北民族大学教授马宇翔和马志鹏呼吁立法,称清真餐厅的不当行为将危害民族团结。However, Wei Dedong, vice-dean of the School of Philosophy at the Renmin University of China, told the Global Times that a national regulation would authorize the secular government to define Islam-related issues, stressing that the legislation should be ;cautious.;但是,中国人民大学哲学院副主任魏德东告诉《环球时报》,国家立法将授权非宗教政府来定义穆斯林相关问题,他强调,立法应该“谨慎”。 /201603/430942。