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呼和浩特和林格尔县除皱的费用放心知识内蒙古自治区中蒙医医院美容整形科

来源:妙手报    发布时间:2018年12月12日 14:19:35    编辑:admin         

Traveling at speeds of up to 20 miles around, they drive the mullet onto the beach.海豚的速度高达每小时20英里,它们赶着鲻鱼往海滩去了。Trapped, the fish have nowhere to turn, flatting out their bodies like surf boards, they skim in just inches of the water. 因为被困,鱼儿无处可逃。它们平整的身体就像冲浪板在水中轻轻掠过。The surfer mums are the only dolphins in the world that hydroplane and beach like this.冲浪海豚是世界上唯一会在海滩划水的海豚。It looks fun, but this is a high risk game.看起来很有趣,但也很危险。They can easily strand, but with the few effortless wiggles, they are back in the water.很容易搁浅,但也能轻松的回到水中。Whats so fascinating is that its only the surfer mums and their daughters who surf like this.最吸引人的是,海豚妈妈和女儿们会像这样冲浪。Im getting a lot of exercise this morning, walking up and down the beach.早晨我在海滩上来回走了好几次。The surfing mums have new calves.冲浪海豚妈妈有小宝宝了。Its vital Janet gets photos so she can follow the daughters who are keeping the surfing tradition going.珍妮特拍了很多重要的照片。这样她就能研究还保持着冲浪海豚传统的海豚女儿们。We want to know after they graduated from nursing whether the calves, they are going to be beaches,我们想知道当它们离开妈妈襁褓后,是否还会冲浪。Ive got good shots of all of them, so Im pretty happy about that.我拍了很多照片,真的很开心。It has been a good day for Janet, but theres still no news on Puck or missing India.今天对珍妮特来说很不错,但还是没有帕克分娩和因迪亚的消息。 201405/295001。

Day one on foot in the Kruger has been absorbing.第一天徒步克鲁格一直在学习各种各样的事物。Yakos relaxed approach can easily make you forget about the reality of where you are.Yako的轻松方法可以轻易让你忘记现实是在哪里。But as we head back to camp, he tells me of an occasion when a walker encountered a leopard inside the camp ended dead of night.但当我们回到营地,他告诉我夜深人静营地里的一名徒步者遭遇豹子的情境。It seems that occasionally elderly animals prefer rummaging through beans to running after their own prey.看起来偶尔年长的动物更喜欢追赶自己的猎物。Yakos lent me thisbook.Yako借给我这本书。Its the memoirs of Harry Voliter,这是哈利·沃利特的回忆录,whos the pioneering game ranger from this park.他是这个公园角逐赛事的先驱者。One of the reasons that hes famous is that he survived a lion attack.而他著名的一个原因是他从一头狮子的袭击中活了下来。A pair of lions knocked him off his horse.一对狮子使他从马上落下。One of the lions went after the horse itself,一只狮子追赶马,and the other lion savaged him from the rear.而另一只则从他的后方猛烈攻击。Of course, in those first few moments I was convinced that it was all over for me,当然,在前面的时刻我确信对我来说一切都结束了,but then as the painful progress still continued, it suddenly struck me that I might still have my sheep knife.但随着痛苦仍然继续,我忽然觉得为之一震,我还有我的羊刀傍身。 201307/248651。

People who work with chemicals make sure they know the flash point of each substance in their labs. A flash point is the temperature at which the fumes from a liquid can be ignited with a spark.与化学药品打交道的人,总会确保自己知道实验室中每一种物质的燃点。燃点是液态气体能被火花点燃的温度。But people who have never taken a chemistry course need to be concerned with flash points as well. For example, the gasoline you put into your car has a flash point of minus forty-five degrees Fahrenheit.但未曾上过化学课的人同样需要关注物质的燃点。例如,你加入车里的汽油燃点是华氏零下45度。So, unless you live in a climate where the temperature stays below minus forty-five degrees, the fumes from gasoline can ignite from a nearby spark. And that’s why most gas stations have warning signs posted about not smoking while you fill up your tank.所以,除非你生活在温度维持在华氏零下45度以下的环境里,汽油逸出的烟雾才不会被附近的明火点燃。这也是为什么大多数加油站都张贴警告标志,告戒人们不要在给车加油时吸烟。Olive oil has a flash point of 437 degrees Fahrenheit. That means if you could heat olive oil to 437 degrees, it would give off a vapor that could ignite if a lit match passed through it. Cod liver oil has a flash point of 412 degrees Fahrenheit and formaldehyde has a flash point of 122 degrees.橄榄油的燃点是华氏437度。这意味着如果你把橄榄油加热至437度,它散发出的蒸气完全可以被一根划过去的、燃着的火柴点燃。鱼肝油的燃点是华氏412度,而甲醛的燃点是122度。Most flash points are inconsequential to the lay person because they occur at such high temperatures. But some, like kerosene, with a flash point of 100 degrees Fahrenheit, can be cause for concern on a hot day. If you keep an old-fashioned kerosene lamp on your fireplace mantel, you probably shouldn’t light it on a hot summer day, or you might ignite more than just the wick of the lamp.大多数物质的燃点对于业外人士来说不重要,因为它们只在高温条件下出现。但是,一些像煤油一样,燃点为华氏100度的物质,在炎热的日子里着实令人担忧。如果你的壁炉架上有一盏老式煤油灯,你最好不要在炎热的夏天点燃它,因为你点燃的可能不仅仅是煤油灯的灯芯。原文译文属!201304/234948。

Television in America美国电视产业The bandit of broadcast广播电视业界的强盗The Supreme Courts decision on Aereo may affect more than the TV business最高法院将对Aereo案件进行裁决,而其影响范围或许会超出电视产业本身CHET KANOJIA, the founder of Aereo, wonders which actor will play him, when Hollywood makes a film about his startup disrupting the television industry. “Probably a white guy,” Mr Kanojia, who is Indian-American, says drolly. Whether his firm will feature on the big screen or rapidly be forgotten depends on the outcome of a lawsuit between Aereo and Americas big free-to-air broadcast networks—such as A, CBS and Fox—which is being weighed by the Supreme Court. Oral arguments in the case were heard on April 22nd and a decision is due within months.当好莱坞的电影公司想要拍一部关于Aereo创始人Chet Kanojia如何瓦解整个电视产业的电影之时,这位老板也在思考着到底让哪一位演员来扮演自己。“或许会挑个白人,”印度裔美国人Kanojia先生戏谑地说道。最后他的电影到底是能成功登上大荧幕,抑或是迅速被大家所遗忘,要取决于一场官司的最终结果。最高法院正在对这场官司进行权衡,而对抗双方则是Aereo与美国免费广播电视巨头,如美国广播公司、哥伦比亚广播公司和福克斯广播公司。案件的口头辩论在4月22日已经完成,而最终裁决将在数月之内宣布。Mr Kanojia and Aereo are not yet household names, but are the subject of much debate among geeks, copyright lawyers and TV executives. Aereo picks up the signals of free-to-air channels and streams them to its subscribers over the internet, so they can watch them with the same good picture quality as they get via cable, but for a fraction of the average monthly cable bill. Each subscriber is assigned one of a huge number of thumbnail-sized aerials in Aereos warehouses. Aereo claims this is in principle no different—and thus no less legal—than the subscriber putting an antenna on his roof. But broadcast bosses see it differently. They say Aereo is violating copyright law by not paying them for a “public performance” of their content.Kanojia与Aereo目前还不是一对家喻户晓的名字,但对于极客、版权律师以及电视主管们来说,这确实是极为火热的话题。Aereo公司接收免费广播电视的频道信号,并把这些频道转化成流媒体以供他们的付费订阅用户在线观看。因此,这些用户在付出相当于普通有线电视月租费用的很小一部分,就可以享受跟有线电视一样的高画质电视务。相当于在Aereo公司的仓库里,有数以百万计的“微缩远程天线”,而每个订阅用户都能分到其中一条。Aereo公司宣称,这与免费广播电视的务没什么不同,就像是让他们的客户在自己家的房顶安装天线接收信号一样,是非常合法的行为。但广播电视公司的老板们却不这么认为。他们坚持Aereo公司违反了版权法,因为后者没有给他们提供的节目内容付费,就进行了“公开传播”。So far Aereo is available in only 11 cities. But broadcasters worry that it threatens a fast-growing revenue stream: the fees they get from cable- and satellite-TV operators that retransmit their channels. Such fees came to about .3 billion in 2013, according to SNL Kagan, a data firm. The pay-TV companies would not want to keep paying these if Aereo did not have to. So broadcasters have threatened that if Aereo wins, they will take their content off the public airwaves and offer it through pay-TV only.目前,Aereo的务范围仅限于11个城市。但是,广播电视公司担心这样的务会威胁到自身的快速增长利润源:对有线或者卫星电视运营商处所收取的转播费用。数据公司SNL Kagan所提供的资料显示,2013年该转播费用总计为33亿美元。如果Aereo公司无需为转播权买单,那么其他付费电视公司也将停止为自己的转播权付费。因此广播电视公司对Aereo公司做出了相应的警告:如果Aereo公司胜诉,那么他们将停止在公共无线频道上提供电视转播务,转交由付费电视公司独家供应给观众。Aereo has raised around 0m from various investors, including Barry Diller, a veteran media executive. Mr Dillers volte-face is worthy of a prime-time drama: having launched Fox, one of Americas four big broadcast networks, in the 1980s, he is now a booster for broadcasts bandit. But if Aereo loses it will probably shut down. The government has supported the big broadcasters, undermining Aereos chances. As for the courts, so far their judgments on Aereos legality have been mixed: last year two federal courts sided with Aereo, but in February a federal court in Utah ordered it to close its operations in that state.Aereo已经得到了各路投资者约1亿美元的资金,这其中还包括传媒大亨巴里·迪勒。迪勒先生截然不同的投资转变就像是一出黄金时段的电视剧:80年代,他成立了福克斯广播公司,而现在他却成了电视业大盗的赞助者。然而Aereo公司一旦败诉,很可能对其意味着关门大吉。目前政府已经与各大广播电视巨头在统一战线,使Aereo公司的胜诉几率大减。在法庭方面,他们对Aereo合法性的判决并没有达成共识:去年两个联邦法庭持Aereo公司,但今年2月犹他州的一个联邦法庭则勒令其停止在本州内的所有业务。Legislation has not kept up with new technology. Cable in America is regulated by a 1992 law, and copyright by a 1976 one. Both were written before the rise of the commercial internet, notes Rich Greenfield of BTIG, a research firm.法律法规没有跟上新科技的步伐。有线电视产业受1992年出台的法律管制,而版权问题则受1976年的法律所管理。来自调查机构BTIG的Rich Greenfield表示,在网络商务兴起之前这两部法律就已经制订完成。Many are watching the case to make sure the verdict does not imply that it is piracy to transfer any sort of content via the internet without a licence from whoever owns the copyright to it. That could be costly for firms that store media files in the “cloud” for paying clients, such as Apple and Google. As Stephen Breyer, one of the Supreme Court justices, said in this weeks hearing, “What disturbs me…is I dont understand what the decision for you or against you…is going to do to all kinds of other technologies.”许多人正关注着本案的进展。他们要确定本次的宣判是否意味着在网络上传播任何未经版权拥有者许可的内容,都会被认定为盗版行为。一旦如此,许多为付费用户提供“云端”影音资料储存的公司将会出现极大的经营成本负担,比如苹果和谷歌。最高法院的法官之一斯蒂芬·布雷耶在本周的聆讯过程当中表示:“困扰着我的问题是...我不能确定本案的判决会对其他各类科技产生什么样的影响,无论好坏。” /201405/294430。

Yael, everyday I grow closer to my goal of mind-control.Yael, 我觉得自己每天都在不断的靠近我思维控制的目标。What do you mean, Don?毫无头绪,你在讲什么啊?Check out this study from Ohio State University that saysnodding yourhead to signal approval and shaking your head tosignal disapproval not only lets others know what yourethinking, but also influences your own thoughts.我们来看看来自俄亥俄州立大学的一份研究,该研究发现:点头表示同意,摇头表示否定这样的行为不仅能让别人解读出你的想法,同时还会反过来影响你自己的想法。The study youre talking about never suggested that shaking or nodding your head actuallychanges your thoughts.你所讲的这个研究项目根本没有提到点头或是摇头会改变你自己的想法啊。It doesnt?没有吗?No. The study found that if you nod your head, even if you do it on purpose, you becomemore confident about your own thoughts, and if you shake it, you become less confident aboutthem.没有!那个研究的发现结果是,如果你点头,你会更加坚定自己的想法;如果你摇头,你对自己的想法就会有所动摇。For example, the studys participants were instructed to listen to one of two editorials–one whichwas well-argued, and one which wasnt.我们现在来举例说明:研究人员安排参与者们分别听两篇社论—一篇论据充分,另一篇就不怎么样了。When asked about it later, those participants who noddedtheir heads while listening agreed more strongly with the good editorial.在听完后,当问及自己所听的社论怎么样时,那些听好的社论的参与者觉得那篇社论相当不错。See its brain-washing?这怎么感觉像是“洗脑”啊?And disagreed more strongly with the poorly reasoned editorial.而且,他们觉得另一篇社论简直就糟透了。By nodding, they confirmedtheir thoughts, positive or negative.由此可见,通过点头,他们坚定了自己的肯定或否定的想法。And the same thing happened when people were asked towrite with their dominant hand, and then with their non- dominant hand.还有一个原理相近的实验—研究者让一些参与者用惯用手写东西,再让一些人用非惯用手来写东西。When asked how confident they felt about the ideas they wrote down, those participants who wrote with theirdominant hand felt more confident than those who didnt.写完之后,当问及对自己所写的东西的看法时,那些用惯用手写的人比用非惯用手写的人对自己所抒发的观点更加有信心。OK, Yael, lets try. Nod your heayes, and Ill tell you how great I am.OK, Yael,我们也来试试。点头!我会告诉你我有多伟大!Give it up, Don!别闹了!201406/305590。

Business商业报道Solar tariffs太阳能关税Sunspots太阳黑子American tariffs on Chinese solar panels are dangerous and pointless美国针对中国太阳能电池板的关税是危险且无意义的SOLAR energy is at a delicate,maybe historic, moment.太阳能正处于一个微妙的、抑或是意义重大的关头。The cost of the glassy photovoltaic panels that generate most solar electricity—by freeing electrons from a semi conducting material such as silicon—is plummeting.透亮的光伏电池板花费正大幅下降,它们通过从半导体材料中释放出电子而生产了大多数的太阳能电力。In the past four years their average cost has fallen by more than 75%.过去四年当中它们的平均花费跌去了75%以上。At less than per watt of generating capacity, solar is now the cheapest power source in some sunny places, especially those, like India, that lack fossil-fuelled alternatives.每发1瓦特电量只需不到1美元,太阳能现在是一些光照充足地区最廉价的能源,尤其是在那些缺少化石燃料替代物的地方,比如印度。This is starting to look like a revolution.这开始看起来像是一场革命。Everyone who wants a reliable and nonpolluting energy supply, you would think, would welcome that.你也许会想,每一个想要可靠且无污染的能源供给的人都将欢迎它。But on May 17th Americas Commerce Department slapped a provisional tariff of 31% on 61 Chinese makers of solar panels, including some of the cheapest in the business.然而5月17日美国商务部对61家中国的太阳能板制造商强征31%的临时性关税。Another group of unnamed Chinese solar companies, which failed to respond satisfactorily to the departments inquiries, were hit with a 250% tariff.另一批未被提及的中国太阳能公司则因未能对该部门的询问给出满意的答复,受到了250%的关税的打击。These duties, which are expected to be confirmed in October, were in response to an anti-dumping complaint from seven solar firms including Solar World, a German company with operations in America.预计将于10月被批准,这些关税是针对一起由7家太阳能公司提起的反倾销诉讼所做出的回应,当中包括一家在美国运营的德国公司SolarWorld。Chinas panelmaking industry has seen explosive growth, fuelled by strong demand, mainly from Europe, but also by soft loans from state-owned lenders.在强劲的需求以及国有出借方的宽松贷款刺激下,中国的电池板生产行业经历了爆炸式增长。Chinese panelmakers are reckoned by Bloomberg New Energy Finance, a research firm, to be able to make panels for around 10% less than the industrys average cost.研究公司彭新能源财经认为,中国的电池板制造商能够以低于行业平均成本10%左右来生产电池板。They have undercut European and American producers:他们正用低价策略削弱欧美制造商:between and 2011 the value of American imports of cheap Chinese panels soared from 0m to .1 billion.在年到2011年间,美国进口的廉价中国电池板的货值从6400万美元激增到31亿美元。This has brought misery to higher-cost producers,这让高成本的制造商处境艰难,which a recent slowdown in demand for solar panels, caused mostly by reductions in European and American subsidies, has greatly exacerbated.而近期主要受到欧美补贴减少的影响,太阳能电池板需求放缓,更是雪上加霜。Many solar firms, Chinese and otherwise, are now furiously selling inventory—the bane of an industry where prices are falling—at a loss.许多太阳能公司都在亏损,中国的还是其他地方的,都正在亏本极力消化库存,而价格下跌是一个行业灾祸降临的原因。Some have gone bust, including recently a clutch of once-pioneering German firms such as Solarhybrid, Solon, Solar Millennium and Q-Cells.一些公司走向破产,包括最近的一撮昔日里先驱级的德国公司,比如Solarhybrid,Solon,Solar Millennium,以及Q-Cells.The American tariffs, if confirmed, will annoy Chinese panelmakers—and perhaps a wide array of American exporters, too, if Chinas “strongly dissatisfied” government launches retaliatory measures.美国的关税如获批准,将会惹怒中国的电池板制造商,而如果中国“强烈不满”的政府展开报复性措施的话,被惹怒的也许还有大批的美国出口商。But they are unlikely to save many Western solar firms.但是关税不太可能拯救太多西方国家的太阳能公司。The tariffs were long mooted, which has allowed Chinese exporters to build large inventories in the ed States.关税有很长的酝酿期,这让中国的出口商在美国积攒了大量库存。Some developers of American solar projects have also signed precautionary deals, committing their Chinese suppliers to covering the cost of the mooted tariffs.一些美国的太阳能工程开发商也签订了预防性交易,答应替他们的中国供应商承担长期的关税成本。The most integrated Chinese solar firms,中国最完善的太阳能公司,such as SunTech, the worlds biggest panel-maker, could probably stomach this, because panels represent less than a quarter of the cost of installed solar generating capacity.比如世界最大的电池板生产商尚德,可能能够承受的了,因为电池板只占太阳能发电设备安装费用的1/4以下。Financing, installation and other infrastructure costs account for the rest.其余的成本在融资、安装以及其它基础设施上。They will also look to make or buy panels in other Asian manufacturing hubs, such as Taiwan and South Korea.他们同样会寻求在其他亚洲制造业中心,比如台湾、韩国,去生产或购买电池板。These panels will not be subject to the tariffs, even if they are assembled into solar modules in China.这些电池板不受关税影响,即便它们是由在中国制造的太阳能原件组装而成。Whatever the legal merits of SolarWorlds complaint, America will help neither the planet nor its own domestic consumers by shutting out Chinese solar panels.无论SolarWorld公司的控告在法律上有何优点,美国将中国的太阳能电池板拒之门外既不会帮到这个星球,也不会帮到自己国内的消费者。And, predicts BNEFs Nat Bullard, the tariffs will not even do much to protect American solar firms.而且据BNEFs Nat Bullard预计,关税甚至不会对美国的太阳能公司提供多少保护。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/245829。

Science and techonolgy科学技术The evolution of co-operation合作关系的演变Make or break?建立还是终止?Social networking tames cheats社交网络驯欺骗者HOW people collaborate, in the face of numerous temptations to cheat, is an important field of psychological and economic research.在无数互相欺骗的诱惑中,人们如何建立合作关系?A lot of this research focuses on the tit-for-tat theory of co-operation:这是心理和经济学研究的一个很重要的领域。关于这个领域的很多研究都集中在以牙还牙的合作理论:that humans are disposed, when dealing with another person,那就是,一个人在处理和另外一个人的关系时,to behave in a generous manner until that other person shows himself not to be generous.开始都会选择慷慨的态度,直到对方显露出不慷慨的迹象,这个时候也是合作关系终止的时候。At this point co-operation is withdrawn. Fool me once, in other words, shame on you. Fool me twice, shame on me.用另外一种话说,就是欺我一回,罪过在你,欺我二回,罪过在我。When he encounters such a withdrawal of collaboration, the theory goes, the malefactor will learn the error of his ways and become a more co-operative individual.当遭遇这样的一次合作终止,如理论所说,作为合作规则的破坏者,他会开始反省他处事的过错,并且开始变成更加乐于合作的个体。And there is experimental evidence, based on specially designed games, that tit-for-tat does work for pairs of people.在特殊设计的游戏基础上得出的实验据显示,以牙还牙理论在两个人的关系中确实奏效。Human societies, though, are more complex than mere dyads.然而人类社会关系远比两两之间更为复杂。And until recently, it has been difficult to model that complexity in the laboratory.直到最近,这种复杂的关系还难以在实验室中模拟出来。But a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by Nicholas Christakis and his colleagues at Harvard has changed that.但在这周,哈佛大学Nicholas Christakis和他的同事在国家科学院院刊上发表的论文改变了这个状况。Dr Christakis arranged for a collaboration-testing game to be played over the web, with many participants.Christakis士在网上安排了一场多人参与的实验测试游戏。As a result, he and his team have gained a more sophisticated insight into the way co-operation develops.经过这个实验,他和同事对人际合作发展方式有了更深的理解。Dr Christakis used what is known as a public-goods game for his experiment.Christakis士在这个实验中采用称为公共利益的游戏。At the beginning of such a game, points are doled out to each participant.游戏之初,每个参与者分发到少量的分数。During every round, players are given the opportunity to donate points to their neighbours.在接下来每一轮游戏中,参与者都有机会赠送分数给他的邻居。Points so donated are augmented by an equal number from the masters of the game.赠送者的分数能够在游戏管理者那里得到与之舍出分数相等量的增长。If everyone co-operates, then, everyone ends up richer.如果参与者都合作的话,每个人最终分数都会比最开始的多。A defector who refuses to donate to his co-operating neighbours will, however, benefit at the expense of those neighbours.而拒绝赠送分数的破坏者却从他邻居们的损失中获益。At the game’s end, the points are converted into real money, to ensure that proper incentives are in place.为了保适当的奖励到位,游戏后这些分数可以变换成钱。To play his large-scale public-goods game, Dr Christakis recruited 785 volunteers via Mechanical Turk—a service provided by Amazon,为了展开这个大型的公共利益游戏,Christakis士通过网上零售商亚马逊提供的土耳其机器人网络务招收了785名志愿者。an online retailer, that works by farming out small tasks to an army of individual workers.这是个发包小任务给个体劳动队伍的务网络。Each volunteer was randomly assigned links to, on average, eight other players.在这个网络上,每个志愿者大约和八个随机分配的参与者连接组队,Together, they played repeated rounds of one of three variations of the game.并根据三种设定的游戏模式重复开展。In the first, participants always interacted with the same group of people.第一种模式,参与者总是和同一组人合作。In the second, the connections were randomly reshuffled after each round.第二种模式,每一轮游戏后合作者都随机重组。In the final version, one-third of the possible pairings between participants were chosen at random after each round.最后一种,每一轮后,三分之一的组合将被选中并随机重组。One player from each pair was first told or reminded of how the other had behaved in the previous round, and was then asked whether he wanted to break his connection with that player,组合中一人会被告知或提醒他的合作对象在前面一轮游戏中的表现,他可以选择是否解除和这个人的合作,如果他已经有一个合作对象的话;if he aly had one, or form a new connection, if he had not.如果他没有合作对象,他则可以选择是否建立新的合作联系。In all versions of the game, roughly 60% of players started out co-operating.在所有三种模式中,大约60%的参与者最开始都是遵守合作规则。However, in the first two, this decreased over time as the pernicious influence of the freeloaders sp.可是头两种模式中,随着吃白食恶劣影响的扩展,遵守的人数也跟着下降。The larger the fraction of a subject’s partners who defected in a given round, the less likely that person was to co-operate in the next—classical tit-for-tat.一个参与者合作过的对象中破坏规则的人数比例越高,这个参与者在下一轮的游戏中越不可能遵守合作规则-典型的以牙还牙。However, this tit-for-tat retaliation was not enough to save co-operation, and after a dozen rounds only 10-20% of the players were still willing to co-operate.然后,这种以牙还牙的报复并不能拯救合作的持续,在十几轮游戏后,只有10-20%的参与者还愿意合作。In the variant where participants had some choice over whom they interacted with, though, the amount of co-operation stayed stable as the rounds progressed.然而在参与者可以选择合作对象的模式中,合作的人数随着游戏的进行保持稳定。When Dr Christakis and his team looked at how the relationships between players were evolving in this third version,而Christakis士和他的团队观察第三种模式中参与者的关系如何演变时,they found that connections between two co-operators were much more likely to be maintained than links that involved a defector.他们发现没有碰到过破坏者的组合更容易保持合作。Over time, the co-operators accumulated more social connections than the defectors did.在游戏中,合作者比破坏者积累了更多的合作关系。Furthermore, as they were shunned, the defectors began to change their behaviour.而且,被拒绝后,破坏者也开始改变他们的行为。A defector’s likelihood of switching to co-operation increased with the number of players who had broken links with him in the previous round.在前面一轮游戏中和他中止合作的人越多,他越有可能转向合作者。Unlike straightforward tit-for-tat, social retaliation was having a marked effect.不像简单的以牙还牙,社会报复有一个标记作用。The next question, then, is whether such a mechanism holds outside the laboratory.接下来的问题是,这样的一个机制在实验室外是否可行?To find out, Dr Christakis has forged links with some anthropologists. They hope to report the answer soon.为了找出,Christakis士已经和一些人类学家取得联系。他们希望能够很快得出结论。 /201306/243470。