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2019年10月18日 10:44:58 | 作者:当当分享 | 来源:新华社
The military government published AI-5, Institutional Act No.5, which suspended habeas corpus, allowing houses to be searched without warrant, and anyone to be jailed without reason being given. 军事政府公布了AI-5,制度行动5号,暂停人身保护令, 无正当理由允许房屋搜索,任何人都可以无理由被监禁。Torture became commonplace, thousands simply disappeared. 折磨成了家常便饭,数以千计的人简简单单就完全消失了。The military didnt arrest left wing musicians, but instead, targeted the leaders of Tropicalia, Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil.军方没有逮捕左翼的音乐家们,但相反,针对领导人哥塔诺·维罗索和吉尔伯托·吉尔。What scared, what bothered the military, was basically behaviours. You know. 让军队感到害怕,困扰的基本上是各种行动。你知道的。The way, I mean, we were sort of dressing and manifesting, and dealing ideas, you know, trading ideas. 我的意思是,我们需要打扮并明,交换想法,你知道, 交换想法。Thats sort of things. The behaviourists revolution element.这一类的东西。行为学家革命的元素。On December 27th, 1968, Gil and Veloso were detained in Sao Paolo and driven to Rio, where they were held without charge.1968年12月27日, 吉尔和维罗索被拘留在圣保罗和里约热内卢,在那里,他们没有指控的被关押着。注:听力文本来源于普特201303/230241Business Pet care in Latin America Mans best amigo商业 拉丁美洲的宠物护理业 人类最好的朋友Profits from pooches are more than petty cash从小身上挣到的,可不止是小钱BLISS sps across Lalos face as his glossy black locks are blown dry by cooing stylists. Dogs big and small are beautified for 100 pesos (.70) in the back of a perspex-walled van run by Fluffy Shower, a mobile pet-salon that visits Mexico Citys posh neighbourhoods to apply shampoo and ribbons to upper-class animals. The sharpest dogs sport green, white and red jerseys to mark Independence Day on September 16th. Next month pet boutiques will sell Halloween pumpkin outfits and dainty witches hats.小拉罗的脸庞看上去喜气洋洋,因为设计师一边对它轻柔细语,一边吹干了它乌黑亮泽的毛发。移动宠物沙龙Fluffy Shower的小货车的车身是有机玻璃做的,花上100比索(7.70美元),无论大小都可以在车上做美容;Fluffy Shower经常到访墨西哥城的富人社区,给上层阶级的宠物打上香波和缎带。为纪念9月16日的独立日,最机灵的要穿上绿白红相间的毛绒衫。下个月,宠物精品店将会出售万圣节南瓜套装和华丽的女巫帽子。Pet care is booming in emerging markets, as the growing middle class stops buying dogs for security (or dinner) and starts doting on them. Nowhere has the fashion taken off as quickly as in Latin America. In the past five years spending on pet food and knick-knacks has risen by 44%, to billion, according to Euromonitor, a market-research firm, which estimates that Chile has more pet dogs per person than any other country. Latin pets may be the worlds most fashionable. As Mexicos rainy season tails off, dogs are stepping out of designer shoes to show off painted claws.宠物护理业在新兴市场蓬勃发展,因为发展壮大的中产阶层不再是为了看家(或烹饪)而买,并开始宠爱它们。没有哪个地方的宠物护理风潮比拉丁美洲腾飞更快。根据市场研究公司Euromonitor的数据,在过去5年中,拉美人在宠物食品和小饰品上的消费上升了44%,达到110亿美元之多;该公司估计,智利人均拥有宠物的数量居世界第一。拉美人的宠物可能是世界上最时尚的宠物。随着墨西哥城的雨季过去,们纷纷跨出设计师制作的鞋子,亮出自己脚爪上的绘。Rising incomes allow Latinos to treat mutts as members of the family. More young people are living alone and putting off marriage, choosing pets for company instead. These ;pet parents; indulge their animals as if they were children, says Emily Woon, Euromonitors pet-care supremo, who reports that Latin America has been the ;star market; of recent years. Latinos are especially fond of dogs, which are costlier than cats, but superior in every respect. Whereas in Europe the dog- and cat-food markets are equal, in Latin America dog food outsells cat food by nearly six to one.收入的增长让拉丁美洲人得以把当做家人对待。越来越多的年轻人选择独居并推迟婚姻,却选择了宠物来陪伴自己。Euromonitor的宠物护理专家艾米丽-伍恩认为,这些;宠物的父母;就像是自己的孩子一般溺爱宠物;她的报道称,拉美已经成为近年来的;明星市场;。拉美人特别喜欢犬类——虽然比猫要贵,但各方面都要更胜一筹。尽管在欧洲食和猫食的市场势均力敌,但拉美食的销量与猫食几乎是六比一的关系。There is room for growth. Many Latinos still feed their pets table scraps: three-quarters of Mexican hounds make do with leftover bits of burrito. Billboards around Mexico Citys parks urge owners to switch to Pedigree and other brands of delicious packaged pet food.市场还有增长的空间——拉美人仍然喂自己的宠物吃桌上的残羹冷炙:四分之三的墨西哥猎犬将就着吃些饭后剩下的玉米煎饼。墨西哥城的公园被各种广告牌环绕,催促宠物主人改用Pedigree和其他品牌的成包销售的宠物美食。Glitzy pet superstores, which account for more than a fifth of pet-product sales in America and Canada, barely exist south of the Rio Grande. The most popular outlets are still small, independent pet shops, which retain customers by offering credit. But the superstores will come. And when Latin animal-lovers can buy a full range of food, toys and veterinary services in one place, life could become even more luxurious for Mexicos privileged pets.装饰豪华的大型宠物店在美国和加拿大占到宠物产品市场的五分之一以上,却几乎不存在于格兰德河(译者注:美国和墨西哥之间分界的河流)以南的地区。那边最流行的还是独立的小型宠物店,通过提供信贷的方式来留住顾客。但大型的宠物商店还是会来的。并且,等到拉美的动物爱好者能在一个地方买到全套的宠物食品、玩具和兽医务时,墨西哥养尊处优的宠物们的生活甚至还会更加奢华。 /201301/220606

Do Old Folks Still Appreciate Humor?老人们仍能欣赏幽默吗?Maybe when people get older, sense of a humor is the first thing to go.也许,人年纪越大,越是幽默感至上。Actually, research suggests that old folks, if they’re healthy, can still appreciate humor as much as a younger person can.事实上,研究 表明,和年轻人一样,健康的老人们仍然欣赏幽默。They still smile and laugh when they get the joke.有人开玩笑依旧会面带微笑或大笑。However, there is evidence to suggest that with age we may lose our ability to comprehend more complex forms of humor.但是,研究也实随着年龄的增长,我们无法理解比较复杂形势的幽默。Scientists believe that the tools we need to get a complex joke are primarily located in the brain’s frontal lobes.科学家相信,理解复杂玩笑主要靠的是脑前叶的功能。People with damage to their right frontal lobe experience difficulty getting punch lines and prefer slapstick humor instead.脑前叶右部受损会造成笑话中妙语的困扰,而这类人也更倾向于浅显幽默。There’s also evidence that the functions located in the brain’s frontal lobes may be the first to diminish with aging.有明显示,脑前叶功能会随着年老而最先退化。This may explain why in a recent experiment older folks performed significantly worse than younger folks in comprehending more complex forms of humor.这也解释了最近的实验中,年长者们在理解更复杂幽默上明显不如年轻人。Of course, it’s also important to take into account such factors as social differences in the kind of humor people prefer, social setting, and health.当然,综合考虑其他因素也很重要:比如社会差异影响个体的幽默倾向、社会背景、健康状况。Maybe an elderly person would laugh at a joke if she were socializing with a group of her friends,也许,和朋友相处的一个老人会因为玩笑而大笑;but not laugh with her neighbor whom she doesn’t know well or finds annoying.但是,和不熟悉或恼人的邻里就不会大笑。 /201212/214298

Science and Technolgy科技Polio小儿麻痹症A Rotary engine扶轮社计划Can a businessmens club eradicate polio from the world?商人组织能否根除世界各地的小儿麻痹症?IT IS a year since the last case of polio was diagnosed in India. That is not enough to pronounce the country polio-free-three clear years are the conventional period required for that to happen. But it is a good start. And if India really is clear, then what was once a global scourge will now be endemic to a mere three countries: Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan. The number of people infected, meanwhile, has dropped from 350,000 in 1988 to 650 last year.距印度最后一例小儿麻痹症患者被确诊到现在已经1年。那不足以宣布这个国家脱离了小儿麻痹症——人们习惯上将三年不出现小儿麻痹症病例作为一个国家宣布脱离小儿麻痹症的周期。但这已经是一个好的开始。如果印度摆脱了小儿麻痹症,那么曾经风靡全球的灾难在现在将仅存于三个国家:阿富汗、尼日利亚和巴基斯坦。于此同时,感染小儿麻痹症的人的数量已经从1988年的350,000降低到了去年的650.All this is in large part thanks to the efforts of Rotary International. In 1985, after a successful pilot study in the Philippines, this businessmens club cum global charity announced a plan to eradicate polio by vaccinating every child under five at risk of catching it. The estimate then was that it would cost 0m. Some 0m of Rotary money later (plus a lot from other sources), the virus is still out there, but its remaining hidey-holes tell their own story: where civil disorder is rife, medicine is hard.所有这一切很大程度上得益于扶轮国际。1985年,一个在菲律宾进行的初步研究成功之后,商人组织和全球慈善团体宣布了一项计划,这项计划通过给有患小儿麻痹症风险的五岁以下儿童接种疫苗来根除小儿麻痹症。预计这个计划将耗资一亿两千万美元。其后要花费扶轮社八亿美元(加上许多通过其他途径获得的钱),病毒仍然还会存在,但是那些剩余的隐藏的地点发出自己的心声:越是内乱盛行的地方,医疗就越发的困难。On January 17th Rotary announced it had raised yet another 0m. The Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation will contribute a further 5m, and the pressure will thus be kept up. John Germ, one of Rotarys trustees, thinks that if all goes well 2016 might be the first year when no new cases are reported. That would, though, mean spending more than billion a year between now and then.1月17日,扶轮社宣布已经另外募集了两亿美元的资金。比尔及梅林达?盖茨基金会将另外捐献四亿零五百万美元,即便如此还是会有压力。扶轮社的理事之一约翰泽恩认为如果一切进行顺利,那么2016年可能是第一年没有新的病例被报道的一年。尽管那将意味着从此时到彼时每年要花费至少10亿美元。The inspiration for Rotarys campaign against polio came from the eradication of smallpox. Like polio, smallpox was a viral disease for which effective, easily administered vaccines existed. And crucially, like polio, smallpox had only one animal host: Homo sapiens. In principle, then, extermination should be possible. The practice, however, has turned out rather different.扶轮社遏制小儿麻痹症的启发来自天花的根除。和小儿麻痹症一样,天花是一种可以被存活的疫苗简单有效的治理的病毒性疾病。关键是天花像小儿麻痹症一样仅有一个动物寄主:人类。一般而言根除应该是可能的。然而时间明却是恰恰相反的。First, unlike smallpox, polio viruses can survive for long periods outside a host-for instance in sewage. Second, when the campaign began in earnest there were three main varieties of polio, each of which required a specially tailored vaccine. Focusing effort on one of these strains often led to the resurgence of another. Third, besides the inevitable difficulties of working in places that have poor medical infrastructure, the campaign ran into some specific human problems. The most notorious of these was the rumour, sp in 2003 by certain religious leaders in Nigeria, that the vaccine would sterilise girls and was part of an American plot to rid the world of Muslims. This helps explain why polio persists in Nigeria.第一,与天花不同的是,小儿麻痹症病毒在寄主之外可以长时间的存活—例如在下水道。第二,当此项活动开始正儿八经的进展的时候已经存在三类主要的小儿麻痹症,每一类都需要一种特别定做的疫苗。集中对其中一类小儿麻痹症下功夫经常会导致另一类病毒的死灰复燃。第三,除了这些不可避免的医疗设备落后的工作困难之外,此项活动偶尔还会遇到人类问题。其中最臭名昭著的就是在2003年尼日利亚的某一宗教领导人散布的谣言,谣言称疫苗将会使女孩绝育并且是一个消灭世界上伊斯兰教徒的美国阴谋的一部分。这帮助解释了尼日利亚的小儿麻痹症得不到遏制的原因。That polio can actually be eradicated is suggested by the elimination, in 1999, of one of the three strains. Whether the resources needed to do so might be better spent elsewhere, though, is a matter of debate. Some would prefer to see a shift to policies that improve overall health, including investing in decent sanitation and clean water.1999年,三类小儿麻痹症之一的消除明了小儿麻痹症实际上可以根除。但是根治小儿麻痹所需要的资源财力是否可以在别处更好的配是一个值得讨论的问题。一些人更希望看到一个改善全民健康的政策的转变,包括像样的环境卫生和干净的水。The response to that is that if you remove the specific pressure on polio it will simply bounce back. Moreover, in practice, a synthesis between the two positions is emerging. According to Mr Germ there is aly a debate within Rotary about what to do next. Providing clean water and improving maternal and child health are popular options.对于此观点的回应是如果你对小儿麻痹症疏忽大意它将会轻易的恢复活力。此外,实际上两种立场已经显现出达成一致的势头。据泽恩先生说,早就已经在扶轮社内部召开了关于接下来该怎么做的讨论会。提供干净的水和改善母婴健康是符合大众的选择。One thing everyone wants to avoid, though, is what happened after smallpox was eliminated. Then, the infrastructure of health workers and clinics that had been created to detect and fight the disease was allowed to evaporate. Had it been used instead to focus on polio, that illness, too, might have been vanquished by now.不过,每个人都想避免的一件事是天花被消除以后发生的事。此外,已经制造的用于检测和治疗疾病的保健人员和诊所的医疗设施是可以消除疾病的。至于这些设备是否也已经用于治疗小儿麻痹症这样的疾病到目前为止可能已经可行了。 /201210/202551

Business Opening a business in Brazil Why make it simple?商业 在巴西做生意 何等简单Setting up shop has just got easier. But not much开店变得简单。却没有很多BRAZIL is not an easy place to start a business.巴西并不是开店的好地方。The World Bank ranks it 120th out of 183 countries-worse than Burkina Faso or Nigeria.世界将其在183个国家中列为第120位——比布基纳法索及尼日利亚还糟糕。Take one small example. Until recently, you needed at least two partners to form a limited-liability company.试举一例,至今,仍需三人才能成立一家有限责任公司。Sole traders had to find a ;1% sócio;-an employee, friend or family member willing to lend his name to the articles of association, or a shell company set up solely to hold a tiny share.一人投资者必须寻求一名;1% 合作伙伴;——雇员、朋友或家庭成员同意将他们的姓名列入公司章程或令其占有极少股份而成立的空壳公司中。Things may have just got a little easier. A new law, which supposedly came into effect on January 9th, allows a lone business-owner to set up an Empresa Individual de Responsabilidade Limitada (Eireli for short): a single-holder limited-liability firm.要求可能放宽了些。据说一部新法将于1月生效,其中允许一人设立有限责任公司(简称Eireli)。The main requirement is capital of 62,200 reais (,250).主要的规定是资产额为62,200雷亚尔(35,250美元)。This is a big deal. Alas, it may not happen as planned.此举意义重大,唉,或许会事与愿违。In December the federal body that oversees state business registries told them to turn away firms trying to register Eirelis, as well as foreigners without permanent right of residence.12月监管公司注册的联邦机构回避关于试图注册一人有限责任公司,以及不具有永久居留身份的外国人所提出的申请。No reason was given.对此并未公布相关的理由。Later, lawyers were briefed that the laws aim was to let Brazilian sole traders protect their personal goods against lawsuits or bankruptcy—not to make life easier for big business or foreigners.随后,律师被简要告知律师事务所意在保护巴西个体经营者免受诉讼或破产之灾——并不是保障大公司或外国投资者。Since the restrictions have no basis in the law, challenges are inevitable.由于这些限制在法律上没有渊源,因此不可避免地存在质疑。Husam Abboud of Establish Brazil, a company-formation specialist, is thinking of Brazilian-style direct action: simply trying to register an Eireli for a firm or a foreigner, and seeing what happens.来自Establish Brazil的Husam Abboud ,是一位公司设立的专家,其指出巴西风格的直接效果:只是试图为公司或外国人注册一人有限公司,之后坐观成败。;We wont be trying just once, but many times,; he says cheerfully. ;In Brazil, it always depends whos on the desk on the day.;;我们并非仅尝试一次,而是多次,; 他语带兴奋地称;在巴西,总是彼时处在台上的人左右决定。;A few speedy locals have aly set up Eirelis.一些敏锐的本国人已开始设立Eirelis。;It was quick and easy, because I didnt have to hunt for a partner,; says Taise Litholdo, an architect.;这样简单快捷,而无需寻找合伙人,;建筑师 Taise Litholdo说到。Sebastiao Lino da Silva, an accountant in Sao Paulo, is helping a medical-research firm, which recently lost a partner, to convert into an Eireli.圣保罗的会计师Sebastiao Lino da Silva正协助一家失去合伙人的医药研发公司转为一人有限公司。The remaining owner would otherwise have to find a new partner or close.该公司目前的所有人希望寻找新的合伙人或以类似的模式延续公司。Joao Marcelo Pacheco of Pinheiro Neto Advogados, one of Brazils largest law firms, says that some wealthy clients will use Eirelis to make their lives simpler.来自巴西最大律所之一Joao Marcelo Pacheco的Pinheiro Neto Advogados称,某些重要客户打算运用Eirelis以令生意更顺遂。All this amounts to a tweak, not a revolution.所有这些构成扭转,而非改革。By January 18th only 14 Eirelis had been registered with Sao Paulos board of trade, Brazils biggest.直至1月18日仅有14家Eirelis成功在巴西最大的圣保罗商业局得以注册。;The truth is Eirelis are not really suitable for most small businesses,; says Mr Abboud. Few hot-dog vendors and hairdressers have enough spare cash to satisfy the capital requirement, he points out.Abboud称;事实上Eirelis并非适用所有小型企业;,并指出一些卖热的商人和美发师手头上就有满足资本限额的闲钱。That is an argument for scrapping the capital requirement.放弃资本限额引起一番争论。The Socialist Peoples Party, an opposition group, has asked the Supreme Court to rule it unconstitutional for discriminating against micro-traders.反对党——巴西社会人民党已请求最高法院规范歧视微型贸易者的违宪行为。Even if foreigners are allowed to set up Eirelis, breaking into Brazil will remain tough.即使外国投资者被允许设立Eirelis,他们融入巴西仍成问题。The biggest hurdle—finding a permanent resident willing to hold power of attorney for foreign owners—will remain.最大的阻碍——寻找一位永久居留者愿意作为外国所有人的代理人——始终存在。Establish Brazil and its rivals will do this for foreign clients, but only until a local manager has been appointed, or an expatriate has arrived on a permanent business visa.Establish Brazil及其对手将以同样方式对待其外国客户,但仅需指定一位本地管理人或一位取得永久居留的移民。The snag is that acting for a foreign firm leaves agents vulnerable to Brazils capricious tax authorities and labour courts, which tend to ignore limited liability and pursue individual owners.代理外国公司的中介因容易被巴西反复无常的税收机构及劳动法庭追查而受到牵绊,他们更倾向个人所有者而非有限责任。;They want to be able to freeze someones bank account if problems arise,; explains Stephen OSullivan of Mattos Filho Advogados, another big Sao Paulo law firm. ;And if theyre the only people in the country, theyll go after the local managers, or even the lawyers.;;发生问题时他们希望冻结某人的账户,;另一家律所Mattos Filho Advogados的Stephen OSullivan称;若这个国家仅剩下他们,则他们将追寻本地管理人,甚至本地律师。;Unsurprisingly, Mattos Filho is willing to fulfil this role only for old and valued clients.不出意外,Mattos Filho 期待在务已有的尊贵客户的同时能够为更多的公司扮演同样的角色。Eirelis may eventually make it easier to set up shop in Brazil. But only a little.在巴西做生意可能因Eirelis 而变得简单。但仅仅是一点点。 /201211/210684

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