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汉中佳和美医院能用医保卡吗汉中真菌性尿道炎But there is a problem with the idea that hunting caused the mass extinction. Mammoths were not the only animals to disappear. 但是狩猎带来的一个问题是大量物种的灭绝,猛犸象并不是唯一的消失的动物。Camels survived for millions of years in North America, but disappeared around the same time as the mammoths. Wild horses first evolved here and became dominant grazers. Yet they, too, vanished soon after the Ice Age ended. But there’s little evidence to suggest that humans hunted horses or camels. This seems to go against the hunting argument. 骆驼在北美洲生存了上百万年,但是也和猛犸象大约同一个时间消失了,野马首先在这里代代繁衍,并主宰了这里的草地,然而不久他们也随着冰河时代结束而灭绝了,但是几乎没有据可以表明人们狩猎过马匹和骆驼,这似乎与狩猎规则不符。So what else would have triggered such large-scale extinctions? 那么还有其他的因素可以触发这种大规模的灭绝吗?The other major possibility is climate change. The end of the Ice Age was a turbulent, erratic period. In some areas, rain patterns were shifting, bringing moisture back to dry landscapes and turning grassland into forest.另一种主要的可能性是气候的变化,冰河时代末期是个动荡流离的时期,在一些地区,降雨发生了改变,很多干燥的地区变得湿润,草地变成了森林。Other regions of the continent were plunged into prolonged periods of draught. For grazers such as horses, this led to a massive change in habitat, one they were not flexible enough to overcome. 北美大陆的其他地区仍然陷于长期的干旱,像野马这样的食草动物,它们的栖息地发生了大规模改变,而他们并没有足够的能力来适应这些改变。As the land dried out, many grass eaters disappeared. We may never know for certain what killed off most of the larger animals at the end of the Ice Age. We do know that there was a time of coincidence—people were arriving just as the climate was in a state of change. Both may have played their part. Whichever was responsible, more than 70 species vanished for good, but some large animals did survive and still live here today.随着陆地的干旱,大量食草动物灭绝,冰河时代末期为什么大多数大型动物灭绝,这对于我们来说,可能永远是个不解之谜。但我们可以肯定的是一个时间巧合,人类达到大陆的时候也正是气候改变的时候。两者可能都起了一定的作用。不管到底谁是动物灭亡的罪魁祸首,70多个物种都永远地灭绝了,但是如今仍有一些大型动物存活至今。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201311/263480汉中怎么样治疗尿道炎 Finance and Economics;Investing in Ethiopia; Frontier mentality;财经;投资埃塞俄比亚; 前沿思维;A new fund attests to the countrys allure—and to the value of connections;新投资,国家吸引力与关系网价值的有力明;Long benighted, Ethiopia is attracting attention for a better reason. It has become Africas fastest-growing non-energy economy (see chart). Investors have noticed. South Africas largest consumer-foods firm, Tiger Brands, expanded into Ethiopia last year with a big acquisition. Diageo and Heineken recently paid nearly 0m combined to acquire state breweries in the country.埃塞俄比亚已经成为非洲经济增长最快的无能源国家(见图表)。这一点,投资者早就知道。西非最大的消费食品公司,Tiger Brands,在去年进行了一次大规模并购,进军到埃塞俄比亚。Diageo和Heineken最近联合花费4亿美金收购了该国一个国营啤酒厂。The latest proof came on May 9th, when Schulze Global Investments, an American investment firm and family office, announced that it had launched a 0m Ethiopia fund, the first private-equity fund focused exclusively on the country. Anchored by at least m from Britains CDC, a government-owned provider of development finance, and m of the familys own money, the fund will invest in sectors from agribusiness and cement to health care and natural resources.最新事件发生在5月9日,美国一家投资投资与家族财务管理公司,Schulze全球投资公司,宣布在埃塞俄比亚投资1亿美金,这是第一笔专门针对埃塞俄比亚的私募基金。加上之前英国CDC公司,一家政府所有的发展财务公司的至少1500万美元投资,还有家族所有的1000万美元,这些资金将用于农业企业、水泥、卫生保健和自然资源。Investing in Ethiopia is not for the faint-hearted, however. With a projected national income of .5 billion this year, its population of 85m still ranks among the worlds poorest. The governments big spending carries risks, including high inflation (32.5% in March was near a nine-month low) and heavy state borrowing that has shrunk the credit available to private firms. Much more borrowing and spending is planned, and needed. The heart of the Ethiopian capital may be traversed by new concrete arteries and bridges, built by Italian and Chinese contractors with Chinese loans. But the rest of Addis Ababa is a patchwork of dirt paths lined by corrugated-tin dwellings that are the capitals shantytowns and slums.然而,投资埃塞俄比亚可不是为了慈善。虽然埃塞俄比亚今年国民收入为385亿美元,但按该国8500万人口计算,它仍然位居世界最贫困国家之列。政府大幅消费带来了危机,包括高通胀(三月份的32.5%通胀率已是九个月以来的最低值)。巨额的国家借债已让国家信誉对私人企业缩水。更多的借债和花费都在必要的计划之中。从中国借钱、由意大利和中国建筑商建造的交通动脉和大桥,可能已经改变了首都的中心。除此之外,亚的斯亚贝巴城全是一片片由杂乱肮脏的小道连接的棚户贫民窟。Poverty is pervasive, raising questions over how fast a consumer class will emerge. Agriculture is still a big source of national income, accounting for more than 40% of GDP and more than 80% of employment. Almost all private businesses are small: family-owned vendors and repair shops, the kind whose customers cannot suffer inflation for long. Credit is hard to come by for the unconnected. Only licensed exporters consistently benefit from repeated devaluations of the currency. To invest in Ethiopia is to invest in the frontier.贫穷无处不在,到底有消费者能力的阶层能多快增长,这是个问题。农业仍然是国家收入的一大来源,占据GDP的40%,并促进了80%的就业人口。几乎所有的私人企业都是小企业:家族小贩和维修店,这些人不可能在那么长的通胀经济中坚持住。而没有关系网的商家,也很难有信誉。只有拥有经营执照的出口商才能从不断贬值的货币中稳定获利。投资埃塞俄比亚如同在投资在前线阵地。That suits Gabriel Schulze, who runs SGI (as the firm is known in Addis Ababa). He is the scion of an American frontier family. His great-great-grandfather, William Boyce Thompson, flirted with bankruptcy in the Old West and founded Newmont Mining, now a billion company. Mr Schulze operates smoothly in Ethiopia because of connections built through his family (three of his younger siblings are adopted Ethiopians). In 2008 he established a permanent office in the capital, staffed by members of Ethiopias class of returning exiles, including two daughters of former officials under the late emperor, Haile Selassie.这种状况正像经营SGI(在亚的斯亚贝巴众所周知)的Gabriel Schulze。他是美国前线家族后裔。他的曾曾祖父,William Boyce Thompson,在老西部破产,后来成立了Newmont Mining,现在是一个资产230亿的公司。Schulze先生在埃塞俄比亚经营的很顺利,因为他的家族的关系网(他的三个年轻的同辈都是收养的埃塞俄比亚的孩子)。2008年,他在埃塞俄比亚首都成立了一个永久的办公室,员工都是逃亡归来的埃塞俄比亚人,包括末代皇帝Haile Selassie时期的前长官的女儿。Connections are crucial. Ethiopias doors are not all swung wide open to foreign investment, but rather opened selectively. The regime of Meles Zanawi, the prime minister, is ideological and authoritarian: the ruling party and its allies won 99.6% of seats in parliament in the 2010 elections. Its labyrinthine bureaucracy is the bane of the smallest of private businesses. Mr Meles is working from a neo-Chinese blueprint, long on public investment and state enterprise (banking, telecoms and retailing are off-limits to foreign investors). Outsiders wanting to do business in Addis Ababa must forge good relations with Mr Meles and his ministers.这种关系网至关重要。埃塞俄比亚的大门向外国投资商敞开,但也是有选择地敞开。总理 Meles Zanawi是个独裁主义者:统治党和其联盟党在2010年大选中赢得99.6%的席位。它复杂的官僚机构是小企业经济的致命毒药。Meles先生很长时间都在公共投资与国营公司工作,是新中国人的代表。外界想在亚的斯亚贝巴做生意的人就必须与Meles先生和他的内阁大臣们建立好关系。Similarly, the larger, existing SGI investments in Ethiopia—in a coffee-export business, a cement plant and an oil firm—are investments in the elite families who run them, with family and personal networks that extend back generations. The Bagersh brothers, owners of the coffee business in SGIs portfolio, represent a third generation of coffee exporters. Tewodros Ashenafi, the founder of SouthWest Energy, an oil firm, is the great-grandson of a former minister of war. Shonaid Jemmett-Page, chief operating officer of CDC, says that this is the nature of investible companies in places like Addis Ababa. “One of the problems in most frontier markets is theres generally a pretty small entrepreneurial class,” she says.同样,更大的SGI投资项目,包括咖啡出口、水泥厂和石油公司,都是精英家族在经营,拥有几代的家族及个人关系网。拥有SGI咖啡贸易Bagersh兄弟已是咖啡出口商的第三代接班人。西南能源石油公司创始人Tewodros Ashenafi是一位战时部长的曾孙。CDC首席运营官Shonaid Jemmett-Page说这是诸如亚的斯亚贝巴这样投资地的特色,他说:“大部分前沿市场都存在一个问题,就是一般创业阶层非常小。”Some critics of Mr Meles nonetheless worry that he will give away the store to foreigners—including bits of the country itself, they grumble, in the form of land farmed for export, which has become a fast-growing business. At the Sheraton Addis (a luxury hotel owned by Mohammed al-Amoudi, a Saudi-Ethiopian sheikh), a returned exile who makes introductions and brokers deals dismisses this notion with a story. A 19th-century emperor once saw off foreign visitors who had perhaps overstayed their welcome. The emperor was said to have ordered the bottoms of their shoes to be checked carefully on the way out. Not a crumb of Ethiopias soil was to go with them.尽管如此,有些家也担心Meles会把生意都卖给外国人,包括这个国家本身,以土地收成形式的出口已成为一个快速增长的企业。而在Sheraton Addis(沙特-埃塞俄比亚酋长Mohammed al-Amoudi拥有的豪华酒店)的一个回国的逃亡者和经纪人讲了一个故事,否认了这样的看法。19世纪的国王在一次送别一队外国游客时,让他们仔细检查鞋底,不允许他们带走埃塞俄比亚一丁点的尘土。 /201304/236260汉中治疗慢性前列腺囊肿的费用

汉中生殖医院汉中佳和美男科专科医院男科 Science and technology科学技术Photoelectric cells光电池To dye for染料光电池A new type of cell may bring “solar” energy indoors一种新型电池有望将“太阳能”引进室内THE phrase “indoor solar power” sounds like an oxymoron. “室内太阳能”这词听着像个冤亲词。But there is growing interest in the idea of using photoelectric cells to run gadgets as well as power grids—and doing so even when those gadgets are inside buildings. 但是人们却对利用光电池为电子产品及电网供电这个想法兴趣渐浓。Much of the light these cells used would, of necessity, come from incandescent bulbs, fluorescent tubes and light-emitting diodes rather than through the window from the sun. 当然,这种电池所用的光大部分来自白炽灯、荧光灯及LED灯,而非透过窗户照进来的阳光。But if the right sorts of cells were available this could be cheaper than constantly replacing the batteries that currently power electronic gizmos.若有适合的光电池能替代目前电子产品所用的要经常更换的电池,那用电成本将会降低。On April 8th G24 Innovations, a firm based in Wales, announced that it may have come up with just such a cell. 4月8日,总部位于威尔士的G24创新公司宣布他们可能已经发明出这种电池:The latest version of its special, dye-based photoelectric devices has set a new record for the conversion of light from bulbs into electricity: 公司最新的特制染料光电器件已创下白炽灯光转换为电能的效率新记录:an efficiency of 26%, compared with the 15% which previous ones can manage. 26%,而以前的器件转换效率仅为15%。That lifts dye-based cells to the point where they might be widely deployable for indoor power.这使染料电池有望广泛应用至室内发电中。Dye-based cells are similar to the silicon-based variety found on rooftops around the world in that both rely on a semiconductor to assist the conversion of luminous energy into the electrical sort. 染料电池类似于安装在世界各地屋顶上的硅光电池,两者都靠半导体器件将光能转换为电能。The difference is that in the case of silicon cells, this conversion happens directly.That means the frequency of light absorbed is constrained by the physical properties of silicon itself.它们的区别在于,硅光电池是直接将光能转换为电能的,即受硅的物理性质限制,它只能吸收特定频率的光。In the case of dye-based cells, which were invented at the Federal Polytechnic School of Lausanne, in Switzerland, in the 1990s, the light is first captured by molecules of a photosensitive dye. 而在染料电池中,光会先被光敏染料的分子捕获。染料电池是在上世纪90年代由瑞士洛桑联邦理工学院发明的。Tinker with the composition of this dye and you change the frequency of light that can be captured. This makes dye-based cells more flexible than silicon ones.稍微改变一下这种染料的成分,就可以让它吸收另一种频率的光。这个特性使染料电池比硅光电池更加灵活。The dye molecules themselves are bound to tiny particles of titanium dioxide, a less-famous semiconductor than silicon, and the whole assembly is immersed in an electrolyte and sandwiched between two electrodes. 光敏染料分子本身附着在二氧化钛微粒上,二氧化钛是种半导体,没有硅那么广为人知。When a photon of light is absorbed by a dye molecule, an electron is knocked into the titanium dioxide. 整个附着过程都是在电解液里两个电极之间进行的。当一个染料分子吸收一个光子时,一个电子就会受到碰撞,进入二氧化钛中。From there it travels to one of the electrodes and a current is thus generated.电子从那里向其中一个电极运动,由此产生电流。The flexibility brought by the dye-based approach makes this sort of cell particularly useful indoors. 染料电池的这种灵活性让其特别适用于室内,Silicon-based solar cells have been optimised for sunlight. 硅光电池则已被优化至最有利于吸收阳光。But artificial light, whether of the incandescent, fluorescent or LED variety, contains a different mixture of frequencies from that put out by the sun. By changing the composition of the dye, G24s engineers ensure that the maximum sensitivity of the cell coincides with whatever frequency mix is appropriate for the artificial light concerned.但人造光的光谱都和阳光的不同。通过改变所用染料的成分,G24的工程师保了光电池的最大感光度与特定场合使用的适当的人造光源的光谱相吻合。Besides being tweakable to match the spectrum of a light-bulb, dye-based cells also work well in dim or diffuse light of the sort often found indoors. 除了能够稍作调整以适应灯泡的光谱外,染料电池还能在昏暗的环境或漫反射光照射下正常工作,Silicon-based systems do not. 硅光电池则不然。And dye-based cells, having no rigid parts, can bend, and are mechanically robust compared with the silicon sort.而且染料电池没有刚性部件,可弯曲,与硅电池相比更为结实耐用。That gives them a further advantage over silicon cells, especially for powering consumer gadgets.这让它们比硅光电池又多了一项优势,尤其是在为消费电子产品供电方面。Steven Burt, G24s chief financial officer, talks of light-bulb-powered TV remote controls, smoke detectors and computer keyboards. G24的财务总监史蒂芬·伯特谈到了用灯泡供电的电视遥控器、烟雾探测器和电脑键盘。The company aly offers prototypes of bags and jackets with photosensitive panels woven in, designed to charge digital cameras and mobile phones, and a hotel in Las Vegas is using G24s products to run its electric window-blinds. 该公司已推出内部装有光敏电池板的夹克和背包样品,用来为数码相机和手机充电。现在,的一家酒店使用了G24的产品来为其电动百叶窗供电。Mr Burt also sees a market for powering the networks of sensors needed to monitor things like temperature and humidity in modern “smart” buildings.史蒂芬·伯特还认为染料电池在为现代“智能”建筑中的传感器网络供电方面很有市场。Eventually, says Mr Burt, the ability of dye-based cells to produce useful quantities of power even in dim and diffuse light could see them used outside, 史蒂芬·伯特说,在昏暗或漫反射光环境里染料电池也能产生足够的电量,最终这种性能会让它们能够应用于室外,perhaps on rooftops in cloudier parts of the world—a market at present dominated by traditional, silicon-based cells, even though they are not well-suited to the purpose. 可能是装在云层较厚的地区的屋顶上。这个市场目前是由传统的硅光电池主导,虽然它们并不适合在昏暗环境下工作。But for now, G24s factory in Cardiff, not a city known for its sunshine, remains powered by a wind turbine.只不过,G24公司位于加的这个日照不多的城市的工厂如今却仍然依靠风力涡轮机发电。 /201307/247589汉中人民医院比较好还是人民医院好割包皮

汉中经济开发区男科咨询 Everyone knows that a sharp knife cuts better than a dull one,but do you know why, exactly?众所周知,锋利的刀刃的切割性远胜钝刀,但你知道确切原因吗?The purpose of the cutting edge of a knife is to concentrate the force thats being applied at the handle.刀刃的作用就是将人们用在刀把上的力集中起来。When you push down on the handle of a knife you exert a force.当你按下刀把时,实际上你施加了一种力。The force on the handle and the edge are the same, but the areas in which the force is concentrated are quite different.这种力无论是在刀把还是刀刃上都是等量的,但力的聚集区域不同,所产生的效果则有天壤之别。At the handle your hands force is sp over a wide area, but on the cutting edge it isconcentrated in a very small area, so therefore the pressure on the edge is much greater.在刀把上,力会在一个较广阔的区域传播,但在刀刃上,力会聚集在一个非常小的区域,因此刀刃上的压力会剧增。You can easily see how this works with a piece of modeling clay, a nail with a wide head, and a nail with a small head.只要借助一块橡皮泥、一枚宽头钉和一枚窄头钉,你很容易就能看到这一原理。First hold the nail with the wide head by its shaft and push it head-first into theball of clay.首先将宽头钉的杆竖起,将其头朝下推入橡皮泥球。Then do the same with the small-headed nail.然后对窄头钉做同样动作。The small-headed nail goes into the clay much more easily than the wide-headed nail.窄头钉比宽头钉更容易嵌入橡皮泥。Since thehead of the small nail has less surface area than the big one, the force of your push isconcentrated in a smaller area, exerts more pressure on the clay, and so the nail goes in moreeasily.由于窄头钉的头部面积比宽头钉小,你的推力将集中在一个更小的区域,对橡皮泥产生更大的压力,因此钉子更容易嵌入。The same principle causes pointed high-heeled shoes to sink into a soft surface more easilythan flat shoes.同理,尖高跟鞋比平跟鞋更易陷入表面柔软的物体。By applying this principle to the knife you can see that with a keener edge theres a greaterconcentration of the pressure on the edge, so it takes much less force to make the knife cut.将这一原理运用在刀上,你能看到,在锋利的刀刃上,压力能更好的聚集,因此切割起来更省力。201404/285979汉中佳和美医院苏汉钟汉中治疗肛门损伤多少钱



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