原标题: 重庆市三峡医院是什么意思搜索活动
Amazingly less than 100 meters away, there are more clues to the past. Luis colleague has found the remains of a sauropod.令人惊讶的是,挖掘不到100米就发现了更多的指向过去的线索。刘易斯的同事发现了蜥脚类动物的遗体。Theres a piece of rib here thats going into the ground about this angle. And then theres a piece of the pubis, the hip bone right here. And its almost complete, save for just the very back end which has aly started to weather off.这儿有一块肋骨,它以这个角度埋在地下。那里还有一根趾骨,髋骨在这边。除了最末端早已开始风化的部位,这块化石几乎是完整的。Luis has to decide what to do with these finds. Starting a new dig is huge undertaking requiring time and money, and he has limited resources.刘易斯必须决定如何处理这些发现。再重新挖掘又是一项巨大的工程,需要花费人力物力,而且资源也有限。We aly have 2 very good sites with long-neck dinosaurs. And were a little reluctant to, you know, open another excavation.我们已经找到了两处长颈恐龙的化石遗址。我们都不太情愿再去挖掘另一处遗址。Just half a mile away is one of their sites. Luis team began working it a year ago. Most of the bones are still embedded in the rock, and must be painstakingly excavated. Luis knows from the layer of rock theyre digging that these dinosaurs died 150 million years ago. But he doesnt know what species it is, and its potentially a dinosaur which has just never been seen before.其中一处遗址就在半英里以外。刘易斯的团队一年前就开始展开研究了。大多数骨头仍嵌入在岩石里,把它们挖出来真是煞费苦心。刘易斯知道从这些岩石层挖掘出来的恐龙早于一亿五千万年前就死了。但他们不知道那是什么物种,有潜在的可能是之前从未见过的物种。A fossil dig is like a murder scene—every piece of evidence about what happened 150 million years ago has to be salvaged. The layout of the entire site will be mapped and the precise location of every bone fragment recorded to help piece together the remains. The more complete the skeleton, the easier it will be to identify, and the greater the likelihood that this dinosaur will be turned into an exhibit.挖掘化石就像犯罪现场一样——必须补救一亿五千年前留下的每一处据。整个遗址的布局被绘制成地图,每一个骨头碎片的精确位置被记录下来,这样有助于拼凑遗体。骨骼化石越完整,就越容易辨别物种,因此这只恐龙将更有可能展示给众人。We have hind limbs, we have forelimbs, we have a lot of the tail, we have ribs, we have many parts of the skeleton and now were starting to uncover the neck. I would anticipate that were gonna have to keep opening the quarry to uncover many other neck vertebrae and hopefully the skull.我们已经找到了前后肢,许多尾巴,肋骨,也找到了大部分骨架,现在我们正开始寻找颈部化石。我估计还得继续开挖遗址,以找出其他颈椎骨,还有希望找到头盖骨。原文译文属!201209/198181

Business.商业。Do-it-yourself apps自己做的应用程序Make your own Angry Birds做自己的;愤怒的小鸟;Homebrew apps have arrived私人制作的软件已经来临LAST year Eddie the pig took Chile by storm. The iPhone game ;ePig Dash;, featuring Eddie, dislodged ;Angry Birds; to become the number-one paid game on the Chilean App Store. By itself, the story of a cute, if flatulent, pig pushing a bunch of irate birds off the top spot is nothing unusual. What is odd is that the creator of ;ePig Dash;, a conjuror and economics teacher, knew little or nothing about programming. Instead he used GameSalad, a do-it-yourself tool for app-makers.去年,小猪爱迪(Eddie the pig)在智利风靡。击败;愤怒的小鸟;后,以爱迪(Eddie)为主角的iphone游戏;ePig Dash;成为智利苹果应用榜上排名第一的付费游戏。就游戏本身而言,它没什么不寻常:以可爱角色为主角,小猪胀气后,将把一群愤怒的小鸟推下顶座。奇怪的是;ePig Dash;的作者是一名魔术师兼经济学教师,他对编程可谓知之甚少,甚至一无所知。但是他使用了一款可以让程序作者自己动手做应用的工具GameSalad。DIY is hot. In May Research in Motion, the maker of the BlackBerry, unveiled a kit that allows people with no programming skills to create a working app within minutes. Apple, too, has applied for a patent indicating it is also building a DIY tool for iOS, its mobile operating system. And in March the Massachusetts Institute of Technology released a beta version of App Inventor, which allows even simpletons to make apps for Android phones.;自己动手做;(DIY)很流行。五月份,黑莓的制造商RIM(Research in Motion)公司就发布了一套允许全无编程经验的人在数分钟内创造出能正常运行的应用的工具。苹果公司申请的一项版权同样表明它在建造一款自家的iOS平台上用的DIY工具。在三月,麻省理工学院也发布了一套测试版的应用构建器。它能以傻瓜式的方式构建安卓手机应用。Several start-ups aly offer DIY app services. Conduit, a firm which was valued at .3 billion after J.P. Morgan acquired a 7% stake for 0m earlier this year, allows people to build mobile apps themselves with a simple graphical interface. AppMakr, a similar service, has helped to create some 10,000 apps. Users include individuals, small businesses and the Harvard Business Review. AppMakr also offers its users help in bringing apps up to standard before submitting them to Apples picky App Store. Other services publish to Android and Windows, or bypass Apple altogether by creating web apps.有一批新成立的公司已经提供自己动手做应用的务了。今年早些时候,根大通以1亿美元价格收购Conduit 7%的股权后,该公司的价值直奔13亿。这家公司便可以让用户通过简单的图形界面构建移动应用。一家与其类似的务公司——AppMakr则已经帮助创建了约10000款应用。其用户包括个人,小型企业和《哈佛商业》。在用户要将应用提交给挑剔的苹果在线商店前,AppMakr也可帮助用户提高应用软件的水平,使其符合标准。其他务公司则发布安卓和Windows平台的应用程序,或者通过创建网页应用彻底绕开苹果平台。Custom-made apps can cost ,000 or more. By contrast, DIY apps are free to create, with a subscription for continued support. Prices vary, typically from about to a month. Magmito, an app-building service that targets small and medium businesses, has a plan that costs as little as a year. AppMakr offers a free, ad-supported service.定制的应用成本高达10000美元或更多。相反,DIY应用则可以免费创建,还可购买后续持。价格一般在每月30~80美元的范围内波动。Magmito是一家定位中小企业的应用构建务公司。它计划着一年仅收取50美元的费用。AppMakr则提供免费的带广告务。Small businesses and tech-savvy amateurs have been the most enthusiastic early creators of DIY apps. But they can also be a profitable business. GameSalad allows users to make 2D games for smartphones, which some choose to sell. According to Steve Felter, GameSalads boss, some developers even make a living designing apps on its platform.小企业与有卓见的科技爱好者都是早期最有热情的DIY应用创建者。但为这些人提供的务也有可能是盈利的。GameSalad让用户能为智能手机制作2D游戏,其中一些人还会销售它们。根据GameSalad经理Steve Felter的说法,一些开发者甚至在它的平台制作应用维持生计。The democratisation of technology is not without drawbacks. Apples App Store aly has some 550,000 apps. Google offers 450,000 for download on its Android operating system. The coming deluge of apps made by amateurs will see those numbers swell.技术普及化也不是没有缺点。苹果在线商店已经拥有550000款应用。谷歌也在它的安卓平台上提供450000款应用供下载。由爱好者制作的应用将如泛滥般袭来,上述数字也会增长。Not all will shine. ;Theres a lot of garbage on YouTube. But once in a while you find a gem and everybody passes it around,; says Ted Iannuzzi of Magmito. Professional app-makers may not be shaking in their boots just yet. But the clever ones, like AppMakr, are moving from creating stuff for mobile phones to creating the stuff that creates the stuff for mobile phones. App-creating software could be the machine tools of the mobile world.不可能所有的都是精品。Magmito 的Ted Iannuzzi 说:;YouTube里有大量的垃圾作品,但是精品从被发现到被人们广泛传播也是一瞬间的事儿。;专业的应用作者还不会感到有压力。可是像AppMakr这样明智的企业正从为智能手机创造应用转向为智能手机创造制造应用的应用。制造应用的软件将会成为移动世界中的机床。201208/194095

Noise Pollution Is Affecting Whales噪声污染正在影响着鲸鱼If a noisy neighbor is blasting music at all hours of the day and night, drowning out your phone conversations and interrupting your sleep, you can call the police. But what is a whale to do?如果一个聒噪的邻居整日整夜地播放音乐,影响你的电话交流,干扰你的睡眠,你可以打电话向警察求助。但是,如果鲸鱼遇到这种情况,它们可以做些什么呢?Natural noise from waves, wind, rain and even earthquakes is common in oceans.Unfortunately,man made noise from oil and gas drilling, sonar, and ships is also present.在海洋里,来自海浪、风雨甚至是地震的自然界噪音是很常见的。不幸的是,人类通过石油天然气开采、声波定位和船舶运输产生的噪音也时常可见。Low frequency noise has doubled off the California coast every decade since the nineteen sixties. The main culprits are shipspropellers. They not only generate continuous low frequency sound, some propellerscavitate, which means they create air bubbles that collapse, creating loud popping sounds.自二十世纪六十年代以来,加利福尼亚州海岸的低频率噪音每十年就翻一倍,而罪魁祸首则是船舶的螺旋桨。他们不但产生连续不断的低频噪音,而且还会生成空穴,这就意味着空穴产生的气泡爆裂,发出巨大的爆破音。Whales use low frequency calls to communicate across thousands of miles of ocean. They are threatened by noise pollution because it can prevent them from contacting each other and from locating prey. Endangered humpback and right whales, which use fibrous baleen to strain food from the water, are the most at risk.鲸鱼利用低频声波在数千米的海洋里彼此交流。他们受到噪音污染的威胁,是因为噪音污染阻碍了他们彼此的联系和捕食。用纤维须从水里获取食物的已濒临灭绝的座头鲸和露脊鲸最为危险。Scientists studying right whales off Canadas east coast have discovered that whales are sending louder calls through the water to make themselves heard. Because they invest more energy in making calls, they have less energy available for finding food and mating. Other scientists measuring whale calls against background noise pollution have discovered that right whales have lost about eighty percent of their normal communication area. This could seriously affect survival of this aly threatened species.科学家们在研究加拿大东海岸的露脊鲸时发现,鲸通过海水发出巨大的声响以便自己的声音能被听到。因为他们在发出声响时消耗了太多能量,所以在寻找食物和交 配时能用的能量就少了。其他科学家在测量鲸的声音和背景噪音污染时发现露脊鲸已经失去了80%的正常交流区域,这会严重影响到早就受威胁的物种的生存。Scientists don’t have badges and guns, but they are trying to correct the noise pollution problem. By tracking ships and marine mammals and understanding how noise travels, they are creating sound maps.科学家们没有权势,但是他们正在试图解决噪音污染问题。通过追踪船只和海洋哺乳动物了解噪音的传播方式,他们正在绘制声波传播图。They hope to get shipping lanes moved so that the noise pollution ships create will not overlap with areas most important to the whales.他们希望改变海运航线,这样船舶产生的噪音就不会覆盖对鲸鱼很重要的海域。 /201207/190690Mr Hastingss technique is to mine the written record of those who took part both actively and passively. His witnesses range from the men whose decisions sent millions to their deaths to the ordinary soldiers who carried out their orders and the civilian victims who found themselves on the receiving end. Cynicism and idealism, suffering and euphoria, courage and terror, brutalisation and sentimentality—all find expression through their own testimony. From the Burma Road to the Arctic convoys, the killing fields of Kursk and the London Blitz, their voices are heard. Mr Hastings’s achievement in organising this unwieldy mass of material into a narrative that sweeps confidently over every contested corner of the globe is impressive. 不论是那些积极参与还是被迫卷入二战的人,马克斯·哈斯丁都会搜集他们留下的文字资料,这是他的技巧。他的二战见者包括决策造成几百万人死亡的人、执行其命令的普通士兵和默默承受苦难的平民,范围极广。犬儒主义与理想主义、苦难与愉快、勇气与恐惧、残暴不仁与多愁善感,以上种种都能在他们留下的文字里读到。从滇缅公路到北极行动、库尔斯克的杀戮战场再到伦敦的闪电战,现在世人已听到了他们的心声。马克斯?哈斯丁将这些浩如烟海的资料整理成了一部叙事体历史,几乎囊括二战时期地球上发生过战事的每一个角落,实在令人惊叹。 Less so are some of his judgments. Although delivered with verve and economy (Mr Hastings is, above all, an accomplished journalist), they are often unfair. For example, he argues that the decision by Britain and France to declare war because of the German attack on Poland was an act of cynicism because they knew they could do nothing to help the Poles. That was never in doubt, but the Allies hoped the stand against Germany’s naked aggression would persuade Hitler to step back from the brink of all-out war, a motive that was neither base nor ridiculous.但相比之下他的一些观点则稍显逊色——措辞简洁,充满(毕竟他是个出色的记者),却大多有失偏颇。例如,他认为英法两国因德国闪击波兰而向其宣战是犬儒的表现,因为两国都深知自身无法援助波兰。这点历来毋庸置疑,但当时盟军希望通过采取立场反对德国裸的侵略行为,以迫使希特勒放弃全面发动战争,这个宣战动机绝不卑劣,也不荒唐。Mr Hastingss repeated admiration for the fighting qualities of German, Japanese and Soviet soldiers compared with British and American forces is especially trying. Germany and Japan were militarised societies that glorified war and conquest, held human life to be cheap and regarded obedience to the state as the highest virtue. Russian soldiers were inured to the harsh brutalities of Soviet rule and driven on by the knowledge that they were fighting “a war of annihilation” against an implacable enemy. If they wavered, they knew they would be shot by NKVD enforcers. More than 300,000 were killed pour encourager les autres.马克斯·哈斯丁多次表示,相较于英军和美军,自己很欣赏德、日、苏军的作战水平。这个观点特别令人讨厌。德日两国都是军事化社会,崇尚征战,视人命如草芥,认为从国家就是最高的美德。俄罗斯士兵已习惯了严格、无情的苏联纪律,是心怀正在和无法和解的敌人“打一场‘歼灭战’”的想法上战场的。他们知道,一旦退缩,自己就会被内务人民委员部的执行委员杀。超过30万人死于督战官以及其他(军纪人员)之手。201207/189661

Business Starbucks v Kraft A double shot of discord商业 星巴克对决卡夫 不合引发连环炮The kings of coffee brawl with the monarchs of macaroni咖啡之王对决通心粉之霸STARBUCKS once seemed so unstoppable that the Onion, a satirical paper, joked about a new Starbucks opening in the restroom of an existing Starbucks.星巴克曾经势不可挡,以至于以嘲讽著称的onion报开玩笑称星巴克的新店会开在老店的厕所内。Yet by January 2008, when Howard Schultz, the coffee chains most effective boss, returned as chief executive, it was rapidly declining.但是在2008年前,他的业绩款速下降。直至最为卓著的领导人Howard Schultz返回公司担任董事长。Mr Schultz closed stores, shed staff, slimmed the supply chain and arrested Starbuckss slide.Schultz先生关闭门店,裁减雇员,简化供应链。力挽了星巴克的颓势。In fiscal 2010 the firms operating margins rebounded to 13.8%, the highest in its 40-year history.2010财政年度,星巴克的运营利润率反弹至13.8%,为星巴克40年历史的最高。One of the problems Mr Schultz found, after a review of the business, was in the way Starbucks-brand coffee was sold in supermarkets.重新审视业务之后,Schultz发现其中一个问题-星巴克品牌在超市里售卖。The so-called consumer-packaged goods (CPG) business is handled by Kraft, Americas biggest food company, which is best known for having mastered the art of mixing macaroni with cheese.号称快消品业务是由美国最大的食品公司卡夫经营的,卡夫由于其搅拌芝士通心粉而被人熟知。Following an agreement in 1998, Kraft sells, markets and distributes bags of Starbucks coffee.按照1998年达成的协议,卡夫分销袋装星巴克咖啡。Mr Schultz told Kraft he was dissatisfied.Schultz先生告知卡夫他对此感到不满意。Kraft acknowledged the complaint, but, according to Starbucks, failed to act because it was focused on the takeover of Cadbury, a maker of superior British sweets such as Creme Eggs.卡夫实了Schultz的抱怨,但是按照星巴克的说法,他之所以不采取行动是由于卡夫把业务重心放在收购吉百利上面,吉百利是英国优质糖果制造商,其代表商品有糖心巧克力。By the spring of last year, both sides realised that their partnership was broken.去年春天,双方都意识到他们的合作关系已经破裂。Starbucks says it offered Kraft 0m to give back the CPG business.星巴克声称他将出价5亿美元买回其快消业余。As part of the proposed deal, it still wanted to supply capsules for Tassimo, Krafts single-portion coffee machines.作为意向交易的一部分,星巴克依然使用卡夫的全自动Tassimo咖啡机。Kraft initially agreed to the buy-out offer, but then changed its mind and demanded another 0m, according to Starbucks.星巴克声称:卡夫同意了此项收购,但是接着就改变了主意并要求追加2亿。Kraft disputes this account.卡夫对否认了此种说法。It claims that Starbucks offered 0m to buy out the business in August. It adds that it rejected the offer. A fair price would be .5 billion, Kraft says.卡夫声称星巴在八月克出价7.5亿美元来买下了业务,卡夫补充到其拒绝了此项收购,合适的价格应该为15亿美元。In October Starbucks told Kraft that it was in material breach of their agreement.十月,星巴克告知卡夫他严重违约。Unless the matter was resolved within 30 days, Starbucks said, all their agreements (including the one on Tassimo) would end by March 1st and Kraft would get nothing.除非30日内得到解决,否则所有协议(包括Tassimo咖啡机的协议)最迟将于3月1日作废届时卡夫将一无所获。The alleged breaches include Krafts failure to involve Starbucks in sales planning, to provide detailed budgets and to obtain approval for advertising.所谓的违约包括卡夫未能将星巴克纳入到其销售计划中,未能提供详尽的经费以及未能获得广告推广的批准。Starbucks says Kraft also violated an exclusivity deal by promoting its own premium coffee.星巴克说卡夫还通过推广自己的优质咖啡而违反了了排他协议。Kraft says all these alleged breaches are baseless. It says Starbucks brewed them up to give itself a pretext for grabbing back the best part of its business (its coffee shops are still sluggish) without paying for it.卡夫方面宣称这些所谓的违约时无依据的,星巴克制造了这些说辞来作为重夺优质市场而不花一分钱的借口,星巴克的咖啡店业务进展缓慢。Mr Schultz declared war. In November he announced that Starbucks was ending its relationship with Kraft unilaterally.Schul提起开始仲裁希望改变这种情况。On November 29th Kraft initiated an arbitration proceeding to challenge this move. Ignoring the arbitration, Starbucks said a couple of days later that from March onwards it would distribute its packaged coffee through Acosta, a marketing firm.星巴克方面宣称将不理会仲裁并于数十天后的3月开始通过行销机构Acosta来销售包装咖啡。In Acosta helped Starbucks to launch Via, a popular brand of instant coffee.年Acosta帮助星巴克开创了Via-大受欢迎的速溶咖啡。On December 6th Kraft sought a preliminary injunction against Starbucks in a District Court of New York, for allegedly violating the terms of their agreement.据宣称12月6日卡夫以违反协议条款为理由向纽约地区地区法院申请一项初步禁令,听会将暂定于于1月27日举行。The hearing of the injunction is tentatively scheduled for January 27th. Kraft says that it played a central role in the success of Starbuckss packaged-coffee business, which grew tenfold during the course of their partnership.卡夫方面称其在星巴克的包装咖啡业务从双方开始合作到现今增长十倍上发挥着核心作用。Starbucks retorts that it could have grown faster if someone else had handled it.星巴克方面则反驳若是其他人经营业务本该增长的更快。Even so, it will be tricky to prove material breaches of the agreement, so Starbucks will probably have to pay to end it.即便这样,明重大违约行为将变得非常棘手,星巴克极有可能以收购了事。Kraft stands to lose not only a lucrative business but also some ;category captaincies;.卡夫不仅失去了获利颇丰的业务而且部分领军地位。Each large American retailer elects a product-category captain who is closely involved in how its sales are managed.每个美国大型零售商都会选择一家积极处理与之相关业务的领军企业。Kraft is category captain in more than 60% of the supermarkets in which it distributes coffee. Acosta will soon be vying for this profitable honour.卡夫占据了超市咖啡分销市场60%以上的份额,Acosta也将紧盯这快大肥肉。 /201212/216168He arrived at Victoria Station on the 19th of May 1873, and soon found some lodgings somewhere in Battersea.他于1873年5月19日来到维多利亚车站,很快就发现了巴特西某处一些住宿的地方。He spoke decent English.他讲得一口地道的英语。It quickly improved.而且提高的也很迅速。Within weeks, he was ing Keats.短短几周之内,他已经可以读济慈了。London came at him from all sides.伦敦从四面八方容纳着他。It was the largest city in the World, and 4 million people had somehow squeezed themselves into it.这是世界上最大的城市,在某种程度上400万人在这座城市里挤来挤去。Here is what it looked like.这就是它看起来的样子。This is Gustave Dores London, published just before Vincent got here.这里是古斯塔夫·多尔的伦敦,在文森特到达这里前刚刚出版。Look at the states of it.看看它。This is Ludgate Hill, looking up towards St. Pauls.这是卢德门山,抬头是圣保罗。Look at those crowds.看看那些人群。Ive got a pal.我有一个朋友。A regular out and outer.离我渐行渐远。Vincent had a copy and treasured it.文森特拷贝了一份,将其视为珍宝。You might recognize this image as well.你可能也会认出这张画作。Its Newgate Prison.它就是新门监狱。Two decades later, he still hadnt forgotten it.二十年后,他仍然没有忘记它。注:听力文本来源于普特201206/188379

Deadline for striking miners extended 罢工最后期限延长Striking miners in South Africa say they earn ,000 dollars a year versus miners in Australia that earn 0,00 a year. 南非罢工矿工抱怨他们每年只挣9,000美元,而澳大利亚矿工每年挣11,000美元。Thousands of miners have gathered in an open field, not very far from where 34 of their colleagues were shot dead by police last week Thursday. They are still standing the ground, they say they are not going to go back to work, despite the fact that Lonmin Plantinum Mine has acctually extended that ultimatum that they want to the miners to be back today or faced being fired. Now Lonmin Mine is saying they understand these very extraordinary circumstances and theyve given miners till tomorrow to return to work. These miners that I have been speaking to say thats not gonna happen until their demands have been met, Michael.上千名矿工聚集在一块开阔处,距离上周四警察开射死他们34名工友的位置不远。矿工们仍然站在原地,他们表示不打算返回工地工作,尽管隆明公司实际上已经发出最后通谍,希望矿工今天重返工作岗位,或者遭遇解雇。隆明矿业公司表示理解目前这种极端情势,因此他们已经允可矿工明天再回来工作。不过和我交谈的这些矿工表示,除非满足他们的要求,他们不会回去工作。迈克尔报道。And meanwhile, what about those demands? I mean these men do work in very very uncomfortable besides at least the situation. What is the company saying about their demands? 那么,他们的要求是什么呢?我的意思是,除了此次事件,这些矿工在极其恶劣的条件下工作。公司对矿工的要求如何表态?You know, very very tough circumstances under which these miners work, and Michael, if you consider how dangerous how the situation is underground. In other countries their skills are thought after. In Austrilia, for example, in 2010 the average miner, somebody willing to work under those conditions was paid 0,000 a year. These miners tell me they are getting ,000 a year, many of them saying they were exploited during a partage. They expect a better treatment in the Democratic South Africa.你知道,这些矿工在极端艰苦的环境下工作,如果你能设想一下,在井下工作是多么危险。其他国家需要这些矿工的采金技能。例如在澳大利亚,如果愿意从事这种工作,2010年平均每位矿工的年薪为110,000美元。南非矿工告诉我,他们一年的收入是9000美元,许多人还说他们在分配时也受到剥削。这些矿工期待能够在南非受到的待遇会有所改善。201209/198625Making Contact为什么戴隐形眼镜看东西更清楚?I get contact lenses to replace my glasses and its like Im seeing the world through new eyes. Its miraculous!终于摆脱框架眼镜了,从隐形眼镜看世界,感觉是全新的!真是太神奇了!Acutlly, Don, there is nothing miraculous about it.东,事实上,这是你的错觉。Who tell?你怎么知道?Well, like glasses, contact lenses work by bending light rays just the right amount to make the object come into focus on the retina at the back of the eye. Sometimes the eyes natural lens has an imperfection or may not be shaped properly, which can make your vision blurry or distorted. Depending on your vision, the right kind of lens helps your eye focus light properly and project a clear image onto the retina.和框架眼镜原理一样,隐形眼镜调节适量的光线进入眼睛,在眼睛后的视网膜上聚焦成像。有时候,眼睛晶状体老化或不完善都将造成视力模糊或扭曲。适合你视力的隐形眼镜纠正视力,辅助眼睛屈光,在视网膜上清楚成像。Ok, fine. But why do contact lenses make things seem so clear?好吧,那么你能说说为什么戴隐形眼镜看东西更清楚吗?Patience, younger princess! Glasses have whats called an optical center, which means that objects appear clearest when viewed through the center of the lenses. But when youre wearing glasses and you move your eyes to the side, or up, or down, things can seem slightly distorted or blurry.别急呀,老兄!框架眼镜的镜片上有光心,当视野正好穿过,看到的图像最清楚。但是,当你戴框架眼镜,上下左右转动眼珠,看到的东西就略显模糊或扭曲。So because contacts are right on the eye and move with the eye, theres no optical center.所以,因为隐形眼镜直接接触眼珠,跟随眼珠转动,就不存在光心了。Right! To put it another way, the entire contact lens is the optical center. So no matter which way you move your eyes, objects appear in perfect focus.就是这样,或者你把整个隐形眼镜都看作光心,无论你怎么转动眼珠,视野正好透过光心。 /201302/226585Books and Arts; Book Review;Jane Austen文艺;书评;简·奥斯汀A puzzle inside an enigma迷中之谜Cults, cultures and one-upmanship崇拜,文化,胜人一筹What Matters in Jane Austen? Twenty Crucial Puzzles Solved. By John Mullan.Bloomsbury;《关于简奥斯汀的事,最重要的是什么?20个关键之谜已被解决》 作者约翰穆兰;Jane Austens Cults and Cultures. By Claudia Johnson.《简奥斯汀的狂热崇拜和文化》 作者:克劳迪娅约翰逊。JANE AUSTEN wrote six novels, lived quietly in Hampshire and died at the age of 41, having enjoyed moderate success. Since then, a cult of “Janeism” has ensured her legacy, and she has become one of the most widely and revered 19th- century novelists. Two new books explore the passion and proliferation of Janeism in different ways. John Mullan (an unapologetic Janeite) takes delight in a close ing of her works, and Claudia Johnson (a Janeite with objectivity) traces the development of Janeism from the late 19th century to the present day.简·奥斯汀一生安然的居住在汉普郡,于41岁去世,在世期间著作6部小说,但所获成效甚微。之后,读者对简奥斯汀的狂热崇拜成就其身后名,简奥斯汀由此成为十九世纪读者范围最广最受人尊敬的作家之一。两本新书从不同的角度探究了读者对简奥斯汀主义的酷爱及其大为流行的原因。约翰穆兰(奥斯汀的狂热崇拜者)喜欢细细品味她的作品,克劳迪娅约翰逊(奥斯汀的理性崇拜者)追溯简奥斯汀主义自十九世纪末发展至今的轨迹。Mr Mullan, an English professor at University College London, manages to make literary criticism fun. In “What Matters in Jane Austen?” he solves 20 crucial puzzles by asking such questions as “Is there any sex in Jane Austen?” and “Why is it risky to go to the seaside?”, scouring her oeuvre for clues and providing answers within the social context of Georgian England. This book provides entertaining trivia for Austen fans, who will be entranced by Mr Mullans encyclopedic knowledge of the texts and the times in which she lived. He takes pleasure in “becoming as clever and discerning as the author herself”.穆兰先生是英国伦敦大学学院的一名英语教授,他设法使文学充满乐趣。在《关于简奥斯汀最重要的是什么?》这本书中,他通过提出“简奥斯汀做过爱吗”“为什么去海滨是危险的” 等类似的问题,细细品味简奥斯汀的全部作品寻找线索,并将置于英国乔治王朝的社会背景下,以此解决了20个关键性的谜题。这本书向奥斯汀的粉丝提供了许多令人愉快的琐事,穆兰对奥斯汀生活时代的了解以及渊的文学知识会使那些粉丝们为此着迷。他希望成为跟奥斯汀一样聪明且眼光敏锐的人。The best chapters are those in which Mr Mullan relates a theme in the novels to social history—moments that modern ers might otherwise miss. Thus, Austen never features or gives voice to the lower classes and servants. Readers might not see them, but by observing the dialogue and other characters manners it is clear that they are there. Contemporary ers, though, would be familiar with servants being present, and would sympathise, for example, with Elizabeth Bennets frustration at her mother gossiping in front of them in “Pride and Prejudice”. Playing games is also significant. Modern-day ers may not intuit the set-up of card tables, but they are a useful trick for Austen to push characters together and manoeuvre others away (all in the name of courtship). She also passes subtle judgments on the common practice of gambling. The chapter on money is revealing, since wealth and inheritance were inextricably tied to social standing and the all-engrossing business of getting married.穆兰将小说的主题同社会历史联系起来的章节,是本书最精的部分,否则现在的读者很有可能忽略掉那些历史时刻。因此,奥斯汀从未特意描写过下层社会和仆人,亦或是让他们有只言片语。读者或许看不到他们,但是通过注意其他角色的对话及举止,能很明显的感觉到这些人是存在书中的。然而,和作者处在同一时期的读者对在场的仆人就十分熟知了,因而书中的细节会引起读者的共鸣,例如《傲慢与偏见》当中,伊莉莎白班内特很懊丧的发现他妈妈在他们面前闲聊,便会成功的使读者的同情心泛滥。玩游戏也是非常重要的。如今的读者或许不能凭直觉发现牌桌建立的意义,但这却是奥斯汀将重要角色集中并且巧妙开(所有的都是以爱之名义)其他人的一个好窍门。她同样能精确地辨别出的惯例。因为财富和遗产往往跟社会地位以及结婚交易密不可分,所以书中跟财富有关的的章节能给人以启迪。Like Mr Mullans, Ms Johnsons book, “Jane Austens Cults and Cultures”, shows that the novels demand reing and can be interpreted in many ways. Also an English professor, at Princeton University, she writes in a more academic style, taking in research by fellow critics and Austen-related literature covering the broad periods of the late 19th century, the first and second world wars and the present day. At times the er may feel that the library stacks are closing in, but there are some revealing passages that show how changing culture invites reinterpretation of Jane Austen and her works.约翰逊女士的著作《简·奥斯汀的狂热崇拜和文化》和穆兰的作品都表明,奥斯汀的小说值得反复品读,而且可以用很多方式来诠释。同样,一位美国普林斯顿大学的英国教授,通过他的家同事的帮助和查阅的大量与奥斯汀相关的文学作品(这些文学作品时期主要为19世纪晚期、一战、二战以及现代的等不同时期),用更加学术的风格,记录、研究奥斯汀的诸多著作。有时,读者会感觉到图书馆书架在向他们逼近,但是一些有启发性的文章指出了变迁的文化是如何导致简奥斯汀和她的著作被重新解读的。The opening chapter on Austens body and her image is the most memorable. Few pictures of Austen survive, and over the decades she has been re-imagined in paintings, books, plays and films. Her place and meaning in culture have also shifted as society has changed. The Victorians saw magic in her stories; disenchanted with modernism, they aligned her novels with fairy tales and an idealised England. In the first world war soldiers carried her books to the front line as companions in a terrifying conflict, perceiving peril in the pages and toughness in her words. During the second world war Austen was considered the epitome of Englishness, part of the restful home front that needed protecting.那些有关奥斯汀身体及其肖像的开篇章节让人难忘。奥斯汀的照片很少流传下来,在这数十年期间,奥斯汀的形象已经被油画书籍剧本电影重新想象。社会变迁,沧海桑田,她在文化中的地位和意义也随之改变。在维多利亚时代她的小说故事被加入了魔法元素;由于不再着迷于现代主义,他们将奥斯汀的小说同童话故事以及理想化的英国糅合起来。一战期间,士兵们带着她的书奔赴前线,其字里行间透漏出对战争危险和艰苦的理解,就像是在恶战中跟战友并肩作战。二战期间,奥斯汀被认为是英国人作风的缩影,是战争期间可供休憩的精神家园的一部分,需要好好保护。Both books are important. Ms Johnsons essays offer the er a fuller appreciation of Austen and her admirers, but it is Mr Mullans you should for an unforgettable lesson in one-upmanship over your fellow Janeites.两本书都是很重要的。约翰逊女士的文章给读者提供了奥斯汀及其仰慕者一个更加全面欣赏的机会,但是你该读一下穆兰先生的书,这本书比你的伙伴奥斯汀崇拜者更胜一筹,会成为你难忘的一课。201207/192646

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