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上海市闵行区中医医院美容整形科黄浦区人民医院做隆胸手术价格Science and technology科学技术Climate and the solar cycle气候与太阳周期Chilling out in the winter sun冬日下的冷噤Stratospheric changes can lead to nasty cold snaps平流层变化引起讨厌的严寒THOSE unconvinced—and those seeking to unconvince others—of the reality of man-made global warming often point to the changeable behaviour of the sun as an alternative hypothesis.那些自己不信和那些游说他人不要相信人类活动导致全球变暖的人,常常将其归咎于太阳活动多变。A new study showing how the severity of winters in Europe, and warming in the Arctic, might be linked to changes in solar activity might seem to add to this case.一项新的研究似乎为此提供了新据:该研究显示欧洲冬日的严寒以及北极地区的温暖也许真与太阳活动有关。In itself, it does not, for the heat in question is being redistributed, not retained.就研究本身而言,它并不能提供新的据,因为所提到的热能是被重新分配而不是滞留固定的。But it does point to two other lessons about climate change:但它的确指出了关于气候变化的另外两个问题:that hard data on the factors which affect it are sometimes difficult to come by;一是有时候很难获得影响气候变化的因素的切实数据;and that computer models of the climate can be quite impressive tools for working out what is going on.二是计算机气候模型在探究气候现象方面是十分强大的工具。The suns activity waxes and wanes on an 11-year cycle, and over this cycle the amount of ultraviolet light the sun emits changes a lot more than does the total amount of energy.太阳活动的盛衰以11年为一个周期,在一个周期内,太阳放射的紫外线的变化幅度要比其放射的能量的变化幅度要大得多。The stratosphere, the part of the Earths atmosphere which does most to absorb UV, might thus be expected to particularly sensitive to the cycle.因此,地球大气中吸收最多紫外线的平流层也许对这一周期变化最为敏感。In a paper just published in Nature Geoscience,《自然地球科学》杂志刚刚发表的一篇论文上,Sarah Ineson of Britains Meteorological Office and her colleagues compared the way that the Met Offices new and putatively improved climate model dealt with winters at times of high UV and at times of low UV, using data on the amount of ultraviolet the sun gives off that were collected by a satellite called SORCE.英国气象局的莎拉?伊内森和她的同事们利用SORCE卫星收集的太阳放射的紫外线数据,对比了气象局新建立的改良版气候模型对于紫外线峰值年与低谷年的冬天的处理方式。Dr Ineson found that at low UV levels the stratosphere in the tropics was cooler,伊内森士发现,热带平流层在紫外线低谷年的温度偏低,because there was less UV for it to absorb, which meant the difference in temperature between the tropical stratosphere and the polar stratosphere shrank.因为可吸收的紫外线较少,这就使得热带平流层与极地平流层的温差缩小。That changed the way the atmosphere circulated, and as those changes sp down into the lower atmosphere they made it easier for cold surface air from the Arctic to come south in winter, freezing chunks of northern Europe.这一温差变化会改变大气循环的方式,而低层大气循环方式的改变让冬天北极冷空气更易南下,冰冻北欧大片地区。These conditions looked similar to those seen in the past two cold European winters—which occurred at a time of low solar activity.这些状况与欧洲上两次均发生在太阳活动沉静期的严酷寒冬的状况十分相似。The Arctic itself, in models and in real life, was warmer than usual, as were parts of Canada.这种状况下,无论在气候模型中还是现实中,北极和加拿大部分地区都比平常要温暖。In contrast, northern Europe, swathes of Russia and bits of America were colder.相比之下,北欧、俄罗斯大部分地区以及美国小部分地区则比平常要冷。Why had this solar effect not been seen before?为何太阳在这方面的影响之前未被发现?To some extent it had. Earlier modelling of a period of prolonged low solar activity in the 17th and 18th centuries showed similar patterns.某种程度上说,的确有前人初见其端倪。早前一个的反映十七、十八世纪偏长的太阳活动低迷期的模型显示了类似的气候变化模式。That models of todays climate had not was, in part,今日的模型未能发现这一影响的部分原因是,because they used much lower estimates of the amount of UV variation over the solar cycle than those derived from the SORCE data, the most precise to be taken from a satellite looking at the sun.与SORCE卫星收集的最精确数据所计算衍生的数值相比,这些模型对太阳活动周期内紫外线值的变化幅度估计过低。It may just be that working with more realistic data made the model work better.也许就是更切实的数据让这些模型做得更好。This does not mean the question is settled.但问题并没有解决。Some scientists suspect the SORCE data may be exaggerating the suns variability, and if they were revised the link might go away.有些科学家认为SORCE卫星的数据有夸大太阳活动变化幅度的嫌疑,如果将数据加以修正,那么太阳活动与气候的所谓联系很可能也不复存在。There are other theories around seeking to explain the recent cold winters, too.还有其他一些理论也致力于找出近期严酷寒冬发生的原因。Improving predictions of future cold winters on the basis of this work, as the researchers say they would like to do, may thus prove hard.如研究人员所说,基于这项工作的成果,他们就有可能对寒冬做出更精准的预测。But though global warming has made people look to models as predictors of the future, that is not their strongest suit.尽管全球变暖使人们将气候模型视为预测工具,但这可不是它们最强大的地方。Something they can do much better is look at what happens when a variable such as UV is altered,它们更精于研究当紫外线等某一变量变化时发生的情况,compare that with the data, and thus gain insight into the mechanisms by which climate works.并将其与已有数据进行比较,从而了解气候运作机制。This new research provides a good example of what such an approach can achieve.此项新研究很好地给我们展现了这一方法的潜能。 /201305/242230上海复旦大学附属浦东医院点痣多少钱 Science and technology科学技术Marine ecology海洋生态Welcome to the plastisphere欢迎来到塑料星球What is pollution to some is opportunity to others对一些人意味着污染对另一些人却意味着是机会SINCE 2008 geologists have been mulling over the idea of the Anthropocene, a proposed new epoch in the history of the Earth that would encompass the years in which people have had profound effects on the planets workings.自2008年以来,地质学家一直在研究人类纪这一理念,人类纪是在地球历史上提出的新纪元,其囊括了人们深刻地影响地球的运作的年代。Most often, discussion of the Anthropocene revolves around how atmospheric chemistry has changed since the beginning of the industrial revolution.大多数时候,人类纪的讨论大多是围绕着从工业革命开始大气化学有何种变化进行的。Sometimes the effects of new terrestrial ecosystems, in the form of fields, pastures and plantations, are also considered.有时新型陆地系统所产生的影响也考虑在内。To date, though, how the Anthropocene has created new ecosystems in the oceans as well as on land has not been much examined.到目前为止,然而人类纪是如何创造新型海洋及陆地生态系统并未做过多的研究。Such ecosystems are, nevertheless, emerging—as Tracy Mincer of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,不过这样的生态系统在《环境科技》杂志中有所描述,in Massachusetts, and Linda Amaral-Zettler of the Marine Biological Laboratory, also in Woods Hole, describe in Environmental Science and Technology.是由马萨诸塞州伍兹霍尔海洋学研究所的特蕾西·明瑟以及伍兹霍尔海洋学研究所海洋生物研究室的琳达阿玛拉尔-特勒联合提出的。The malign effect of floating plastic debris on seabirds, turtles and other sea creatures is well known.众所周知,漂浮的塑料碎片对海鸟海龟以及其他海洋生物有负面影响。But, as Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler have discovered, plastic debris also provides a new habitat for organisms small enough to take advantage of it.但是,正如明瑟及阿玛拉尔-特勒两位士已经发现的一样,塑料碎片还给有机体提供了一个小型足以充分利用全新的栖息地。The two researchers collected pieces of plastic from various sites in the North Atlantic.两位研究员从北大西洋的不同地点收集塑料碎片。They then examined each using DNA analysis, and also an electron microscope, to see what was living on it.他们然后用DNA分析仪、电子显微镜检测每一个,观测其上生活着何种生物。Lots of things were.有很多生物。Altogether, they discovered about 50 species of single-celled plant, animal and bacterial life.总之,他们发现约50种单细胞植物、动物和细菌的踪迹。Each bit of debris was, in effect, a tiny ecosystem.确切地说,每块碎片是一个小型的生态系统。As with many ecosystems, the bottom of the food chain was occupied by things that photosynthesise.正如诸多生态系统一样,食物链的底层被光合作用的生物占据着。These included unicellular algae called diatoms and dinoflagellates, and photosynthetic bacteria known as cyanobacteria.这些包括名为硅藻和甲藻的单细胞藻类和蓝藻的光合细菌。Usually, such creatures swim freely in the ocean.通常,这些生物在海洋里自由自在地游荡。They therefore have to work hard to stay near the surface, where light for photosynthesis is abundant.因此他们必须努力保持在表层水域,因为那里的进行光进行光合所需的阳光是充裕的。By hitching a ride on a piece of floating plastic, they can stay near the surface without effort.通过搭乘漂浮塑料这一顺风车,他们可以毫不费力地呆在表层。Where plants abound, herbivores will not be far behind.植物比比皆是的地方食草动物的出现也不会落后。These, Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler found in the form of dinoflagellates,some of which like to snack on smaller creatures to supplement their photosynthesis.明瑟及阿玛拉尔-特勒两位士以甲藻的形式发现了食草动物的存在,一些甲藻喜欢吃小型生物作为他们光合作用的补充。They also found predators on the herbivores, in the form of ciliates and predator bacteria, which feed on other bacteria.他们还发现食草动物的捕食者,如纤毛虫以及以其他细菌为食的捕食细菌。Except for top predators—the type that themselves prey on predators—the two researchers thus discovered a classic web of food chains of the sort familiar from ecology text books.除了顶级捕食者外,两位研究人员发现了一个与生态学课本上相似的经典的食物网。And they also, and perhaps most pertinently from the human point of view, found evidence for one other part of such a food web: the decomposers.或许从人类的观点来看最为适切的他们还发现了食物网的另一部分:分解者。Plastics are energy-rich substances, which is why many of them burn so ily.塑料是能源丰富的物质,这就是为什么他们中的许多容易燃烧的原因。Any organism that could unlock and use that energy would do well in the Anthropocene.任何可以分解和使用那些能源的生物在人类纪将会取得先机。Terrestrial bacteria and fungi which can manage this trick are aly familiar to experts in the field.掌握这种技能的陆地上的细菌及真菌是这个领域的专家。Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler found evidence of them on their marine plastic, too.明瑟及阿玛拉尔-特勒两位士在海洋塑料上也发现了它们的踪迹。They noticed many of their pieces of debris sported surface pits around two microns across.他们发现很多塑料碎片的运动表面周围有大约两微米的凹坑。Such pits are about the size of a bacterial cell. Closer examination showed that some of these pits did, indeed, contain bacteria,凹坑与细菌一般大小。进一步的研究显示这些凹坑中的一部分确实含有细菌,and that in several cases these bacteria were dividing and thus, by the perverse arithmetic of biological terminology, multiplying.在部分状况下细菌正在分裂,因此根据生物学的反常计算其数量正在递增。Though the two researchers have not yet proved the bugs in the pits are actually eating the plastic, that hypothesis seems a good bet.尽管两位研究员至今未找到凹坑中的细菌是以塑料为食的据,那个假说就好像是一场。And if they are, it suggests plastic pollution in the ocean may not hang around as long as has often been feared.如果假说是正确的,这就意味着海洋塑料污染可能不如担心的那么持久。Less encouragingly, Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler also found cholera-like bacteria in their tiny floating ecosystems.令人扫兴的是,明瑟及阿玛拉尔-特勒两位士在漂浮的小型生态系统中发现了类似于霍乱的细菌。Both fish and seabirds act as vectors for cholera,so anywhere that such creatures might pick up cholera bugs is something worth keeping an eye on.鱼类或者是海鸟都充当着霍乱病菌的载体,所以任何使这些生物可能携带霍乱病菌的地区都值得密切关注。The researchers paint an intriguing picture of the adaptability of nature, and provide another piece of the jigsaw that is the Anthropocene.研究者就大自然的适应性描绘了一幅耐人寻味的画面,并提供了人类纪的另一块拼图。Conservationists intent on preserving charismatic megafauna have reason to lament the sp of plastics through the ocean.致力于保护引人好奇的大型动物的环保人士有理由担心海洋塑料污染的蔓延。But those interested in smaller critters have been given a whole, new sphere—the plastisphere—to study.但是却给了那些对小型生物感兴趣的环保人士一个全新的视角——塑料星球。 /201308/253468上海市开韩式双眼皮多少钱

上海黄浦区第九人民医院隆鼻多少钱18th-century courtship18世纪的“窈窕淑女,君子好逑”An inept Pygmalion笨手笨脚的“皮格马利翁”A darkly amusing tale about the struggle to create the perfect wife让人苦笑的故事:努力为自己打造一个完美妻子How to Create the Perfect Wife. By Wendy Moore.《如何打造完美妻子》。作者:温蒂·尔。WENDY MOORE, a British historian, is developing a nice line in non-fiction 18th-century marital horror stories. “Wedlock”, her previous book, followed the misfortunes of a certain countess at the hands of her abusive husband, who gets his comeuppance to the cheers of every er. Now, in “How to Create the Perfect Wife”, the man in question is not so obviously a villain and the woman never actually becomes his wife. But he certainly comes close, and she escapes by the skin of her teeth.英国历史家温蒂·尔以十八世纪的婚姻故事为蓝本,写了一系列优秀的悲情纪实小说。她之前的小说《婚姻》,讲述的是某位公爵夫人受丈夫虐待折磨的悲惨人生。后来她丈夫得到了应有的报应,让每位读者都拍手称快。现在轮到了《如何打造完美妻子》,这位男主身上的恶人品性不是那么明显,事实上女主也没成为他的妻子。但他肯定和恶人差不多了,而她也差点儿陷入虎口。Though less ripping than “Wedlock”, this story is told with gusto. At its centre is Thomas Day, a complex man. Heir to a large fortune, he abhorred fashionable society, denied himself every luxury and gave to the poor. He belonged to a group in Lichfield known as the “Lunar Men”, who believed in political reform and the rights of man. An early abolitionist, in 1773 he wrote a poem with his friend John Bicknell called “The Dying Negro”, which caused an anti-slavery sensation. Day was socially inept and uncouth, his hair unkempt, but he was generally admired for his honesty and idealism.尽管没有《婚姻》那么精,但人们却可以从故事的字里行间中感受到作者写作时的热情。故事的中心是一个性格复杂的人—托马斯·戴。虽然继承了一大笔遗产,但他憎恶上流社会,拒绝任何奢侈享受,还把钱财施舍给了穷人。他加入了利奇菲尔德一个叫“月球人”的组织。该组织持政治改革、信仰人权。作为一名早期废奴主义者,他在1773年和朋友约翰·比克内尔写了首诗,名为“即将消亡的黑人奴隶”,因此引发了一场反奴隶制的轰动。虽然在社交场合戴总是笨手笨脚、不懂礼数,头发也是乱蓬蓬的,但他却因刚正不阿、乐观理想受到众人的敬重。Apart from the bad hair, whats not to like? Alas, Day had a problem with women. He courted them, got engaged, but they all balked at the altar, unable to stomach his fierce virtue. Like his favourite philosopher, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, he blamed society for corrupting mans innate goodness. What Day needed was someone young and unformed, a Galatea to his Pygmalion. With Bicknell he hatched a scheme to solve his problems. They went to an orphanage, pretended to need a girl apprentice, picked out the prettiest and made off with her. Then they did it again at another orphanage.除了糟糕的头发,还有什么理由不喜欢他呢?唉,他不太懂得如何与女人相处。他追求过几个,也订了婚,但一到神坛上她们就都退缩了,因为无法忍受他强烈的操守观。就像他最喜欢的哲学家让·雅克·卢梭一样,戴怨社会侵蚀了人善良的天性。戴需要的是一个未定型的年轻女性—他这位“皮革马利翁”的“伽拉特亚”。在比克内尔的帮助下,他想出了一个解决自己问题的方案。他们去了一家孤儿院,假装是要收留一个女孩儿当学徒。两人选了最漂亮的一个,带着她跑了。然后他们在另一家孤儿院又故伎重演。Ann and Dorcas, aged 12 and 11, became Sabrina and Lucretia and began, without realising it, an educational programme designed to fit them for the role of Mrs Day. Unfortunately the programme involved some violence, as Rousseau believed in teaching fearlessness by way of pain and terror. Having chosen Sabrina once the girls hit puberty, Day worked to toughen her up by dripping sealing wax on her skin, standing her up to her neck in a lake and shooting bullets at her skirts.12岁的安和11岁的多尔卡斯分别改名为萨布丽娜和卢克缇娜,开始接受教育培训。但她们没意识到,这是为了日后能扮演好“戴夫人”这个角色而为之设计的。不幸的是,教育培训涉及一些暴力元素,这正是卢梭信仰的一套,通过肉体的疼痛和精神上的恫吓来传授无畏之道。两个女孩儿到了青春期后,他选了萨布丽娜做未来的“戴夫人”。戴努力“训练”她:在她的皮肤上滴密封用的蜡油,让她站在齐脖深的湖水中,向她的裙子开。The whole experiment failed. Each girl rebelled. Lucretia married a draper and Sabrina married Bicknell.整场实验失败了。两个女孩儿都反抗了。卢克缇娜嫁给了一个布商,萨布丽娜嫁给了比克内尔。The story does not end there, but as far as Day is concerned, it has been told before. The real discovery here is Sabrina and her background. Some of the most fascinating parts of the book are about the foundling hospitals and orphanages of the period, and the unhappy mothers who gave up their babies to them. Ms Moore has combed the orphanages archives, the forms for each baby and seen the tokens left with them—a single earring, a piece of fabric, a playing card torn in half—in the hope of a future reunion. Sadly, stories of mothers rediscovering long-lost children were rare, the stuff of plays and novels.故事到这里并没有结束,但就戴而言,他的结局之前已经提到了。此时真正浮出水面的却是萨布丽娜和她的身世。本书最精的一部分是关于育婴堂的剧情,以及那些伤心的母亲把孩子丢在这儿的描述。尔女士翻遍了孤儿院的档案记录,看了每个孤儿的资料以及家人留给他们的纪念物—一个耳环,一块布,一个撕成两半的纸牌。令人悲伤的是,母亲找回失散多年孩子的故事少之又少,而且往往只出现在戏剧和小说里。 /201405/300571上海哪所医院眼睛开双比较好 Why refrigerators hum,on toays moment of science.今天的科学一刻我们要探讨冰箱会发出声音的原因。On the recent program we have discussed how fluorocarbon coolant cools your food by coming to a boil in coils hidden in your fridge.在最近的节目中我们讨论了碳氟化合物冷却剂是如何通过在冰箱内置的盘管中达到沸腾状态来冷却食物的。How is this possible?这是如何实现的?When you boil water on the stove, you supply heat energy by turning on the burner.在炉子上烧水的时候,你会打开燃灶来提供热量。In your fridge, liquid coolant boils at very chilly temperatures, but it still requires heat energy.而在你的冰箱内部,虽然液态冷却剂是在很低的温度下沸腾,但它仍然会需要热能。The coolant absorbs this heat energy from the air inside the fridge.冷却剂吸收的热能来自于冰箱内的空气。By the time all the coolant has boiled and evaporated into gas, the fridge has reached Arctic temperatures.当冷却剂沸腾并蒸发为气体后,冰箱内的温度就接近北极地区了。What happens when the temperature starts to rise again?当温度重新上升的时候会发生什么?In order to repeat this chilling performance, the gas coolant has to release heat energy and change back to liquid state.为了重复前面的降温过程,气态的冷凝剂必须释放热能并转化为液态。To release heat, the coolant is forced into a second set of coils outside the fridge, in back.而为了释放热能,冷却剂需要被排到冰箱后部裸露在外的螺旋管内。Sometimes these coils feel pretty warm.有时候,这些螺旋管摸起来会感觉相当热。How does the gas coolant that just chilled your fridge make the coils warm?这些刚才还用来降温的气态冷却剂,现在为何却能使管道发热了呢?The secrets in the refrigerators hum.秘密就在于冰箱的发出的声音。That humming is a pump that compresses and warms thegas while forcing it into the coils.这种嗡嗡声来自于用来把冷却剂压缩到外部螺旋管并使它发热的一个压缩泵。Its like pumping up a bicycle tire; the tire feels warm because youve compressed the air inside.就像给自行车胎打气一样,轮胎摸起来会有点热,因为你把空气压缩进去了。Through compression, the gas coolant in the coils has become warmer than room temperature and can now release its heat energy to the air.通过压缩,螺旋管内气态冷却剂的温度变得比室温更高,这样便可能把热量释放到空气中。As it releases heat, the gas cools and condenses back to liquid state.在气体释放热量物同时,它会重新变回液体状态。So when your fridge hums, its releasing heat energy and changing fluorocarbon back to liquid state.当你的冰箱嗡嗡响时,它是在向外释放热量并把碳氟化合物冷却剂重新转为液态。Then it can cool your food by coming to a boil once more.这样它就可以再一次通过沸腾给你的食物降温了。201404/288203青浦区丰额头多少钱

奉贤区奉城医院减肥瘦身价格费用 A bigger can?一个更大的罐头?By the end of 2010, Dr Potti had resigned from Duke,到2010年底,Potti士已经从杜克大学辞职,the university had stopped the three trials for good,学校永久停止了那三项临床试验,scientists from elsewhere had claimed that Dr Potti had stolen their data for inclusion in his paper in the New England Journal,另有科学家称Potti士在其在新英格兰杂志发表的文章中窃取了他们的数据,and officials at Duke had started the process of retracting three prominent papers, including the one in Nature Medicine.杜克大学方面也开始撤回他那三篇出名的文章,《自然-医学》的那篇也包括在内。At this point, the NCI and officials at Duke asked the Institute of Medicine, a board of experts that advises the American government, to investigate.到了这时候,国家癌症研究所和杜克大学都请求负责向美国政府提出建议的美国医学协会对此事进行调查。Since then, a committee of the institute, appointed for the task, has been trying to find out what was happening at Duke that allowed the problems to continue undetected for so long,之后,协会的一个专为此事成立的委员会就一直在努力查清是什么使得杜克大学长时间对问题不管不问,and to recommend minimum standards that must be met before this sort of work can be used to guide clinical trials in the future.并建议在今后碰到此类可供指导临床试验的研究时,需要其达到一个最低标准。At the committees first meeting, in December 2010, Dr McShane stunned observers by revealing her previously unpublished investigation of the Duke work.在2010年12月举行的该委员会的第一次会议上,McShane士披露了此前未发表的她关于杜克大学事件的调查,Subsequently, the committees members interviewed Dr Baggerly about the problems he had encountered trying to sort the data.这些材料震撼了在场的学者。结果,委员会的成员询问了Baggerly士关于他在尝试整理那些数据时遇到的问题。He noted that in addition to a lack of unfettered access to the computer code and consistent raw data on which the work was based,他指出,那些急于出版Potti士的论文的杂志不仅没有获得研究结果所涉及的计算机程序代码和可信的原始数据,journals that had ily published Dr Pottis papers were reluctant to publish his letters critical of the work.甚至还不情愿刊登他对于该成果质疑的文章。Nature Medicine published one letter, with a rebuttal from the team at Duke, but rejected further comments when problems continued.《自然-医学》杂志刊登了一篇文章,并附上了来自杜克大学研究组的辩驳,可是当问题继续存在时就拒绝了进一步的。Other journals that had carried subsequent high-profile papers from Dr Potti behaved in similar ways.其他刊载了来自Potti士的高曝光文章的杂志也采取了相似的态度。Eventually, the two researchers resorted to publishing their criticisms in a statistical journal, which would be unlikely to reach the same audience as a medical journal.最后,两位研究员只好把他们的文章发到了一个统计杂志,这就很难被医学杂志的读者群看到了。Two s ubsequent sessions of the committee have included Dukes point of view.委员会接下来的两次会议都包含了杜克方面的观点。At one of these, in March 2011, Dr Nevins admitted that some of the data in the papers had been “corrupted”.在2011年3月的一次会议中,Nevins士承认文章中的一些数据被“玷污”了。He continued, though, to claim ignorance of the problems identified by Dr Baggerly and Dr Coombes until the Rhodes scandal broke,但他声称直到Rhodes丑闻被揭发才得知Baggerly士和Coombes士指出的问题,and to support the overall methods used in the papers—though he could not explain why he had not detected the problems even when alerted to anomalies.而且虽然他没法解释为什么他没能在被指出异常时发现问题,但是他仍然在总体上持文章中采用的方法。At its fourth, and most recent meeting, on August 22nd, the committee questioned eight scientists and administrators from Duke.在第四次,也就是在8月22号举行的最近一次会议上,委员会质问了8位科学家和杜克大学的管理人员。Rob Califf, a vice-chancellor in charge of clinical research, asserted that what had happened was a case of the “Swiss-cheese effect” in which 15 different things had to go awry to let the problems slip through unheeded.Rob Califf, 一位负责临床研究的的副校长,称该事件是一个“瑞士奶酪效应”的例子,它需要15件不同的事都出了错才有可能让问题不被察觉。Asked by The Economist to comment on what was happening,当被《经济学人》的记者问到他关于这件事的评价时,he said, “As we evaluated the issues, we had the chance to review our systems and we believe we have identified, and are implementing, an improved approach.”他说“对这些问题的评估,使得我们有机会重新审视我们的体系,而且我们相信我们已经确认并且在采取改进后的方式了。”The universitys lapses and errors included being slow to deal with potential financial conflicts of interest declared by Dr Potti,校方的过失和错误包括在处理潜在利益冲突时反应迟缓。Dr Nevins and other investigators, including involvement in Expression Analysis Inc and CancerGuide DX, two firms to which the university also had ties.这些冲突方包括Potti士和Nevins士,其他的调查者,还有两家与大学有关系的公司Expression Analysis和CancerGuide DX。Moreover, Dr Califf and other senior administrators acknowledged that once questions arose about the work, they gave too much weight to Dr Nevins and his judgment.除此之外,Califf士和其他高级管理者承认,当出现有关于研究成果的质疑时,他们过分地看重了Nevins士和他的判断。That led them, for example, to withhold Dr Baggerlys criticisms from the external-review committee in .这导致了年他们把Baggerly士的挡在外部评审委员会之外。They also noted that the internal committees responsible for protecting patients and overseeing clinical trials lacked the expertise to review the complex, statistics-heavy methods and data produced by experiments involving gene expression.他们还提到了,负责保护病人和监督临床试验的内部委员会缺乏专业知识来评审由涉及基因表达的实验产生的复杂、侧重统计的方法和数据。That is a theme the investigating committee has heard repeatedly.这是一个调查委员会反复听到的说法。The process of peer review relies on the goodwill of workers in the field, who have jobs of their own and frequently cannot spend the time needed to check other peoples papers in a suitably thorough manner.同行审查制度依靠着内行人的善意,大家都有自己的工作,所以常常不能花足够的时间来对其他人的论文进行恰当细致的检查。Moreover, the methods sections of papers are supposed to provide enough information for others to replicate an experiment, but often do not.而且,文章的介绍实验方法的部分本应该为其他人提供重现实验结果所需的信息,但事实经常不是这样。Dodgy work will out eventually, as it is found not to fit in with other, more reliable discoveries.掺假的研究结果最终会被淘汰,因为它们不能与其他更加可靠的发现相兼容。But that all takes time and money.但是,这些都需要时间和金钱。The Institute of Medicine expects to complete its report, and its recommendations, in the middle of next year.美国医学协会计划在明年年中完成这个报告和相关的建议。In the meantime, more retractions are coming, according to Dr Califf.在此期间,据Califf士说将会有更多论文撤回。The results of a misconduct investigation are expected in the next few months and legal suits from patients who believe they were recruited into clinical trials under false pretences will probably follow.关于此次学术不端的的调查结果预计将在未来几个月内获得,而认为自己被欺诈进入临床试验的病人则可能会在之后提起诉讼。The whole thing, then, is a mess.整件事就是一团糟。Who will carry the can remains to be seen.谁将会承担责任目前还不清楚。But the episode does serve as a timely reminder of one thing that is sometimes forgotten.但是这一连串事件的确及时地提醒了我们一件常常被忽略的事实:Scientists are human, too.科学家也是人。 /201305/242083闵行区中医医院做去疤手术价格费用上海新华医院胎记多少钱

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