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2018年06月18日 23:30:06 | 作者:平安在线 | 来源:新华社
Aries’ key phrase: I Am!  白羊:我是!  Taurus’ key phrase: I have!  金牛:我有!How Bad Are iPods for Your Hearing?Hearing loss is more common than ever before. About 16% of American adults have an impaired ability to hear speech, and more than 30% of Americans over age 20 — an estimated 55 million people — have lost some high-frequency hearing, according to a new study published Monday in the Archives of Internal Medicine. The finding has got experts — and concerned parents — wondering anew: Does listening to loud music through headphones lead to long-term hearing loss? Brian Fligor, director of diagnostic audiology at Children's Hospital Boston, explains how much damage your headphone habit might cause — and how to mitigate your risk.在现在的社会,听力丧失越来越普遍了。《内科医学文献》周一发表的一份调查研究显示,约16%的美国成年人对日常对话的听力削弱了,近30%的20周岁以上的年轻人,人数大约在55,000,000,已经丧失了对部分高频率声音的听觉。这项发现重新引起了相关人士及专家的担心:长时间通过耳机听大音量的音乐是否会导致人的听力丧失?来自波士顿儿童医院的听力学诊断教授,Brian Fligor解释了耳机听音乐的习惯会给你造成多大的影响,以及如何减轻听力丧失的风险。Q: How much hearing loss does an iPod cause?A: It depends on the person, it depends on how long you're listening, and it depends on the level at which you're setting your iPod.Q:iPod在多大程度上导致了听力丧失?A:那取决于个人,取决于你每次听音乐多长时间,以及你在iPod上设置的音量水平。If you're using the earbuds that come with an iPod and you turn the volume up to about 90% of maximum and you listen a total of two hours a day, five days a week, our best estimates are that the people who have more sensitive ears will develop a rather significant degree of hearing loss — on the order of 40 decibels (dB). That means the quietest sounds audible are 40 dB loud. Now, this is high-pitched hearing loss, so a person can still hear sounds and understand most speech. The impact is going to be most clearly noted when the background-noise level goes up, when you have to focus on what someone is saying. Then it can really start to impair your ability to communicate.如果你戴着耳机听iPod,并且将音量设置在90%或以上,每天大约听2小时,一个礼拜有五天,天天如此,我们最好的估计是,谁拥有更敏感的耳朵,谁的听力丧失的程度就更大-以40分贝为准。这意味着最安静的时候, 你能听到40分贝的声音。这是一种对高声调的声音听力丧失,所以她/他仍可以听清楚并且明白大多数的日常对话。这种听力丧失的影响在背景噪音水平上升时表现的最明显,此时你不得不集中注意力才能听清楚某人的讲话。然后,它开始削弱你的社交能力。This would happen only after about 10 years or so or even more of listening to a personal audio device. One patient I had used his headphones instead of earplugs when he was on his construction job. He thought as long as he could hear his music over the sound of his saws, he was protecting his ears — because he liked the sound of his music but didn't like the sound of the construction noise. He had a good 50 dB to 55 dB of noise-induced hearing loss at 28 years old. We asked a few pointed questions about when he was having difficulty understanding people, and his response was classic. "When I'm sitting at home with the TV off, I can understand just fine," he said, "but when I go out for dinner, I have trouble."这种情况只会发生在用随身听听音乐10年或者10年以后。我曾经遇到过这样一个病人,他是建筑行业的,当他工作的时候总是戴着耳塞听音乐,他认为只要他听的是音乐声,而不是电锯的噪音,就可以保护他的耳朵——因为他喜欢的是音乐而不是建筑施工时的噪音。在28岁的时候,他已经因噪音诱发了50~55分贝的听力丧失。我们问了一些关键性的问题,关于他在与人交流过程中遇到的困难,他给了一个典型的回答,“当我坐在家里,电视机没有打开的情况下,我可以很好的明白人们的交谈。”他说道,“但是当我去赶赴宴会时,我就会有很大的麻烦。”There is huge variation in how people are affected by loud sound, however, and this is an area where a number of researchers are conducting studies. Certainly a huge part of this is underlying genetics. We know how much sound causes how much hearing loss based on studies that were conducted in the late '60s and early '70s, before employers were required to protect workers' hearing in noisy work environments. What was found is that when people are exposed to a certain level of noise every day for a certain duration, they're going to have a certain degree of hearing loss on average. But the amount of hearing loss might differ by as much as 30 dB between people who had the toughest ears and those with the most tender ones — a huge variation. Unfortunately, we don't know who has the tougher ears and who has the tender ones until after they've lost their hearing. So, as a clinician, I have to treat everyone as if they had tender ears.这巨大的变化体现了噪音对人的影响有多大,然而,同时这是一个许多研究者正在努力的方向。当然,这里有很大一部分是属于遗传学的。我们得知的多大程度的声音导致多大程度的听力丧失,是基于六十年代末和七十年代初,雇主尚未被要求在喧嚣的工作环境中保护工人的听力的情况下的研究。我们发现,当人们长期的暴露在某一特定噪音水平环境中,他们平均都会有一定程度的听力丧失。但是,人与人之间听力丧失的程度不同,那些耳朵比较强健的人与耳朵与较柔嫩的人相比,差异可达30分贝。不幸的是,我们直到那些人失去了听力,也还不知道他们谁的耳朵比较强健,谁的比较柔嫩。那么,作为一个临床医师,我必须认真地对待每个人,将他们的耳朵都当做是柔嫩的。 /200902/63068You've probably heard of hot yoga and power yoga, but now there's another form of the physical and mental activity that's gaining in popularity in India -- water yoga.  你可能听说过高温瑜伽和力量瑜伽,但现在有一种新的瑜伽在印度日渐流行,这就是水中瑜伽。  In the city of Agra, famed for the Taj Mahal, legions of locals perform their "asanas," or postures, in a pool, which makes them more challenging than on land, and also boosts buoyancy and flexibility.  在以泰姬陵而闻名的亚格拉城,很多当地人热衷在水池中做瑜伽,在水中做瑜伽比在陆地上做难度更大,但同时可以提高身体的浮力和灵活性。  Harish Chaturvedi, a trained lawyer, teaches the unusual form of yoga free of charge. He says water yoga can be performed for much longer than other forms, as the body does not get tired as quickly.  职业律师出身的哈里希#8226;查图尔维迪免费教授这种特别瑜伽。他说,相比于其它形式的瑜伽,在水中做瑜伽不会让身体很快感到疲劳,所以能坚持得更久。  "Everybody can learn swimming, but if they also learn yoga alongside it, they will never feel tired," he said. 他说:“每个人都能学习游泳,但如果他们在学游泳的同时学习瑜伽,那么永远也不会觉得累。”  "The level of oxygen is very high in water, and you will not have any breathing problems." “水中氧气含量很高,你不会有呼吸问题。”   Chaturvedi believes water yoga really boosts energy and helps ward off disease. He focuses on children, and runs regular classes at the swimming pool of a local sports stadium.  查图尔维迪认为水中瑜伽的确能提高体能,祛除疾病。他以孩子为主要教学对象,并在当地一家体育馆的游泳池定期授课。 /201109/152886It's no secret that men and women communicate differently--but is there really no way to translate Mars talk to Venus speak? Ready for a practice run? Here are five common communication problems in relationships.人人都知道男人和女人的表达方式不同——但真的没有办法让“金星”听懂“火星”的话吗?准备练习一下吗?这里有五种在伴侣关系中经常出现的交流问题。 /201006/105341

《新娘大作战》中在两位女主人公结婚的当天,其中一位女主人公的父母送给另一个女主人公一样东西,是一个蓝色的小花头饰,这个小头饰象征着两个女孩儿过去一起走过的日子。这其中,隐含了一个美国的婚礼习俗,“something old,something new, something borrowed, something blue”如果结婚当天,新娘身上穿戴有这样几样东西,他们的婚礼就一定会幸福无比。something old 某样东西是旧的,象征着新娘的家庭和过去:Many brides wear a piece of family jewelry as their old item. Some brides wear the wedding dress worn by their mother or grandmother.If the bride purchased her wedding dress new, it may represent her new item, but any item that is new may be used. Something "new" is usually the easiest category to fill.something borrowed 某样东西是借来的,通常是指要从已婚的幸福夫妇那里踩踩气、借借光(Their happiness will rub off on you and bring lasting happiness to your marriage.)新娘以后也会向他们一样持家。Some brides borrow an item of clothing, a piece of jewelry, a handkerchief or perhaps a beaded purse.  something blue 某样东西是蓝色的,表示纯洁纯真的爱情(purity, fidelity and love),就像圣母玛利亚一直穿着的蓝色长袍一样。Over time this has changed from wearing a blue dress to wearing just a blue band around the bottom of the bride's wedding dress to modern times where it is commonplace for the bride to wear a blue garter.silver sixpence 最后要在左鞋子里放六便士的银币,表明财富与幸运会源源不断地到来。 /201104/133848

It's my please to write this column about international students at an American business school, from the perspective of an American. Though Yale, and all other top schools, focus on granting a 'global' MBA experience, the style of instruction, the classroom environment, and the nuances of school culture are very much American. In speaking to my classmates who come from other countries, particularly China, it seems that three key pillars of the U.S. education experience actually come as a major culture shock: loud and often boisterous in-class discussion; the reliance on teamwork to complete tasks; and the unofficial importance of socializing to build a network within the class. For someone who has grown up in the American school system, conforming to these three attributes happens almost subconsciously, and thinking that others may find them surprising or difficult to tackle reveals the unintended limits of my own world view. Let's take each one in turn.我很荣幸能有机会从一个美国人的角度来谈谈我们身边的国际同学。与其他众多顶级商学院一样,耶鲁管院一直强调打造“全球化”MBA项目,但是我不得不承认,其教学风格、课堂氛围到校园文化的诸多细节却非常“美国化”。在平日里与国际学生尤其是中国同学的交流中,我发现他们面临的文化冲击主要来自三个方面:“过分热闹”的课堂教学风格、团队合作的学习方式以及极为重要又略显微妙的同学间社交关系网络。对于我们这些在美国土生土长的学生,校园文化一脉相承,商学院无非是强度略有加大而已,所以这种过渡在不经意间就自然完成了。坦白地说,我从不曾想到这些在我们看来再平常不过的事情,对远道而来的国际同学会是此等挑战。下面我们就来一一讨论。 /201005/103978

Women may be better at sniffing out biologically relevant information from underarm sweat, a US study suggests.美国一项研究显示,女性通过腋下气味识别生物性相关信息的能力很可能更强。Researchers found it was difficult to mask underarm odour when a woman was doing thesmelling, but quite easy to do so when it was a man.研究人员发现,用其它气味来蒙蔽女性对腋下气味的识别是比较困难的。相比之下,男性则更好蒙骗。They speculate that a woman's highly attuned smell radar might help her select a mate.研究人员由此猜测,女性敏锐的嗅觉可能有助于她们选择适合自己的伴侣。The study, by Philadelphia's Monell Center, appears in Flavour and Fragrance Journal.由费城蒙尼奥研究中心组织的这项研究成果已经在《香料与香味杂志》上发表。 In the study, women and men rated the strength of underarm odours, both alone and in conjunction with various fragrances.参与试验的女性和男性分别用鼻子去闻两组腋下气味,一组是独立的腋下气味,另一组是腋下气味与其它多种香味混合而成的气味。The fragrances were selected to test their ability to block underarm odour through a method known as olfactory cross-adaptation.研究人员利用嗅觉交叉适应的方法来测试他们辨别腋下气味的能力。This occurs when the nose adapts to one odour, and then also becomes less sensitive to a second odour.采用这种测试方法是因为一旦鼻子对第一种气味适应之后,它对第二种气味的判断灵敏度就减弱了。 Sniffed alone, the underarm odours smelled equally strong to men and women.当男女在闻独立腋下气味的时候,男女的辨别能力旗鼓相当。 But when fragrance was introduced, only two of 32 scents successfully blocked underarm odour when women were doing the smelling.但是当腋下气味中混合了其它香味的时候,32种气味中只有两种腋下混合气味让女性无法成功识别。 /200904/67511

Thirsty? You might want to consider a steaming cup of tea. In a survey of existing research published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, the authors report that not only does tea rehydrate and quench your thirst as well as water does, it comes with additional health benefits too.   口渴吗?或许你该考虑沏壶茶,根据一片发布在欧洲权威医学杂志的文章称,茶水除了和白开水一样能解渴,同时还富含有有益健康的元素与物质。   “Drinking tea is actually better for you than drinking water,” Dr. Carrie Ruxton, a nutritionist and the lead author of the study told the B. “Water is essentially replacing fluid. Tea replaces fluids and contains antioxidants so it's got two things going for it.”   文章作者凯莉-鲁克斯顿士告诉英国广播电台,“茶水不仅补充了因体液消耗流失的水分,其中所含有的抗氧化剂也一道被人体吸收,可以说是一举两得。”   Those antioxidants — specifically flavanoids — can reduce damage done to cells through everyday living, so researchers believe these same compounds may help to ward off heart attacks and some types of cancer.   茶叶中所具有抗氧化剂,特别是类黄酮这种元素,它有助于减少日常生活中对于细胞所造成的伤害,因此研究人员认为饮茶有利于减少心血管方面疾病发生的几率,同时还能提高对于某些癌症的抵抗力。   They found clear evidence that drinking three to four cups of tea a day can cut the chances of having a heart attack. Some studies suggested tea consumption protected against cancer, although this effect was less clear- cut.   科学家们倡导,每日饮上四杯茶,这样,罹患心脏病的风险将大大减少。另外有研究显示,茶有一定得抗癌性。 /201101/124230

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