福州市输卵管复通术三甲医院问医频道

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年06月18日 05:37:04
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Business;Face value;商业;商界人物;BRAC in businessBRAC的商业一面Fazle Hasan Abed has built one of the worlds most commercially-minded and successful NGOs;法佐·哈桑·阿比德建立了世界上最具商业头脑的、最成功的NGO组织;Smiling and dapper, Fazle Hasan Abed hardly seems like a revolutionary. A Bangladeshi educated in Britain, an admirer of Shakespeare and Joyce, and a former accountant at Shell, he is the son of a distinguished family: his maternal grandfather was a minister in the colonial government of Bengal; a great-uncle was the first Bengali to serve in the governor of Bengals executive council. This week he received a very traditional distinction of his own: a knighthood. Yet the organisation he founded, and for which his knighthood is a gong of respect, has probably done more than any single body to upend the traditions of misery and poverty in Bangladesh. Called BRAC, it is by most measures the largest, fastest-growing non-governmental organisation (NGO) in the world—and one of the most businesslike.面带微笑、衣冠楚楚的法佐·哈桑·阿比德怎么看也不像是一个革命者。这个在英国受的教育的孟加拉人是莎士比亚和乔伊斯的粉丝,曾在壳牌公司作过会计,家族显赫:外祖父是孟加拉殖民政府的一位部长;一位叔祖父是第一个为孟加拉行政会议长官做事的孟加拉人。本周,阿比德得到了加在自己头上的荣誉——一个很有传统的称号:爵士头衔。然而,他创建的这个组织——他被授予爵士头衔也是对这个组织的一种敬意——却颠覆了传统,改变了孟加拉一直以来的贫穷和困苦,而且在这方面作出的贡献可能比任何一个单一团体都要多。这个组织叫作BRAC(孟加拉国农村发展委员会),用绝大多数标准衡量都是世界上最大的、成长最迅速的非政府组织(NGO)——而且是最像企业的NGO之一。Although Mohammed Yunus won the Nobel peace prize in 2006 for helping the poor, his Grameen Bank was neither the first nor the largest microfinance lender in his native Bangladesh; BRAC was. Its microfinance operation disburses about billion a year. But this is only part of what it does: it is also an internet-service provider; it has a university; its primary schools educate 11% of Bangladeshs children. It runs feed mills, chicken farms, tea plantations and packaging factories. BRAC has shown that NGOs do not need to be small and that a little-known institution from a poor country can outgun famous Western charities. In a book on BRAC entitled “Freedom from Want”, Ian Smillie calls it “undoubtedly the largest and most variegated social experiment in the developing world. The sp of its work dwarfs any other private, government or non-profit enterprise in its impact on development.”虽然2006年获得诺贝尔和平奖的是穆罕默德·尤努斯,但是他的格莱珉既不是孟加拉第一家也不是最大一家小额贷款;包揽这两个第一的是BRAC。它的小额贷款业务每年要发放10亿美元的贷款。但是这仅仅是它的部分业务:它还是互联网务的供应商;它拥有一所大学;它办的小学解决了孟加拉11%孩子的受教育问题。它还经营饲料加工厂、养鸡场、茶叶种植场,还有包装厂。BRAC的成功表明NGO组织不一定要非常小,而且一个来自穷国、不为人知的机构可以干过西方著名的慈善机构。伊恩·斯迈利在他专门写BRAC的书《彻底走出饥饿》中将这称作“在发展中国家中无疑是最大规模且最为斑斓的社会实验。其社会工程的散播广度让其它任何私有的、政府的或是非盈利的企业都相形见拙,为社会发展带来的影响无人能及。None of this seemed likely in 1970, when Sir Fazle turned Shells offices in Chittagong into a refuge for victims of a deadly cyclone. BRAC—which started as an acronym, Bangladesh Rehabilitation Assistance Committee, and became a motto, “building resources across communities”—surmounted its early troubles by combining two things that rarely go together: running an NGO as a business and taking seriously the social context of poverty.但在1970年却看不出这些,当时的法佐把壳牌公司在吉大港的办公址变成了避难所,接纳在一次恐怖龙卷风中的受害者。BRAC——分别是“孟加拉,康复,援助,委员会”四个英文单词的首字母,并且演变成一句口号,“建立跨社区资源”——克了早期遇到的困难,办法是将两件很少能并置的东西结合到了一起:1.像做生意一样运作一个NGO;2.认真对待贫穷的社会环境。BRAC earns from its operations about 80% of the money it disburses to the poor (the remainder is aid, mostly from Western donors). It calls a halt to activities that require endless subsidies. At one point, it even tried financing itself from the tiny savings of the poor (ie, no aid at all), though this drastic form of self-help proved a step too far: hardly any lenders or borrowers put themselves forward. From the start, Sir Fazle insisted on brutal honesty about results. BRAC pays far more attention to research and “continuous learning” than do most NGOs. David Korten, author of “When Corporations Rule the World”, called it “as near to a pure example of a learning organisation as one is likely to find.”BRAC向穷人发放的钱款中有80%来自其自主经营(剩下的来自捐助,大多是西方的捐助者)。它会叫停那些无休止依赖捐助的项目,甚至还曾一度试着通过穷人的点滴存款来为自己融资(换种说法就是不依赖丁点捐助),尽管这种极端的自助形式后被明走的太远:几乎没有人主动来存钱或贷款。从一开始,法佐就坚持公开透明,对于经营业绩毫不隐瞒——即使是很坏的业绩。BRAC对于调研和“持续学习”的注重要远胜于大多NGO组织。《当企业统治世界》的作者大卫·科尔顿把BRAC称作“可能是能够找到的最为纯粹的学习型组织”。What makes BRAC unique is its combination of business methods with a particular view of poverty. Poverty is often regarded primarily as an economic problem which can be alleviated by sending money. Influenced by three “liberation thinkers” fashionable in the 1960s—Frantz Fanon, Paulo Freire and Ivan Illich—Sir Fazle recognised that poverty in Bangladeshi villages is also a result of rigid social stratification. In these circumstances, “community development” will help the rich more than the poor; to change the poverty, you have to change the society.BRAC之所以能够独树一帜,在于它的经营手法是与其看待贫穷的独特观点相结合的。贫穷在多数时候被首先看作是经济问题,可以通过发放金钱得到缓解。因为受到在1960年代很流行的三位“解放式的思想家”——弗朗兹·法农、保罗弗·莱雷和伊凡·伊里奇——的影响,法佐认识到孟加拉国农村的贫穷问题是源于严格的社会层级。在这样的环境下,“社区发展”对于富人的帮助要胜于对穷人的帮助;为了改变贫穷状态,你必须改变社会。That view might have pointed Sir Fazle towards left-wing politics. Instead, the revolutionary impetus was channelled through BRAC into development. Women became the institutions focus because they are bottom of the heap and most in need of help: 70% of the children in BRAC schools are girls. Microfinance encourages the poor to save but, unlike the Grameen Bank, BRAC also lends a lot to small companies. Tiny loans may improve the lot of an individual or family but are usually invested in traditional village enterprises, like owning a cow. Sir Fazles aim of social change requires not growth (in the sense of more of the same) but development (meaning new and different activities). Only businesses create jobs and new forms of productive enterprise.这样的观点本来可能会指引法佐走向左翼政治。而实际情况是,这种革命动力经BRAC的催化转换成了实实在在的发展。妇女成为了这个机构的主要关注对象,因为她们身处最底层,且最需要帮助:BRAC办的小学里70%是女生。小额贷款鼓励穷人存钱,但是和格莱珉不同之处在于,BRAC也把钱借给小公司。小额贷款可能会改变一个人或是一个家庭的命运,但是这些钱通常都被投资在传统的农村致富项目上,比如养牛。法佐改变社会的目标靠的不是增长(是指“同类项目越来越多”),而是发展(意思是“新的不同的生意”)。只有生意才能创造就业就会,才能产生新形式的、生产力强的企业。After 30 years in Bangladesh, BRAC has more or less perfected its way of doing things and is sping its wings round the developing world. It is aly the biggest NGO in Afghanistan, Tanzania and Uganda, overtaking British charities which have been in the latter countries for decades. Coming from a poor country—and a Muslim one, to boot—means it is less likely to be resented or called condescending. Its costs are lower, too: it does not buy large white SUVs or employ large white men.经过在孟加拉30年的发展,BRAC对于自己这套业务之道已多少达到完善,并且正在将触角伸向其它第三世界国家。它已经超过英国的慈善机构,成为阿富汗、坦桑尼亚、乌干达这几个国家中最大的NGO组织,而后者已经在这些国家经营了几十载。因为是来自穷国——还是一个穆斯林国家,这意味着BRAC不大可能遭人反感,或被形容为“居高临下的恩施”。它的花销也同样很低:没有大型的白色越野车,也没雇佣高大的白人。Its expansion overseas may, however, present BRAC with a new problem. Robert Kaplan, an American writer, says that NGOs fill the void between thousands of villages and a remote, often broken, government. BRAC does this triumphantly in Bangladesh—but it is a Bangladeshi organisation. Whether it can do the same elsewhere remains to be seen.然而,BRAC在海外的扩张面临着一个新问题。美国作家罗伯特·卡普兰说,NGO组织填补了一个遥远且经常失灵的政府和成千村庄之间的空白地带。BRAC在孟加拉胜利地做到了这一点——但是它是孟加拉的组织。它在其它地方也能这样吗?还有待结果告诉我们。 /201211/209989

I know you wont believe this, but I really did that.我知道你不会相信这个,但是我真的是那样做的。It took me 50, 53 minutes.我花了50,53分钟。Thats eight minutes more than Vincent.那是比文森特多的八分钟。And he used to do it twice a day, strolling to work, strolling back.而他过去常常一天做两次,漫步去工作,之后散步回来。He worked just there, at Goupils which is a noodle restaurant now.他就在那里工作, 现在那里是一家面馆。He used to selling prints and earning 90 pounds a year.他过去常常销售印刷品,而每年的年薪能够达到90英镑。Its actually a very good salary in those days about the average payment for a laborer.这在那些日子里大约对于平均付的劳动者来说实际上是一笔非常不错的薪水。The wandering minstrel, I我这个流浪的歌手。A thing of shreds一件事的碎片And patches和补丁Van Goghs favorite English writer was Dickens.梵高最喜欢的英国作家是狄更斯。He most of the novels, and then re them.他最常读的就是他的小说,然后重读它们。He was always ing Dickens in his letters, gobbling up Dickens sympathy for the London poor, all those blighted Oliver Twists scrounging in the streets.他总是在他的信中引用狄更斯,狄更斯同情伦敦贫民,所有的那些奥利弗在街上乞讨的波折。Dickens opened Vincents eyes to modern human misery.狄更斯为文森特打开了对于现代人类苦难的双眼。Dickens died in 1870, just before Vincent got here.狄更斯死于1870年,就在文森特到达这里前。注:听力文本来源于普特201207/189611

  

  Curators in other countries are alarmed at what they see as growing aggression. A leading museum director even described the campaign as “blackmail”. So what chance has Turkey of winning this new culture war?其他国家的馆长将这些日益增长的挑衅行为感到震惊。一个重要的物馆馆长甚至说这场运动是敲诈行为。如此一来土耳其会有什么样的机会来赢得这场文化战争呢?At the crossroads of the ancient world, drawing Roman armies from the west and Persian conquerors from the east, Turkey—especially the region of Anatolia—has long been a rich seam of knowledge and treasure from antiquity. In the 19th century teams of European scholars travelled there in search of archaeological remains. Among the most successful was a German unit led by Carl Humann. Armed with a firman, or Ottoman permit, and financed by a group of rich backers in Berlin, Humann and his team, in 1878, began excavating a site in Bergama, near the modern city of Izmir on the Aegean coast of western Turkey.处在古代世界的十字路口,土耳其吸引了西方的罗马军队和东方的波斯征者,土耳其,尤其是安那托利亚地区,长期以来被人们视为知识繁荣文物丰富的宝地。19世纪欧洲学者为了搜寻考古遗迹来到这里。其中最成功的要数卡尔·休曼领导的德国考古队。有了苏丹的敕令(奥斯曼帝国的许可),得到了大批柏林富翁的资助,休曼和他的同事从1878年开始挖掘在土耳其西部其爱琴海岸贝尔加马(现代城市伊兹密尔附近)的一处遗址。Humann’s most important discovery was the altar of Zeus, which dates from the second century . Its dramatic frieze depicting the battle between the giants and the Olympian gods makes it one of the most distinctive works from the classical world. With the sultan’s permission, the altar was sent to Germany and became the centrepiece of the Pergamon museum in Berlin. Meanwhile, German archaeologists continued to work on the site; today, the ancient city of Pergamon is the second oldest ongoing archaeological dig in the world. German excavations are still the most important of the foreign digs in Turkey, and for decades Turkish archaeologists have been educated in Berlin and other German cities, their studies subsidised by German government grants.休曼最重要的发现是公元前二世纪的宙斯祭坛。它的浮雕生动地描绘了巨人和奥林匹亚众神作战的情景,这座祭坛也因此跻身古代最杰出的艺术品行列。获得苏丹的允许后,祭坛被送到德国,成为柏林佩加蒙物馆的镇馆之宝。与此同时,考古学家在遗址上继续工作。今天佩加蒙古城是世界上第二个持续进行的考古发掘。现在,在土耳其的外国发掘中,德国独占鳌头,数十年来,土耳其考古学家在柏林和其他德国城市接受教育,他们的学习得到了德国政府拨款资助。Archaeological teams like Humann’s were soon followed by scholars from Britain and France, and into the 20th century from Italy, Japan and America. Some paid for their projects by selling a portion of their finds to Western collectors who were becoming increasingly enamoured of all things à la Turque. Others removed treasures they believed might be at risk from war and insurrection, and gave them to the new European museums. Foreign scholars saved a considerable number of Turkish artefacts from being commercially looted or destroyed by invading armies. This is rarely mentioned in Turkey’s discussions about its archaeological past.类似休曼考古队的行动很快被来自英国和法国的学者效仿,到了20世纪,意大利、日本和美国的学者也加入到这个行列。有人为了付工程款项就向西方收藏家出售了发掘到的部分物品,那些收藏家对土耳其所有的东西越发倾心。其他人因为害怕战争和动乱带来风险就转移了文物并把他们送到了欧洲物馆。他们的行动使文物免于被低价掠夺或者侵略军的毁坏。土耳其讨论过去的考古工作时,对这段历史几乎只字不提。The precise way in which objects were acquired has kept on changing. Some scholars had formal permission from the Ottoman authorities to take their treasures back to Europe; others were motivated by a wish to preserve and protect and did not bother with obtaining proper permissions or establishing a full and accurate provenance for an object. Looters robbed graves and helped themselves.取得文物的正确方法一直在变化。有些学者到得到奥斯曼帝国当局的正式批准后将文物带回欧洲。有的学者出于保存和保护文物的目的,没有费尽心机的征得适当的许可或者建立完整准确的文物档案。掠夺墓地的抢劫者只拿他们想要的东西。Use of force使用强力Western museums house tens of thousands of objects from Turkey. Most of these were given or acquired without full documentation. Though Turkey passed a law in 1884 (updated in 1906) stating that all antiquities were the property of the state and could not be taken out of the country, this was only loosely enforced.西方物馆里来自土耳其的文物成千上万。物馆获赠或获取的这些艺术品没有完整档案。虽然1884年土耳其通过一部法律(1906年更新)规定所有的文物属于国家财产并且不能带到国外,这部法律的约束力不大。201206/184935。

  

  Surprise at Stonehenge神奇的巨石阵Wizards and aliens aside, actual scientists don’t have much to say about Stonehenge. That is, until now. Just recently, a four-thousand-year old gravesite was found within three miles of Stonehenge. The tomb contained what some archaeologists think may be one of the original craftsmen. Even better than that, he isn’t British.除了巫师和外星人外,真正的科学家对于巨石阵并没有说明太多。到目前为止。就在最近,离巨石阵三公里以内的地方发现了一个有四千年历史的墓地。该墓可能是一些考古学家认为的最早的技工之一。甚至情况比那还要好,他不是英国人。The ancient bones are referred to as “the archer,” because, whoever he was, he was buried with several arrows. The fact that the grave is so close to the stones suggests that the archer was somehow connected to Stonehenge, as does the fact that he lived in 2300 , the same time when the monoliths were erected. Was he its founder, a designer, a priest? It isn’t clear. But the archer was an important person. Along with the arrows, he has copper knives, ornaments, and pottery. Several of these have been identified as coming from what archaeologists call “the Beaker Culture.”古老的骨骼暗示其为一名弓箭手,因为,不管他是谁,他的陪葬物品中有几箭。实际上,因为墓地离巨石阵很近,所以这位弓箭手与巨石阵有一定关系,又因为他生活在公元前2300年,也就是那时这些巨石被竖立起来的。他是巨石阵的建造者,设计者或神父吗?目前尚无定论。但是这位弓箭手无疑是一位非常重要的人。除了箭,他还有铜质小刀,装饰物和陶器。其中几件物品已经被确认为是考古学家称作的“烧杯文化”。There’s one of the surprises. The Beaker Culture had its Bronze-age heyday in the Alps, not in England. Researchers did chemical analysis of the remains and found that the archer most likely came from what is now Switzerland.有一个惊奇的发现。烧杯文化在青铜时代达鼎盛时期于阿尔卑斯山一带,而不是在英格兰。研究人员对这些遗留下来的物品做了化学和分析,发现弓箭手很有可能来自于现在的瑞士。Next surprise? Another grave was found nearby, this containing a younger man. This fellow grew up in England, but an unusual foot bone shows he’s related to the archer–the archer, it seems, came to England and raised a family.另一个惊喜呢?在附近发现了另外一个墓,是一位比较年轻的人的墓。他生活在英格兰,但他独特的足骨表明他与弓箭手有关系。这位弓箭手好像是来自英格兰的,并且是他养家糊口的。Who was this foreigner who was treated with such reverence? We won’t ever know for sure. His fame has disappeared into history. But the stone circle he may have built has never been forgotten, even four thousand years later.这位如此受尊敬的外国人是谁呢?我们永远都不能确定。他的名声也已经随历史消失。但是这些可能由他建造的巨石阵却永远不会被遗忘,即使是四千年以后。 /201301/222086

  Dear Annie: I have a pretty, petite 24-year-old daughter who is quite immature for her age. She still lives at home, occasionally helps around the house and attends the local community college. But she cant keep a job for long.亲爱的安妮:我有一个长相漂亮、身材娇小的女儿,她今年24岁,但显得很不成熟。她仍然跟我住一起,偶尔会帮忙收拾屋子,去当地一所社区大学上课。而且她每干一份工作都不会长久。People who know our daughter tell us how wonderful she is because she is not pregnant or doing drugs. But we feed her, clothe her, pay for her car, gas, etc. Lately, she has had boyfriend problems. How can we get her to grow up without being the bad guys?认识我女儿的人都夸她有多么棒,因为她既没有怀也不吸毒。但她依然靠我们养着,我们给她吃穿,买车,加油等等。最近,她又遇到男朋友的问题。我该如何帮她成长起来而又不伤害她呢?She does not know how to cook or take care of herself, so we are reluctant to simply throw her out. But we want her to do things other people her age do. Any advice? — Clueless in California她不知道该如何做饭、如何照顾自己,所以我们不愿意直接让她搬出去。但我们还是希望她能像同龄的孩子一样。请给些建议吧?——加州愚人Dear Clueless: If you are concerned that your daughter doesnt have sufficient life skills to manage on her own, then teach her. Put her in charge of cooking dinner one night a week. Tell her she will need a part-time job to pay for room and board. Then help her look for her own apartment. While she is in school, you may wish to subsidize her rent, but living independently will help her mature.亲爱的愚人:如果你担心你的女儿没有足够的生活技能来照顾好自己,那么就教她吧。让她每周负责一顿晚餐。告诉她她需要做兼职来付食宿费用。然后再帮她找自己的公寓。虽然她还在上学,你可能会给她租房补贴,但独立居住才能帮她成熟起来。原文译文属!201301/219554Business Bribery abroad A tale of two laws商业 海外贿赂 两部法律的故事Americas anti-corruption law deters foreign investment. Britains is smarter美国的反贪法吓阻了对外投资,英国的就精明了一些BRIBING foreign officials is wrong, but not everything governments do to prevent it is wise or proportional. Firms are increasingly fed up with the way Americas Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) is written (confusingly) and applied (vigorously). The law was passed in 1977, but recent years have seen a spike in enforcement, from five actions in 2004 to 74 in 2010. Five of the ten biggest settlements ever were last year, including a 0m fine against BAE Systems, a British defence contractor, and a 5m fine against ENI, an Italian oil firm.贿赂外国官员是不对的,但不是所有为了防止此类事件的政府行为都是明智和恰当的。许多企业都越来越不能忍受美国《反海外腐败法》(FCPA)其令人困惑的表述和不知疲倦的运用了。该法案于1977年通过,可是近几年实施的频率创下了新高,从2004年的5起到2010年的74起。最大的10起已解决案例中5起都发生在去年,包括对英国BAE系统公司(一个英国国防承包商)的4亿美元罚款和对埃尼石油公司(ENI,一家意大利石油企业)的3.65亿美元罚款。On August 31st the Wall Street Journal reported that the Department of Justice has been investigating Oracle, a database-software company, for a year. Unusually, Oracle has said nothing about the investigation. Ethisphere, a promoter of corporate responsibility, rated Oracle one of the worlds most ethical companies in . Mike Koehler, a law professor at Butler University in Indiana, writes that General Electric, HP, AstraZeneca and others have all been among Ethispheres ;Worlds Most Ethical; while settling FCPA prosecutions or under investigation.据《华尔街日报》8月31日报道,美国司法部已经调查甲骨文--一家数据库软件公司--一年了。不寻常的是,甲骨文公司对此只字未提。而此前Ethisphere--一家推动商业道德的智库企业--把甲骨文评定为年全球最具有商业道德的企业之一。巴特勒大学的法学教授Mike Koehler写道,通用电气、惠普、英国阿斯利康和其他一些公司都在被Ethisphere评为全球最具商业道德企业的同时面临《反海外腐败法》的起诉或者调查。An FCPA action is an ordeal. Few firms dare risk going to court—only two cases against corporations have ever resulted in completed trials. The vast majority of cases are settled, which can take years. Listed companies must satisfy not only the Department of Justice, but also the Securities and Exchange Commission, which enforces the FCPA provisions requiring accurate records of all business dealings (to deter or detect illicit payments). Before the department and the commission will sign off on a settlement, the company must satisfy them that the rest of its operations are squeaky clean. Narrow investigations can mutate into broad ones that cost tens of millions of dollars.涉及《反海外腐败法》的诉讼是极其折磨人的。几乎没有一家公司敢于上法庭—历史上公司被起诉的案例中只有两例是完全结案的。绝大多数案子的结果都是长达数年的调解。上市公司不仅要使司法部满意,还要履行由美国券交易委员会执行的《反海外腐败法》部分条款--对所有交易的如实记录(为了防止和发现非法付)。在司法部和委员会同意一项和解之前,公司必须保其其他业务都绝对的干净。一个小范围的调查都会变成耗费数千万美元的广泛调查。And bosses can be sent to prison for up to 20 years if their companies fall foul of the FCPA. In theory, they could be jailed because a staff member at a foreign subsidiary bribed an official without their knowledge. In some cases, the law insists that directors ought to know about dodgy goings-on, even if they do not.而且,企业如果触犯了《反海外腐败法》,它的老板最长将会被监禁20年之久。理论上,一个在海外分公司的员工贿赂当地的官员都有可能导致其不知情的老板坐牢。在一些情况下,法律坚持认为主管们对这些不诚实的小动作是知情的,即使他们确实不知道。This is a hefty deterrent to doing business in poor countries, some studies have found. Andy Spalding, a law professor at the Chicago-Kent College of Law, likens the way the FCPA is enforced to ;de facto sanctions; on countries where corruption is rife. A study by KPMG, a consultancy, found that a third of British and a quarter of American companies would simply steer clear of corruption-prone countries to avoid the risk of being prosecuted. Firms from less fussy places, such as China, will happily fill the gap.一些研究发现,这极大的遏制了去贫穷国家的商业活动。Chicago-Kent法学院的法学教授Andy Spalding把《反海外腐败法》的实施看成是对腐败猖獗的国家;实际上的制裁;。咨询机构毕马威的一项研究显示,三分之一的英国和三分之二的美国公司干脆直接放弃腐败猖獗的国家来避免被起诉的风险。The US Chamber of Commerce, a business lobby, says the FCPA also deters foreign mergers and acquisitions. A firm inherits the sins of a company it buys, even if it has done reasonable due diligence, the chamber says. To avoid this risk, it must conduct the equivalent of a ;vast internal investigation;, says the chamber. Many firms find it simpler to stay at home.美国商会--一个商业游说团体--说,《反海外腐败法》还阻止了境外合并和收购。它说,一家公司哪怕进行了合理尽职的调查,也会背负上它收购的公司的罪行。商会还说,为了避免这样的风险,一家公司必须相当于开展一次大规模的内部调查。许多公司觉得还不如呆在国内好了。A new British anti-bribery law, passed in 2010, appears to have been better crafted. The Bribery Act is broad and tough. It covers bribery within Britain as well as abroad. In contrast to the FCPA, it makes no exception for small ;facilitation payments; to speed up routine business such as customs checks or visas.英国2010年通过的新反贿赂法看起来在这上面费了一番功夫。这个贿赂法案广泛而严厉。它覆盖了英国本土和海外贿赂的情况。与美国的《反海外腐败法》不同,它没有对加快常规事务的小额;便捷性付;(比如海关查验和签)网开一面。But it is fair, too. Unlike the FCPA, it has a ;compliance defence; that allows a company to avoid the harshest penalties if the wrongdoer is a junior employee and the firm otherwise has a strict anti-bribery policy which is clear to all employees and effectively administered. One rogue employee cant easily cause a crippling probe into an otherwise blameless company.它也很公平。不像美国的《反海外腐败法》,英国的反贿赂法有一个;合规性抗辩;--如果犯错的是一个初级雇员而且公司有一个在全公司明确表达且有效执行的反贿赂政策,就可使公司免于最严厉的惩罚。这样一个无赖雇员就不能轻易地给清白的公司招致极其麻烦的调查。Americas Department of Justice sees no need for such safeguards. And since few cases go to trial, judges have given little guidance as to what the FCPAs bewildering text actually means. So, for now, it means whatever an aggressive prosecutor says it does.美国司法部不觉得需要这样的保护措施。而且由于极少的情况闹上法庭,法官们也没解释清楚关于《反海外腐败法》那些令人困惑的表述的确切含义。所以现在情况就是这样,检察官说那是什么意思就是什么意思,哪怕这位检察官的观点很激进。 /201301/221769

  

  Imagine youre camping deep in the woods on a summer night. The sun sinks below the horizon and the temperature begins to fall. You shiver, and as you pull your jacket around your shoulders, you wonder just how cold it really is. Heres a clever way for you to find out, and all you need is 1. Wrist watch 2. Your ears 3. A little of patience.设想一下,你在夏夜的树林深处露营。太阳落到地平线以下,温度开始下降,你不禁打了一个寒颤。于是你在肩上披上夹克,你想知道到底有多冷。有一个聪明的办法能帮你找到,你只需要三样东西:1. 手表;2.耳朵;3. 耐心。Start by listening for a chirping cricket. Male crickets around the world make this characteristic sound by rubbing their wings together. The edge of a male crickets right wing is covered with little ridges, like a file or a washboard. As he rubs his left wing cover across the uneven right wing, he produces an insect love song that female crickets find irresistible.首先,倾听鸣叫的蟋蟀。世界各地的雄性蟋蟀擦翅膀时都会发出一种独特的声音。雄性蟋蟀的右翼边缘上布满了小小的突起,就像文件和搓衣板一样。当它擦翅膀,左右翼交叉碰撞时就唱出了一种让雌性蟋蟀很难以抵抗的悦耳的情歌。Female crickets use this amorous chirping to find their perfect mate, listening with a pair of special ears located below the knees. Now you can use these same serenades to calculate the temperature.雌性蟋蟀凭这种多情的鸣叫来寻找完美的伴侣,它们可以用位于膝盖以下的特殊耳朵来聆听。现在你也能利用这些情歌来计算出温度。Most insects tend to be more active when its hot, and more sluggish in cooler weather. Crickets are no exception to this rule.天热时,大多数昆虫往往很活跃,天冷时则行动迟缓。蟋蟀也不例外。In cold weather, a cricket will do everything more slowly, and as the temperature drops, so does the tempo of his love song. By measuring how quickly he chirps, you can find out approximately how cold it is.天冷时,蟋蟀做所有的事情都更慢一点,因为温度下降,它们的情歌节奏也随之变慢。通过测量鸣叫的速度,你就能知道大概有多冷。Its easy to do: Simply count the number of chirps a single cricket makes in a fifteen second period, then add thirty seven. Although individual species might be a little faster or slower, this should give a fair approximation of the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.方法很简单:只要数一只蟋蟀每15秒钟鸣叫的次数,然后加上37就行了。尽管有时候会因个体差异而忽快忽慢,但计算结果仍然很接近华氏摄氏度的温度。Remember: fifteen seconds worth of chirps, plus thirty seven. Even if the chirping keeps you awake all night, at least youll know the temperature.记住:15秒内鸣叫的次数,加上37。尽管这种鸣叫会让你一夜难眠,但至少你能靠它计算出温度。原文译文属!201212/212257。

  

  

  For fans who had watched him since his days as a Carolina schoolboy, what emerged now was not just the skill but the will power. Those who remembered his raw potential. now saw the results of a lifetime of hard work.He would go to JV practice and practice, and then hed go to varsity practice. Wed play ball games, and after the games were over, hed run what we called ;suicides; or line drills, hed run those by himself.I just marveled at his work habits even then. With his competitiveness to go with all that dedication, you know, it was something to see.The weakest part of Michaels game on the offensive end was his shooting. So he obviously mastered something that everybody said he couldnt do when he came out of college. And he did it by shooting and shooting and shooting and shooting consistently.The other thing that people told him that he wasnt a really good defensive player. And he found a way, not only to become a great defensive player, but the best defensive player in the NBA. This guy said, ;Those are my weaknesses, Im going to figure out how to make those my strengths.; And he did it!注:听力文本来源于普特而对于从他在卡罗莱纳州高中生时光就一起走过来的粉丝们而已,现在希望看到的不仅仅是赏心悦目的技巧,而是意志的力量。这些粉丝记得他的优秀潜力,而现在看到的是一生努力工作的结果。他会去不停的练习,之后他就会去参加正式比赛。我们曾经参与这项运动,而游戏结束后,他就会去做我们称为;自杀;的训练或者是魔鬼训练,他只能靠自己。即使这样,我也是对他的工作习惯感到好奇。他带有竞争力的奉献精神,你知道,这是值得任何人学习的。迈克尔在比赛进攻中最差劲的部分是他的投篮。所以很明显他走出大学时掌握了一样他不能掌握的东西。那就是他通过不间断的投篮,投篮,投篮以及投篮最终把自己的劣势转化成了自己的优势。人们告诉他另一件事是他不是一个很好的防守球员。他发现了一种方法,那就是在NBA不是要成为伟大的防守球员,而是成为最好的防守球员。这个人说道:;那些的而且确是我的弱点,因此我就会知道应该怎样发挥我的强项。;而他做到了!

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