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2019年06月25日 22:49:55|来源:国际在线|编辑:服务乐园
For me, Chinese New Year used to be fun.对于我来说,过去感觉过年很有意思呢。When I was a kid, I was excited during Chinese New Year when I got lai see and I could stay up late. I even had access to candy, a once-a-year treat while living under the roof of my Tiger Mom.孩提时的我,一到过年就兴奋不已,我虽平日生活在我家虎妈的“淫威”下,但过年我就可以收到红包了,可以熬夜了,甚至还有机会收到一年才能吃到一次的糖果了。Riding strong on the sugar highs, I always thought to myself, this is what it must feel like to be an adult. I was flush, free and giddy.糖果的甜味久久回味,小时候我一直以为,这就是长大成人的感觉,长大了就可以有了一片无拘无束任自己自由驰骋的天地。Then at some point in my twenties, Chinese New Year became a chore. Not any garden variety chore, but a cold-sweat-inducing family obligation that I try hard to avoid.后来,到了我二十多岁的时候,农历新年却变得很苦逼。各种苦逼问题劈头盖脸般扑向你,而我在设法逃避着这种令人冒冷汗的所谓的家庭责任。As an adult, Chinese New Year is an annual nightmare, for the following reasons:我长大成人了,农历新年与我而言就是一年一度的噩梦一场,有如下原因:1. I find it sucks when you are single你要是单身的话,那就糟透了Relatives feel that they have a right to judge you because you do share bits of DNA, so, really, it#39;s almost like they#39;re judging themselves.亲戚们觉得自己有权干涉你的个人感情生活问题,因为你们毕竟部分血脉相连,所以他们说起你的感情问题来真的几乎就像是在说自己一样。Typically, the extended family gathers for Chinese New Year and spends an inordinate amount of time together, during which people get bored and focus their restlessness on judging the younger generation, particularly those who are single.通常情况下,中国新年全家聚在一起的时间比较长,全家聚在一起时一旦觉得无聊,他们就会转而把精力都集中在年轻一代人、特别是单身年轻人的身上。Singledom means a lack of responsibilities and responsibility-free people need to be reined in by the wisdom of elders, or they will be reckless with their directionless lives.单身则代表缺乏责任感,没有责任感的自由人就需要受长辈们的智慧牵制,否则他们的生活就会失去方向。Here are some unavoidable conversations at Chinese New Year. By ;conversations; I really mean monologues by one Wise Elder or another, fired away at a particular Single Younger in a trance-like manner:下面的话题就是春节时一些无法避免的对话。这里的“对话” 指的是智者长辈单方面的冗长唠叨,他们陷入一种恍惚状态“指点着”单身的年轻人们:;Why don#39;t you have a boyfriend? If you have a boyfriend, why don#39;t you get married?;“你为什么还没有男朋友?要是你有男朋友,为什么还不结婚?”;Why are you not dieting at least a little bit? Second Cousin Yong Yong will have to start bringing clothes from America for you.;“你为什么不少吃一点儿呢?二表哥永永(音译)得要从美国给你带衣回来啦。”;What happened to your hair? Blue is not such a good color for us Chinese people.;“你的头发怎么弄成这副样子了?把头发染成蓝色,这个颜色对于我们中国人来说,可不是什么好颜色。”;Are you saving up for an apartment? Why not? The most important thing in life is to have a roof over your head. You don#39;t want to be homeless, do you? What if the economy collapses again? At least you will have an apartment.;“你在攒钱准备买房吗?为什么还不攒钱准备买房呢?人这一辈子有地方住才是大事,你不想无家可归吧?是不是?如果经济再次不行了可怎么办呢?怎么说至少你也得有一套自己的房子住才行啊。”;Why don#39;t you get a better paid job? You are wasting your talent. You will regret your life.;“你为什么不找一份薪水再高一些的工作呢?你白读了这么多年的书了。你会后悔你现在过的日子的。”2. I am employed我工作了I loved the great Chinese tradition of gifting lai see. Getting HK for no reason other than tradition really rocked my seven-year-old world.我喜欢送红包这个优良传统。收到20元港币的红包着实震撼了七岁的我的小小世界。I have an income now, so twenty bucks here and there doesn#39;t make a huge difference, but I still retain that childhood anticipation for the red packets. It#39;s just a bit disappointing when I open up an envelope and it isn#39;t concealing a massive check.目前我有了一份自己的收入,因此,这二十块钱无法让我再生感动之情,但我还是对童年收红包的传统习惯有了期待。只是当我打开红包时,看一下红包里面装的钱太少了时,那令人失望的表情丝毫不加掩饰。And it#39;s the guilt from feeling disappointed that makes me really hate Chinese New Year for making me hate myself.而且自己感觉又内疚又失望,这让我真的很讨厌过年,我恨我自己。It#39;s just like being unable to conceal your letdown expression when unwrapping that pair of socks at Secret Santa parties.这就像是当你打开一双秘密圣诞老人的袜子时,你表露出的那种无法掩饰的失望表情。Gifting is a heartwarming tradition. It#39;s the thought that counts. I am not supposed to care. I am a bad person.送礼物是一种让人感觉温馨的优良传统,重在心意。我本不该在乎礼物轻重的,我真是个地道的大坏蛋。There#39;s even worse.还有更糟糕的。Chinese New Year gambling is just out of hand.春节可谓是到了一发不可收拾的地步。Now that I have a job, I#39;m expected to bet real money at The Mahjong Table, a no man#39;s land filled with hidden agendas, treacherous scheming and Janus-faced traitors.现在,我有了一份工作,我盼着在麻将桌上动真格的赢点钱,如同无人区满藏各种制敌取胜的奸诈心计一样算计着赢钱。If you beat your elder relatives at mahjong one too many times, beware their wrath. It really hurts when you get hit by a mahjong tile.如果你打麻将总赢你的长辈亲戚们,当心惹恼他们是会向你飞来一个麻将牌的,麻将牌打到身上真是很疼的。 /201402/275155As winter chill blankets much of the country, parents of teenagers face a daily dilemma: convince their willful children to dress warmly or let them learn from experience. One expert, pediatrician Jennifer Shu, a spokeswoman for the American Academy of Pediatrics and medical editor of the group#39;s healthychildren.org consumer website, offers her view on what the most important item of winter clothing is and when to let children decide for themselves.随着冬寒横扫美国大部分地区,十几岁青少年的父母每天都面临着一个两难选择:说自己任性的孩子,让他们穿暖点,或者让他们从实际体验中学到教训。冬季着装的要点是什么?什么时候应该让孩子自己做出决定?这方面的专家、儿科医生Jennifer Shu表达了自己的观点。Jennifer Shu是美国儿科学会(American Academy of Pediatrics)的发言人,也是该学会的消费者网站healthychildren.org的医学编辑。Core of the Matter事件的核心Growing kids#39; hearts beat faster than those of grown-ups, and their metabolisms are generally quicker. But contrary to popular belief, teens#39; hyperactive hormones don#39;t elevate core temperature above the usual 98.6 degrees. Children also typically have more body surface relative to body mass, which means they can get cold faster than adults, Dr. Shu says. Older children who refuse to wear proper cold-weather gear may be irritable and unable to focus on school because they are too cold.正在长身体的孩子的心脏跳动频率高于成年人,他们的新陈代谢速度通常也更快。但与常见认知相反的是,十几岁的青少年超级活跃的激素并不会将中心体温抬升到平常的37摄氏度以上。Jennifer Shu说,通常而言,儿童的体表面积与身体重量之比也要更高,这意味着他们的身体变冷的速度比成年人更快。年龄较大的孩子在天气寒冷时如果拒绝穿上适当的保暖衣物,他们可能会因为太冷的缘故而变得易怒,并且无法在课堂上集中精力。#39;If a body is fighting to stay warm, it is stealing away energy that could be focused on other things, like fighting germs and concentrating,#39; she says.她说,如果身体正在为了保暖而战斗,那么它就会偷走本来可以用在其他事情上的能量,比如与细菌战斗,比如集中精力。Wet Is Worse湿更可怕Dr. Shu and her colleagues point out that being cold won#39;t cause a child to be sick -- exposure to viruses will. Being wet and cold is a bigger risk, since internal temperatures can drop as moisture evaporates off the skin. Dr. Shu recommends that children who spend a lot of time outside wear thin, wicking fabrics close to the skin, then add a cotton layer to absorb the moisture. On top of that goes at least one other layer, preferably thick.Jennifer Shu和她的同事们指出,仅仅是冷并不会让孩子生病,但病毒感染会让人生病。在感到冷的时候如果还处于湿的状态,那么风险就会更大,因为随着水分从皮肤表面蒸发,体内温度会下降。Jennifer Shu推荐长时间在外面玩耍的孩子贴身穿着吸湿性强的薄衣物,然后外面罩一层棉质衣,达到吸潮的目的。在棉质衣的外面至少还要再穿一层,最好是厚衣。To motivate fashion-conscious teens, she suggests looking to sports stars for inspiration. #39;The Olympics are on right now, and you can see how the athletes cover up in big parkas as soon as they finish their events,#39; she says. #39;They know they perform better when their bodies and muscles are warm.#39;为了让追求时尚的十几岁的年轻人有穿衣的动力,她的建议是:向体育明星寻求灵感。她说,现在正在开冬奥会,你会看到,在比赛结束后,运动员们都会立刻穿上毛皮风雪大衣,他们知道,如果身体和肌肉保持温暖的话,表现会更好。Pick Your Battle把握要点Most older children aren#39;t at high risk for hypothermia or frostbite, since they aren#39;t exposed to cold for prolonged periods, Dr. Shu says. Gloves, hats and scarves are always a good idea. But if she were to pick one essential, it would be boots.Jennifer Shu说,大多数年纪较大的孩子发生体温过低或被冻伤的风险并不高,因为他们不会太长时间地停留在寒冷环境中。手套、帽子和围巾都是不错的装备。但她说,如果要选一样必不可少的,那就是长靴。#39;They will prevent a child from being wet and uncomfortable all day,#39; she says.她说,有了长靴,孩子一整天都不会湿,也不会感到不舒。In her hometown of Atlanta, where boots aren#39;t a regular part of winter wardrobes, Dr. Shu has seen parents Scotchgard sneakers as a temporary measure. Doubling up on clothing can also help keep the wet out and preserve appearances. #39;There is a lot of pressure to look cool, I know. So I had my son put on a pair of pants beneath his nylon sports pants,#39; she says. #39;When it snowed again, he did this on his own, and no one knew.#39;她的家乡在亚特兰大,在那里,人们冬天不怎么穿长靴,Jennifer Shu曾经见过一些家长在孩子的运动鞋上涂防油防水剂,这是一种临时措施。多穿一层也是既防湿又能显得很帅的办法之一。她说,孩子们都要自己看起来酷一点,他们都有这样的压力,这我知道,所以我让我的儿子在运动裤里面再穿一条长裤;等到再下雪的时候,他自己就这么做了,别人都不知道。Strategic Planning战略规划Lack of sleep and poor nutrition can make it harder for a growing child to fight the cold. These factors may be more important than bundling up for a walk to the bus stop, Dr. Shu says. She advises parents to teach children how to dress appropriately, then let them take charge of their own bodies.睡眠不足和营养不良也能让正在长身体的孩子更难抵御寒冷的侵袭。Jennifer Shu说,在孩子走路到公共汽车站的时候,这些因素可能比多穿衣物更重要。她建议父母教会孩子如何正确穿衣,然后让他们自己掌控自己的身体。#39;Taking a child shopping to pick out his favorites will help to encourage him to actually wear the clothes when he is out of a parent#39;s sightlines, but ultimately a child must learn to make good choices,#39; she says.她说。带孩子去商场,让他们自己选喜欢的衣,这样有助于鼓励他们在父母看不见的时候真正地去穿这些衣,但归根结底,孩子必须学会如何做出好的选择。 /201402/277634

So many things come down to connections -- especially the ones in your brain.很多事情归根结底都是连接――尤其是你大脑中的那些神经。Women and men display distinctive differences in how nerve fibers connect various regions of their brains, according to a half-dozen recent studies that highlight gender variation in the brain#39;s wiring diagram. There are trillions of these critical connections, and they are shaped by the interplay of heredity, experience and biochemistry.近来,有半打之多的研究着重探索了大脑接线图中的性别差异。这些研究表明,在神经纤维如何连接大脑各个区域方面,男性和女性显得截然不同。人脑中遍布着上万亿这样的关键连接,而遗传因素、人生经历和生物化学的相互影响、相互作用又塑造了这些连接的形成。No one knows how gender variations in brain wiring might translate into thought and behavior -- whether they might influence the way men and women generally perceive reality, process information, form judgments and behave socially -- but they are sparking controversy.目前尚不清楚,大脑连接中的性别差异可能会如何传导至人们的言行中――它们是否可能会影响一般男性与女性解读现实、处理信息、社交行为和形成判断的方式――但它们现在却引发了争议。#39;It certainly is incendiary,#39; said Paul Thompson, a professor of neurology and director of the University of Southern California#39;s Imaging Genetics Center. He is directing an effort to assemble a database of 26,000 brain scans from 20 countries to cross-check neuroimaging findings. #39;People who look at findings about sex differences are excited or enraged,#39; he said.南加州大学(University of Southern California)基因影像学中心(Imaging Genetics Center)负责人、神经学教授保罗#12539;汤普森(Paul Thompson)说:“那肯定会点燃争议的导火索。”为了反复核对神经影像学的研究成果,汤普森正带头致力于组建一个数据库,该数据库将包含26,000份来自20个国家的脑部扫描资料。他说:“那些查看有关性别差异研究成果的人,有些兴奋不已,有些则忿怒填胸。”Researchers are looking at the variations to explain the different ways men and women respond to health issues ranging from autism, which is more common among men, and multiple sclerosis, which is more common among women, to strokes, aging and depression. #39;We have to find the differences first before we can try to understand them,#39; said Neda Jahanshad, a neurologist at USC who led the research while at the University of California, Los Angeles.研究人员正在查看这些变化以解释男性和女性对健康问题的不同反应方式。这些问题包括从在男性中更常见的孤独症到女性中更常见的多发性硬化症、再到中风、衰老和抑郁症。南加州大学(USC)神经病学家妮达#12539;扎哈沙德(Neda Jahanshad)在加州大学洛杉矶分校(the University of California, Los Angeles) 带领团队完成了上述研究,她说:“在我们试着弄清这些问题之前,我们得先找到它们的区别。”Dr. Jahanshad and her UCLA collaborators conducted a 2011 brain-imaging study of healthy twins, including 147 women and 87 men, to trace connections in the brain. She discovered #39;significant#39; sex differences in areas of the brain#39;s frontal lobe, which is associated with self-control, speech and decision-making.2011年,扎哈沙德与她在加州大学洛杉矶分校的同仁们进行了一项针对健康双胞胎的脑成像研究以追踪大脑中的连接情况,该研究共涉及147名女性和87名男性。她后来发现,在人脑额叶区中存在着“显著”的性别差异,该区域与自控力、决策力和演讲能力都息息相关。In the most comprehensive study so far, scientists led by biomedical analyst Ragini Verma at the University of Pennsylvania found the myriad connections between important parts of the brain developed differently in girls and boys as they grow, resulting in different patterns of brain connections among young women and young men.在目前为止最全面的一项研究中,以宾夕法尼亚大学(the University of Pennsylvania)生物医学分析专家拉吉尼#12539;维尔马(Ragini Verma)为首的科学家们发现,大脑重要部位之间的诸多连接随着男孩、女孩的成长而演化出差异,导致年轻女性和男性的脑内连接模式不同。The team imaged the brains of 949 healthy young people, 521 females and 428 males, ranging in age from 8 to 22. Like Dr. Jahanshad#39;s team, Dr. Verma employed a technique called Diffusion Tensor Imaging to trace how water molecules align along the brain#39;s white-matter nerve fibers, which form the physical scaffolding of thought. The study was reported earlier this month in the journal the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.该团队对949名健康的年轻人进行了脑成像扫描,其中包括521名女性和428名男性,他们的年龄从8到22岁不等。同扎哈沙德的团队一样,维尔马也采用了一种名为“弥散张量成像(Diffusion Tensor Imaging)”的技术来追踪水分子是如何同脑白质神经纤维相应移动的,这形成了该想法的理论框架。这一研究于本月早些时候发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)上。The neural patterns emerged only when combining results from hundreds of people, experts said. In any one person, gender patterns may be subsumed by the individual variations in brain shape and structure that help make every person unique.专家们称,只有将来自成百上千人的结果归纳结合起来看时,才会出现上述的神经模式。在任何某一个人身上,性别模式可能会被归为大脑结构和形态方面的个体差异,这些个体差异会使每个人都显得独一无二。Dr. Verma#39;s maps of neural circuitry document the brain at moments when it is in a fury of creation. Starting in infancy, the brain normally produces neurons at a rate of half a million a minute, and reaches out to make connections two million times a second. By age 5, brain size on average has grown to about 90% of adult size. By age 20, the average brain is packed with about 109,000 miles of white matter tissue fibers, according to a 2003 Danish study reported in the Journal of Comparative Neurology.在创造思潮难抑之时,维尔马的神经回路图会即时记录下大脑的情况。据2003年发表在《比较神经外科学杂志》(Journal of Comparative Neurology)上的一项丹麦研究表明,从婴儿时期开始,人脑通常就会以每分钟50万个的速度长出神经元,并以每秒钟200万次的速度伸展、形成连接。到了五岁的时候,大脑的尺寸一般会长到成年人脑的90%。到了20岁的时候,平均而言,大脑中会布满长达109,000英里(约合175,418千米)的白质组织纤维。Spurred by the effects of diet, experience and biochemistry, neurons and synapses are ruthlessly pruned, starting in childhood. The winnowing continues in fits and starts throughout adolescence, then picks up again in middle age. #39;In childhood, we did not see much difference#39; between male and female, Dr. Verma said. #39;Most of the changes we see start happening in adolescence. That is when most of the male-female differences come about.#39;在饮食习惯、生活经历和生物化学的影响刺激下,神经元与突触从童年时期就开始被无情地修剪。这场筛选一阵一阵地继续,然后开始贯穿整个青春期。维尔马说:“童年时期,我们在男孩女孩身上看不到太多的差别。我们看到的大多数变化都发生在青春期。也就是那个时候,男女之间的大多数差别显现出来了。”Broadly speaking, women in their 20s had more connections between the two brain hemispheres while men of the same age had more connective fibers within each hemisphere. #39;Women are mostly better connected left-to-right and right-to-left across the two brain hemispheres,#39; Dr. Verma said. #39;Men are better connected within each hemisphere and from back-to-front.#39;从广义上说,女性在20岁时左右脑之间的连接更多,而同龄的男性则是左、右脑各自内部的连接纤维更多。维尔马称:“女性大脑两个半球之间无论是从左至右、还是从右至左的连接都更好些。男性则是左、右脑各自内部的连接和后脑到前脑的连接更佳。”That suggests women might be better wired for multitasking and analytical thought, which require coordination of activity in both hemispheres. Men, in turn, may be better wired for more-focused tasks that require attention to one thing a time. But the researchers cautioned such conclusions are speculative.这就表明了女性可能在完成多重任务和分析思维方面更出色,而这需要左右脑之间的协作活动。反过来,男性可能在集中思维方面更为出色,这需要他们将注意力一次只放在一件事情上。但研究人员谨慎表示,这些结论都是推测性的,并非定论。Experts also cautioned that subtle gender differences in connections can be thrown off by normal disparities in brain size between men and women and in the density of brain tissue. Other factors, such as whether one is left- or right-handed, also affect brain structure.专家们还警告称,连接方面微小的性别差异会被当成男女大脑尺寸及脑组织密度方面的正常差异而被摒弃。其他一些因素,如一个人是不是左撇子或右撇子,也会影响大脑结构。Also affecting results are differences in how computer calculations are carried out from one lab to the next. #39;With neuroimaging, there are so many ways to process the data that when you do process things differently and get the same result, it is fantastic,#39; Dr. Jahanshad said.影响结果的还有:从这个实验室到下个实验室,这其中如何进行电脑运算。扎哈沙德说:“关于神经影像,有很多方式都能用来处理其相关数据,所以当你使用不同的方法处理数据还能得到相同的结果时,那简直不可思议。” /201312/270228

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