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佛山新世纪泌尿专科割包皮多少钱乐视频道

2019年09月22日 08:22:25 | 作者:百度新闻 | 来源:新华社
Business商业报道Legal disclaimers合法的免责声明Spare us the e-mail yada-yada腾回我们的电邮空间Automatic e-mail footers are not just annoying.They are legally useless自动附加电子邮件页脚,真让人讨厌,法律上还没啥用呢IF THIS e-mail is received in error, notify the sender immediately.如果电邮被误收,请马上通知发件人。This e-mail does not create an attorney-client relationship.电邮没有建立代理-委托的关系。Any tax advice in this e-mail is not intended to be used for the purpose of avoiding penalties under the Internal Revenue Code.任何关于电邮的税务咨询不是以避免国内税法处罚为目的。Many firms—The Economist included—automatically append these sorts of disclaimers to every message sent from their e-mail servers, no matter how brief and trivial the message itself might be.无论电邮的信息是多么简短和琐碎,大部分企业都会自动在电邮务器中的所有邮件中附加各式各样的免责声明。E-mail disclaimers are one of the minor nuisances of modern office life, along with fire drills, annual appraisals and colleagues who keep sneezing loudly.电邮免责声明是现代办公室生活中的小骚扰之一,其它骚扰则是火警演戏、年度评比和同事大声连续打喷嚏。Just think of all the extra waste paper generated when messages containing such waffle are printed.试想想,信息中含有多余的话句,还被打印出来了,多浪费纸张啊。They are assumed to be a wise precaution.而且,免责声明还被认为是一种明智的预防措施。But they are mostly, legally speaking, pointless.然而,从法律上说,这些声明大多是没意义的。Lawyers and experts on internet policy say no court case has ever turned on the presence or absence of such an automatic e-mail footer in America, the most litigious of rich countries.互联网政策方面的律师和专家们表示,富裕国家中最爱诉讼的美国,也还没有哪个诉案是由这种自动的电邮页脚的存在与否引起的。Many disclaimers are, in effect, seeking to impose a contractual obligation unilaterally, and thus are probably unenforceable.实际上,大部分免责声明都在争取利用单方契约义务,最终可能导致条款无法执行。This is clear in Europe,在这方面,欧洲做得非常清晰。where a directive from the European Commission tells the courts to strike out any unreasonable contractual obligation on a consumer if he has not freely negotiated it.欧洲委员会向法院下指令,要求严打针对那些不给予消费者自由谈判权利的、不合理的契约义务。And a footer stating that nothing in the e-mail should be used to break the law would be of no protection to a lawyer or financial adviser sending a message that did suggest something illegal.这些页脚声称电子邮件中没有违法内容;另外,对于律师和财务顾问而言,它们也不会有保障性,也不会发信息告知人们什么是非法的。So why are the disclaimers there?那么,免责声明是干什么用的?Company lawyers often insist on them because they see others using them.企业的律师总会坚持使用免责声明,因为他们见其它公司也在使用。As with Latin vocabulary and judges’ robes, once something has become a legal habit it has a tendency to stick.与拉丁词汇和法官的长袍一样,一旦某行为成为一种法律习惯,该行为就会被继续坚持下去。Might they at least remind people to behave sensibly?至少,这些声明可以让人们理智行动吧?Michael Overly, a lawyer for Foley amp; Lardner in Los Angeles, thinks not:洛杉矶富理达律师事务所的律师迈克尔?殴弗利可不这么认为:the proliferation of predictable yada-yada at the bottom of messages means that people have long since stopped paying any attention to it.那些在邮件信息底部的唠叨条款的扩散,意味着人们早已停止对其关注了。 /201304/235728Business this week一周经济要闻Oct 12th 2013 |From the print editionBarack Obama nominated Janet Yellen to replace Ben Bernanke as chairman of the Federal Reserve in February. Ms Yellen is Mr Bernanke’s deputy and became the outright favourite for the top job when Larry Summers withdrew his name from consideration. She has been instrumental in creating the Fed’s policy of monetary stimulus and the “forward guidance” on interest rates that many central banks now give. However, she could get a rough ride from Republicans at her confirmation hearing in the Senate.奥巴马总统提名珍妮特·耶伦担任下一届联储主席,以接替将在2014年1月任期结束后离职的伯南克。珍妮特-耶伦为现任联储副主席,在劳伦斯·萨默斯主动退出这场竞争之后,她便成为这一宝座的首要人选。她曾对制定美联储的货币刺激政策提出建设性意见,并且对现行央行利率有前瞻性指引。但她可能在参议院的听会上遭到共和党人的挑战。Slaying George’s dragons杀掉乔治的龙The IMF’s latest GDP forecasts shaved 0.3 of a percentage point off the world’s economic growth rate for this year, to 2.9%. The fund warned that the Fed should not taper its stimulus programme too quickly, or the subsequent rise in borrowing costs would hinder growth. But it gave George Osborne, Britain’s chancellor, something to crow about by lifting Britain’s growth forecast by half of a percentage point; in the spring the IMF had raised concerns that Mr Osborne’s austerity measures could choke growth.IMF最近将今年国际经济增长率预期下调三个百分点至2.9%。IMF警告说,美联储不应过快减少其经济刺激计划,否则随后的借款成本上升会阻碍经济增长。因此,英国财政大臣乔治·奥斯本将英国经济增速预期上调了0.5%,这一政策足以让他得意一番。而早在今年春天,IMF就担忧过奥斯本的紧缩政策可能造成经济增长速度放缓。The IMF also cut its growth outlook for emerging markets. Brazil raised its main interest rate for the fifth time since April, by half of a percentage point to 9.5%, as it battles stubbornly high inflation.IMF同时也下调了发展中国家的经济增速预期。巴西苦苦挣扎于居高不下通货膨胀,将其基准利率上调至预期的一半至9.5%,这是该国自四月以来的第五次上调。Serbia proposed severe spending cuts. The government said it was also getting a loan “on favourable terms” that was almost a “gift” from the ed Arab Emirates.塞尔维亚提议大幅削减开。该国政府称其正在以“优惠的条件”申请贷款,这大抵算是从阿联酋得到的一份“礼物”。After 40 years without much success, Airbus at last broke into the Japanese aviation market in a big way when Japan Airlines ordered 31 A350 widebody jets with a total list price of .8 billion, and placed an option for 25 more aircraft. It is a blow to Boeing, which had a virtual monopoly in Japan. Analysts wonder if JAL’s decision to buy from Airbus is related to the technical problems that have beset Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner; two JAL Dreamliner flights had to be diverted this week because of glitches.日本航空公司(日航,JAL )以约为95亿美元的目录价格订购31架A350宽体飞机,并且保留追加购买25架A350飞机的选择权。这意味着在入驻日本民航市场40年未果之后,空客终于打入日本市场。这对于在日本保持垄断地位的波音公司来说无疑是一个打击。分析学家认为日航选择购买空客飞机可能跟波音787“梦幻客机”出现的技术问题有关。本周,两架“梦幻客机”由于小故障而不得不返航。Demand for shares in Royal Mail was said to be heavily oversubscribed ahead of its flotation, the biggest sale of a state asset in Britain for two decades. As with past privatisations, the government has been criticised by some for undervaluing what the market will pay for a public-sector company.还未上市,英国皇家邮政股票就获得超额认购。皇家邮政上市是英国政府20年以来最大规模的私有化行动。针对先前的私有化,有人批评英国政府低估了国有企业股票在市场中的价值。Twitter provided much-sought-after details of its finances ahead of its IPO. Revenue at the microblogging site was 3m in the first half of the year, double that from the same period last year, and it had 218m monthly active users, up by 44% from last year (around 5% of that is spam).还未进行首次公开募股,Twitter就披露了其引人瞩目的财政细节。上半年,其微网站收入为2.53亿美元,是去年同期的两倍。月活跃用户为2.18亿人,同比上升44%(其中约5%为垃圾邮件)。HTC reported a worse-than-expected quarterly loss, its first in 11 years. The Taiwanese smartphone-maker has fallen further behind its cheaper Chinese rivals, and now accounts for 3% of global market share, down from 9% in 2011.HTC称其季度亏损比预期的还要糟糕,是11年来的首次亏损。这家台湾智能手机制造商被中国内地价格更为便宜的竞争对手远远抛下。其所占有的全球份额由2011年的9%下降到现在的3%。The Apple of its eye对苹果情有独钟The Obama administration decided not to overturn a ban imposed by America’s trade commission on some of Samsung’s older phones for infringing patents held by Apple. It is unlikely to hurt the South Korean company’s sales much, though some have questioned the White House’s motives. In August it did quash a ban imposed by the commission on Apple’s older iPads and iPhones that were found to infringe Samsung’s patents.奥巴马政府未否决美国贸易委员会对侵权苹果的一些旧款三星产品颁布的禁令。尽管有人质疑白宫的动机,但这不会对这家韩国公司的销量有太大影响。而与之截然不同的是,今年八月,奥巴马政府解除了美国贸易委员会对侵权三星产品的苹果旧款iPads 和 iPhones发布的禁令。Alcatel-Lucent said it would cut 10,000 jobs, or around 15% of its worldwide labour force. Since France’s Alcatel and America’s Lucent merged in 2006, the combined telecoms-equipment maker has made a profit in just one year. Others in the industry, such as Cisco, are also retrenching. Although most of the cuts are outside France, the French government said it wanted “social dialogue” with the company about scaling them back.阿尔卡特朗讯公司称将裁员10000人,这相当于其全球范围内约15%的员工。自2006年法国阿尔卡特公司与美国朗讯公司合并以来,这家电讯设备制造企业仅获一年盈利。其他同类型企业,如思科公司,也在缩减开。虽然法国裁员人数并不多,法国政府称将针对裁员与该公司进行“社会性对话”。Walmart brought the shutters down on its troubled joint venture in India with Bharti. Foreign supermarket retailers have yet to set up shop fully in India after last year’s regulatory change that allows them to own up to 51% of their operations. Most are put off by the requirement that 30% of their produce must come from small local businesses.沃尔玛决定关闭与印度巴帝公司合作并不顺利的合资企业。根据去年印度修改的外商投资条例,印度允许外国企业拥有其在当地经营的超市51%股份,但是仍没有任何一家海外超市零售商进入印度开设零售店。印度规定海外零售商30%的商品必须在当地小型企业采购,这一规定使得他们望而却步。Electronic-cigarette companies were relieved when the European Parliament decided not to reclassify their products as medicinal, thereby avoiding tougher regulations. European governments, however, still want strict restrictions until more is known about the health effects of e-cigarettes.欧洲议会决定不将电子香烟产品归类为药品,这使得各大电子香烟公司如释重负,因为他们因此得以避免更为苛刻的管理条例。然而,在更多了解电子香烟对健康的影响之前,欧洲政府依然希望对其采取严格限制。Suited and booted你情我不愿 Men’s Wearhouse, a clothing chain that has most of its stores in America’s eastern states, rejected a .3 billion takeover bid from Jos A. Bank, a rival. Last month the boss of Men’s Wearhouse provided a novel explanation for a big quarterly drop in profit, saying that the13 in 2013 was causing suspicious brides (not grooms) to postpone their wedding plans until next year.大部分专营店开设在美国东部各州的装连锁Men’s Wearhouse拒绝其同行Jos A. Bank时装店以23亿美元的价格收购。上月,Men’s Wearhouse 老板对该企业季度大幅亏损做出了新奇的解释,称2013年中的13 这个不吉利的数字可能是造成新娘(不是新郎)将婚礼推迟到明年的原因。201310/261603Science and technology科学技术Genetically modified tree转基因树木Into the wildwood进军森林A GM species may soon be liberated deliberately一种转基因树木不久或将大量种植,但很审慎ONCE upon a time, according to folklore, a squirrel could travel through Americas chestnut forests from Maine to Florida without ever touching the ground.民间流传有这样的故事:很久很久以前,松鼠在穿过美国缅因州到福罗里达州的栗树林时,可以一直不触碰地面。The chestnut population of North America was reckoned then to have been about 4 billion trees. No longer.估计北美那时的栗树约有40亿棵。现在却不复存在了。Axes and chainsaws must take a share of the blame.必须说,斧头锯子不乏其罪,But the principal culprit is Cryphonectria parasitica, the fungus that causes chestnut blight.但栗疫病菌才是罪魁祸首,是这种真菌致栗树感染了栗疫病。In the late 19th century, some infected saplings from Asia brought C. parasitica to North America. By 1950 the chestnut was little more than a memory in most parts of the continent.19世纪后期,一批亚洲来的感染栗疫病菌的树苗把该病菌带到了北美。到了20世纪50年代,北美大陆大部分地区的栗树便全部消失,成为了回忆。American chestnuts may, however, be about to rise again—thanks to genetic engineering.但有了基因工程,美国栗树有望再次繁茂起来。This month three experimental patches will be planted, under the watchful eye of the Department of Agriculture, in Georgia, New York and Virginia.在美国农业部的密切看护下,将于本月在乔治亚州、纽约州和弗吉尼亚州分别栽种一片栗树林进行实验。Along with their normal complements of genes, these trees have been fitted with a handful of others that researchers hope will protect them from the fungus.这些栗树除携带正常的附加基因外,还添加了少数不同寻常的附加基因。研究者希望通过添加这些基因来防止栗树被真菌感染。The project has been organised by the Forest Health Initiative, a quango set up to look into the idea of using genetic engineering to rescue species of tree whose populations have been devastated by fungal diseases or insect pests.该项目的组织者是一个半官方机构—森林健康行动,该机构的创立是为了检查用基因工程来拯救被真菌病或害虫摧毁的树木种群的可行性。It has sponsored research at several universities, and this months trial is the first big field test.FHI已在几所大学发起了研究倡议,并于本月迈出大型实地试验的第一步。If it works, the FHI will ask the government for permission to plant transgenic chestnuts in the wild, with the intention of re-establishing the species in Americas woodlands.如果可行,FHI则会向政府申请在自然环境中种植基因改良栗树,以重建美国林地的栗树林。And if that goes well, it could provide a model for projects to re-establish elm trees, ash trees and a fir tree known, confusingly, as the eastern hemlock.如果这也可行,那就能为榆树、白蜡树和杉树重建项目提供示范。The search for genetic protection for the chestnut was begun in 1990 by William Powell of the State University of New York, in Syracuse, and Scott Merkle of the University of Georgia, in Athens.栗树基因保护研究始于1990年,由锡拉丘兹市纽约州立大学的威廉·鲍威尔和爱森斯市乔治亚大学的斯科特·默克尔共同进行。Dr Powell knew that many of the symptoms of chestnut blight are caused by the oxalic acid that C. parasitica generates as it grows.鲍威尔确信,栗疫病的很多症状都由栗疫病菌生长时产生的草酸引起。He also knew that wheat has an enzyme called oxalate oxidase, which detoxifies oxalic acid.他也清楚,小麦有一种草酸氧化酶,能够分解草酸。He and his team therefore transferred the gene that encodes oxalate oxidase from wheat to chestnut.于是,鲍威尔和他的团队将小麦中能够编码草酸氧化酶的基因转移到了栗树的基因中。Last summer they showed that oxalate oxidase can indeed enhance blight-resistance.去年夏天,他们明了,草酸氧化酶的确能够增强栗树的抗枯萎性。A few years ago the Forest Health Initiative asked Dr Powell and some other researchers doing related studies to look at the work of the American Chestnut Foundation, a group which had been crossbreeding Chinese and American chestnuts.几年前,FHI邀请了正在进行相关研究的鲍威尔士和另一些研究者研究美国栗树研究基金会的工作。Since C. parasitica is Asian, Asiatic trees have evolved resistance to it. The foundation hoped to make a hybrid sufficiently Chinese to be protected, but sufficiently American to pass muster as local.由于栗疫病菌发于亚洲,亚洲树种已经形成了对该真菌的抗性。With the aid of the genomes of the two species, Dr Powell and his collaborators began testing 27 Chinese chestnut genes in the American tree.借助两种栗树的基因组,鲍威尔士及其合作伙伴开始在美国生长的树上测试27种板栗基因。The 800 trees to be planted this month will contain various combinations of these genes, the original wheat gene and six further genes from other tree species.本月将栽种800棵树,这些树包含了原小麦基因以及其他树种6种基因的各种组合基因。And results should come quickly.预计结果很快就可以得出。Field tests for blight-resistance are typically done when trees are a few years old, but Dr Powells team have devised a test of the saplings leaves that they believe can tell whether a tree is resistant when it is less than a year old.抗枯萎性的实地试验一般要当树木生长几年之后才能进行,但鲍威尔士研究小组想出了一个测试树苗叶子的办法,他们认为可以在树龄不满一年的情况下测试出树的抗性。The trial itself will last three years, and the researchers running it will monitor how the modified chestnuts fit in to the local ecosystem, as well as how healthy they are.这项试验会进行三年,进行该试验的研究者将持续观察记录改良过的栗树在当地生态系统的适应程度以及它们的健康状况。If they both do fit and are fit, a decision will then have to be made about whether to release them into the wild. That will be up to the Department of Agriculture, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration.如果能够适应并且长势良好,那是否要在自然环境中大量种植就得由农业部、环境保护署和食品药品监督来决定了。Until now, the genetic modification of trees has had strictly commercial aims: speeding up the growth and extending the environmental tolerance of species intended for plantations.迄今为止,改良树木基因带有明确的商业目的:一是催长,二是为了造林增加物种对环境的容忍度。This use of genetic modification has been opposed by environmentalists, who fear that such supertrees may escape and damage wild forests.为达到该商业目的使用转基因,遭到了环保主义者的反对,他们担心这样的超级树会疯长进而危害到野生丛林。The Forest Health Initiatives goal, though, is to heal wild forests, not hurt them.但FHI的目标是为了恢复而不是危害野生丛林。If its experiments do produce a strain of chestnut that could do the job, it will be interesting to see how enthusiastically greens embrace it.如果试验成功,真能培育出抗栗疫病菌的新品种,那看看环保党在欣然接受时会表现出怎样的欢欣鼓舞,还挺有意思的。 /201311/266596

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