明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年12月13日 09:12:40
In such a spirit on my part and on yours, we face our common difficulties. They concern, thank God, only material things. Values have shrunken to fantastic levels; taxes have risen, our ability to pay has fallen; government of all kinds is faced by serious curtailment of income; the means of exchange are frozen in the currents of trade; the withered leaves of industrial enterprise lie on every side; farmers find no markets for their produce, and the savings of many years and thousands of families are gone.我和你们都要以这种精神,来面对我们共同的困难。感谢上帝,这些困难只是物质方面的。价值难以想象地贬缩了;课税增加了;我们的付能力下降了;各级政府面临着严重的收入短缺;交换手段在贸易过程中遭到了冻结;工业企业枯萎的落叶到处可见;农场主的产品找不到销路;千家万户多年的积蓄付之东流。More important, a host of unemployed citizens face the grim problem of existence, and an equal and great number toil with little return. Only a foolish optimist can deny the dark realities of the moment.更重要的是,大批失业公民正面临严峻的生存问题,还有大批公民正以艰辛的劳动换取微薄的报酬。只有愚蠢的乐天派会否认当前这些阴暗的现实。And yet, our distress comes from no failure of substance, we are stricken by no plague of locusts. Compared with the perils which our forefathers conquered, because they believed and were not afraid, we have so much to be thankful for. Nature surrounds us with her bounty, and human efforts have multiplied it. Plenty is at our doorstep, but a generous use of it languishes in the very sight of the supply.但是,我们的苦恼决不是因为缺乏物资。我们没有遭到什么蝗虫的灾害。我们的先辈曾以信念和无畏一次次转危为安,比起他们经历过的险阻,我们仍大可感到欣慰。大自然仍在给予我们恩惠,人类的努力已使之倍增。富足的情景近在咫尺,但就在我们见到这种情景的时候,宽裕的生活却悄然离去。 /201305/238205

Thank you very much, Gertrude Mongella, for your dedicated work that has brought us to this point, distinguished delegates, and guests:I would like to thank the Secretary General for inviting me to be part of this important ed Nations Fourth World Conference on Women. This is truly a celebration, a celebration of the contributions women make in every aspect of life: in the home, on the job, in the community, as mothers, wives, sisters, daughters, learners, workers, citizens, and leaders.It is also a coming together, much the way women come together every day in every country. We come together in fields and factories, in village markets and supermarkets, in living rooms and board rooms. Whether it is while playing with our children in the park, or washing clothes in a river, or taking a break at the office water cooler, we come together and talk about our aspirations and concern. And time and again, our talk turns to our children and our families. However different we may appear, there is far more that unites us than divides us. We share a common future, and we are here to find common ground so that we may help bring new dignity and respect to women and girls all over the world, and in so doing bring new strength and stability to families as well.By gathering in Beijing, we are focusing world attention on issues that matter most in our lives -- the lives of women and their families: access to education, health care, jobs and credit, the chance to enjoy basic legal and human rights and to participate fully in the political life of our countries.There are some who question the reason for this conference. Let them listen to the voices of women in their homes, neighborhoods, and workplaces. There are some who wonder whether the lives of women and girls matter to economic and political progress around the globe. Let them look at the women gathered here and at Huairou -- the homemakers and nurses, the teachers and lawyers, the policymakers and women who run their own businesses. It is conferences like this that compel governments and peoples everywhere to listen, look, and face the world’s most pressing problems. Wasn’t it after all -- after the women’s conference in Nairobi ten years ago that the world focused for the first time on the crisis of domestic violence?Earlier today, I participated in a World Health Organization forum. In that forum, we talked about ways that government officials, NGOs, and individual citizens are working to address the health problems of women and girls. Tomorrow, I will attend a gathering of the ed Nations Development Fund for Women. There, the discussion will focus on local -- and highly successful -- programs that give hard-working women access to credit so they can improve their own lives and the lives of their families.What we are learning around the world is that if women are healthy and educated, their families will flourish. If women are free from violence, their families will flourish. If women have a chance to work and earn as full and equal partners in society, their families will flourish. And when families flourish, communities and nations do as well. That is why every woman, every man, every child, every family, and every nation on this planet does have a stake in the discussion that takes place here.Over the past 25 years, I have worked persistently on issues relating to women, children, and families. Over the past two and a half years, Ive had the opportunity to learn more about the challenges facing women in my own country and around the world.I have met new mothers in Indonesia, who come together regularly in their village to discuss nutrition, family planning, and baby care. I have met working parents in Denmark who talk about the comfort they feel in knowing that their children can be cared for in safe, and nurturing after-school centers. I have met women in South Africa who helped lead the struggle to end apartheid and are now helping to build a new democracy. I have met with the leading women of my own hemisphere who are working every day to promote literacy and better health care for children in their countries. I have met women in India and Bangladesh who are taking out small loans to buy milk cows, or rickshaws, or th in order to create a livelihood for themselves and their families. I have met the doctors and nurses in Belarus and Ukraine who are trying to keep children alive in the aftermath of Chernobyl.The great challenge of this conference is to give voice to women everywhere whose experiences go unnoticed, whose words go unheard. Women comprise more than half the world’s population, 70% of the world’s poor, and two-thirds of those who are not taught to and write. We are the primary caretakers for most of the world’s children and elderly. Yet much of the work we do is not valued -- not by economists, not by historians, not by popular culture, not by government leaders.At this very moment, as we sit here, women around the world are giving birth, raising children, cooking meals, washing clothes, cleaning houses, planting crops, working on assembly lines, running companies, and running countries. Women also are dying from diseases that should have been prevented or treated. They are watching their children succumb to malnutrition caused by poverty and economic deprivation. They are being denied the right to go to school by their own fathers and brothers. They are being forced into prostitution, and they are being barred from the bank lending offices and banned from the ballot box.Those of us who have the opportunity to be here have the responsibility to speak for those who could not. As an American, I want to speak for those women in my own country, women who are raising children on the minimum wage, women who can’t afford health care or child care, women whose lives are threatened by violence, including violence in their own homes.I want to speak up for mothers who are fighting for good schools, safe neighborhoods, clean air, and clean airwaves; for older women, some of them widows, who find that, after raising their families, their skills and life experiences are not valued in the marketplace; for women who are working all night as nurses, hotel clerks, or fast food chefs so that they can be at home during the day with their children; and for women everywhere who simply don’t have time to do everything they are called upon to do each and every day.Speaking to you today, I speak for them, just as each of us speaks for women around the world who are denied the chance to go to school, or see a doctor, or own property, or have a say about the direction of their lives, simply because they are women. The truth is that most women around the world work both inside and outside the home, usually by necessity.We need to understand there is no one formula for how women should lead our lives. That is why we must respect the choices that each woman makes for herself and her family. Every woman deserves the chance to realize her own God-given potential. But we must recognize that women will never gain full dignity until their human rights are respected and protected.Our goals for this conference, to strengthen families and societies by empowering women to take greater control over their own destinies, cannot be fully achieved unless all governments -- here and around the world -- accept their responsibility to protect and promote internationally recognized human rights. The -- The international community has long acknowledged and recently reaffirmed at Vienna that both women and men are entitled to a range of protections and personal freedoms, from the right of personal security to the right to determine freely the number and spacing of the children they bear. No one -- No one should be forced to remain silent for fear of religious or political persecution, arrest, abuse, or torture.Tragically, women are most often the ones whose human rights are violated. Even now, in the late 20th century, the rape of women continues to be used as an instrument of armed conflict. Women and children make up a large majority of the world’s refugees. And when women are excluded from the political process, they become even more vulnerable to abuse. I believe that now, on the eve of a new millennium, it is time to break the silence. It is time for us to say here in Beijing, and for the world to hear, that it is no longer acceptable to discuss women’s rights as separate from human rights.These abuses have continued because, for too long, the history of women has been a history of silence. Even today, there are those who are trying to silence our words. But the voices of this conference and of the women at Huairou must be heard loudly and clearly:It is a violation of human rights when babies are denied food, or drowned, or suffocated, or their spines broken, simply because they are born girls.It is a violation of human rights when women and girls are sold into the slavery of prostitution for human greed -- and the kinds of reasons that are used to justify this practice should no longer be tolerated.It is a violation of human rights when women are doused with gasoline, set on fire, and burned to death because their marriage dowries are deemed too small.It is a violation of human rights when individual women are raped in their own communities and when thousands of women are subjected to rape as a tactic or prize of war.It is a violation of human rights when a leading cause of death worldwide among women ages 14 to 44 is the violence they are subjected to in their own homes by their own relatives.It is a violation of human rights when young girls are brutalized by the painful and degrading practice of genital mutilation.It is a violation of human rights when women are denied the right to plan their own families, and that includes being forced to have abortions or being sterilized against their will.If there is one message that echoes forth from this conference, let it be that human rights are women’s rights and women’s rights are human rights once and for all. Let us not forget that among those rights are the right to speak freely -- and the right to be heard.Women must enjoy the rights to participate fully in the social and political lives of their countries, if we want freedom and democracy to thrive and endure. It is indefensible that many women in nongovernmental organizations who wished to participate in this conference have not been able to attend -- or have been prohibited from fully taking part.Let me be clear. Freedom means the right of people to assemble, organize, and debate openly. It means respecting the views of those who may disagree with the views of their governments. It means not taking citizens away from their loved ones and jailing them, mistreating them, or denying them their freedom or dignity because of the peaceful expression of their ideas and opinions.In my country, we recently celebrated the 75th anniversary of Women’s Suffrage. It took 150 years after the signing of our Declaration of Independence for women to win the right to vote. It took 72 years of organized struggle, before that happened, on the part of many courageous women and men. It was one of America’s most divisive philosophical wars. But it was a bloodless war. Suffrage was achieved without a shot being fired.But we have also been reminded, in V-J Day observances last weekend, of the good that comes when men and women join together to combat the forces of tyranny and to build a better world. We have seen peace prevail in most places for a half century. We have avoided another world war. But we have not solved older, deeply-rooted problems that continue to diminish the potential of half the world’s population.Now it is the time to act on behalf of women everywhere. If we take bold steps to better the lives of women, we will be taking bold steps to better the lives of children and families too. Families rely on mothers and wives for emotional support and care. Families rely on women for labor in the home. And increasingly, everywhere, families rely on women for income needed to raise healthy children and care for other relatives.As long as discrimination and inequities remain so commonplace everywhere in the world, as long as girls and women are valued less, fed less, fed last, overworked, underpaid, not schooled, subjected to violence in and outside their homes -- the potential of the human family to create a peaceful, prosperous world will not be realized.Let -- Let this conference be our -- and the world’s -- call to action. Let us heed that call so we can create a world in which every woman is treated with respect and dignity, every boy and girl is loved and cared for equally, and every family has the hope of a strong and stable future. That is the work before you. That is the work before all of us who have a vision of the world we want to see -- for our children and our grandchildren.The time is now. We must move beyond rhetoric. We must move beyond recognition of problems to working together, to have the comment efforts to build that common ground we hope to see.Gods blessing on you, your work, and all who will benefit from it.Godspeed and thank you very much. /201408/320009

  Hi,everybody.In 1620,a small band of pilgrims came to this continent,refugees who had fled persecution and violence in their native land.Nearly 400 years later,we remember their part in the American story-and we honor the men and women who helped them in their time of need.大家好。1620年,一小拨朝圣的清教徒来到这片大陆,他们为了逃离故土的迫害和暴力镇压逃难至此。将近400年来的今天,我们依然记得他们在美国历史上的重要位置,我们也崇敬那些在他们最需要帮助的时候伸出援手的人们。Thanksgiving is a day for food and football,and for hoping the turkey didnt turn out too dry.But its also a day to count our blessings and give back to others-a reminder that no matter our circumstances,all of us have something to be grateful for.Maybe its good health,a new addition to the family,or a child taking a next step toward college or a career.Maybe its a new job,or long overdue raise.Maybe its something as simple,and as important,as the chance to spend time with the people who matter most.感恩节是分享美食、观赏球赛的日子,大家都希望火鸡不要烤的太干。这也是我们将祝福和帮助送给他人的日子,无论我们生活在什么环境中,我们都有一些需要感恩的东西。也许是有个好身体、家里有了新居、或者是孩子们在学业或职业上取得了新进展。也许是有了新工作、期待已久的升职。也许是很简单、很重要,与最关心的人一起共度时光的机会。Of course,every American can be thankful for the chance to live in a country founded on the belief that all of us are created equal.And as President,Im thankful that I get to see the best of America every day-the courage of our troops and veterans,the resilience of our families,and the basic goodness of the ordinary people who call this country.当然,每个美国人都会为生活在这样的国家而感动,因为这个国家相信所有人生而平等。作为总统,我感谢每一天我看到的都是最美好的美国,我们有英勇不屈的将士和退伍军人,坚忍不拔的家庭,普通百姓称赞这个国家的一切美好的地方。On this uniquely American holiday,we also remember that so much of our greatness comes from our generosity.Theres the generosity of Americans who volunteer at food banks and shelters,making sure that no one goes hungry on a day when so many plates are full.Theres the generosity of Americans who take part not just in Black Friday and Cyber Monday,but Giving Tuesday-recognizing that in the holiday season,what you give is as important as what you get.在这个独具美国特色的节日里,我们也感谢慷慨大方的人们。乐善好施的美国人民自发设置食品发放中心和救济站,确保在大部分人都有吃的情况下没有人挨饿。慷慨的美国人民不仅参与黑色星期五和网购星期一的活动中,也参与到分享星期二的活动中,这些在假期里的活动让我们记住,你所给予的与你所得到的一样重要。And Ive been touched by the generosity of the Americans whove written me letters and emails in recent weeks,offering to open their homes to refugees fleeing the brutality of ISIL.最近几个星期,很多人给我写信、发邮件,大家敞开家门接纳逃离ISIL魔掌的难民们,我也一直被美国人民的慷慨大方所感动。Now,people should remember that no refugee can enter our borders until they undergo the highest security checks of anyone traveling to the ed States.That was the case before Paris,and its the case now.And what happened in Paris hasnt stopped Americans from opening their arms anyway.现在,大家应该了解,任何来到美国的人,只要没有通过最高级别的安全检查,是不可能进入我们国家的。巴黎事件之前是这样,之后也是这样。但巴黎事件的发生不会让美国敞开的怀抱关闭。One woman from Pennsylvania wrote me to say,;Money is tight for us in my household ...But i have a guest room.I have a pantry full of food.We can do this.; Another woman from Florida told me her familys history dates back to the Mayflower-and she said that welcoming others is part of ;what it means to be an American.;一位来自宾夕法尼亚州的女士写信给我,她说:“我持家过日子,钱很紧张…但我腾出了一间客房。我家的食品还算充足。我们可以做到。”另一位来自佛罗里达州的女士告诉我说她家祖上是随五月花号过来的,她说欢迎其他人正是“美国传统”的一部分。Nearly four centuries after the Mayflower set sail,the world is still full of pilgrims-men and women who want nothing more than the chance for a safer,better future for themselves and their families.What makes America America is that we offer that chance.We turn Lady Libertys light to the world,and widen our circle of concern to say that all Gods children are worthy of our compassion and care.Thats part of what makes this the greatest country on Earth.距离五月花号启航将近四个世纪了,世界上依然充满了朝圣者,这些男男女女不为别的,就为一份更安宁的生存机会,为自己和家人更争取更美好的未来。美国之所以成为美国,正是因为我们提供的这样的机会。我们将自由女神的光明传递到世界各地,我们将我们的关怀扩大到所有上帝的子民,他们值得我们去同情、关爱。而这也正是我们成为这个星球上最伟大的国家的原因。I hope that you and your family have wonderful Thanksgiving,surrounded by loved ones,and full of joy and gratitude.And together,may we all play our own small part in the American story,and write a next chapter that future generations can be thankful for.我希望大家过一个美好的感恩节,与心爱的人团聚,充满欢乐和感激。愿我们共同努力,扮演好我们在美国历史上的角色,写下可以让子孙后代感激的新篇章。From the Obama family to yours,have a great Thanksgiving.最后,我代表奥巴马全家祝大家感恩节快乐!201512/413288


  The power of yet.专注过程,而不是结果。I heard about a high school in Chicago where students had to pass a certain number of courses to graduate,and if they didnt pass a course, they got the grade Not Yet. 我听说,在芝加哥有一所高中,那儿的学生毕业前要通过一系列课程,如果某一门课没有通过, 成绩就是暂未通过。And I thought that was fantastic,because if you get a failing grade, you think, Im nothing, Im nowhere. 我想,这真是个绝妙的做法,因为,如果你某门课的成绩不及格, 你会想,我什么都不是,我什么都没有学到。But if you get the grade Not Yet you understand that youre on a learning curve.但如果你的成绩是暂未通过,你会明白,学习的步伐并没有停下,It gives you a path into the future.你还需逐步向前,争取未来。Not Yet also gave me insight into a critical event early in my career,a real turning point.暂未通过也让我联想起一件尤为重要的 发生在我职业生涯初期的事情,这件事对我而言是一个转折点。I wanted to see how children coped with challenge and difficulty,so I gave 10-year-olds problems that were slightly too hard for them. 当时,我想探究孩子是如何应对挑战和困难的,因此,我让一些10岁大的孩子尝试解决一些对于他们而言 稍稍偏难的问题。Some of them reacted in a shockingly positive way.一些孩子积极应对的方式让我感到震惊。They said things like, I love a challenge,or, You know, I was hoping this would be informative. 他们会这样说,我喜欢挑战,或说,你知道的,我希望能有所获。They understood that their abilities could be developed.这些孩子明白,他们的能力是可以提升的。They had what I call a growth mindset.他们有我所说的成长型思维模式。But other students felt it was tragic, catastrophic.但另一些孩子觉得面对这些难题是不幸,宛如面对一场灾难。From their more fixed mindset perspective,their intelligence had been up for judgment and they failed. 从他们的固定型思维角度来看,他们的才智受到了评判, 而他们失败了。Instead of luxuriating in the power of yet,they were gripped in the tyranny of now. 他们不懂得享受学习的过程,而只盯住眼前的成与败,So what do they do next?这些孩子们后面表现如何?201507/384211

  MR. MORRISON: Well, thank you. Aloha. I want to welcome everyone. And for our online audience, and also for the Secretary, I’d like to describe who is here in our audience. We have the mayor of Honolulu, Mayor Caldwell. We have our senator, Mazie Hirono. We have our former governor, George Ariyoshi, and our other former governor, John Waihee. We have many members of the business and intellectual and public affairs community here in Honolulu. We have members of the diplomatic corps. We have members of our men and women in uniform. We have the members of the board of governors of the East-West Center. We have the staff of the East-West Center. We have friends of the East-West Center. And most importantly, we have future leaders of the Asia Pacific region. And I was just telling the Secretary, I think yesterday we welcomed 130 new participants from the ed States and 40 other countries. They’re here on a unique program to prepare them for being future regional and global leaders.Now, how do you introduce a man who is so well-known for his own leadership and --SECRETARY KERRY: First thing, you can just tell everybody to sit down.MR. MORRISON: Oh. (Laughter.) Please sit down, yes. (Laughter.) Thank you, Mr. Secretary. Anyway, as you know, he has served in war and peace. He was a senator for 28 years; 59 million Americans voted for him for president, including 54 percent of the voters of Hawaii. (Laughter and applause.) But as a former senate staff person, I thought the way to really check him out was to see how his confirmation hearing went. Now, the issues were controversial but the nominee was not controversial, and what his former colleagues said about him, Republicans and Democrats, I think give the essence of the man: extremely well prepared, born in a Foreign Service family, served all 28 years on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, four years as the chairman of that committee. He knows the languages – several foreign languages, countries, leaders, and issues. He is a man of incredible moral and intellectual integrity. He brings conviction and compassion to his job and great energy. He has been, I think, on his seventh trip to Asia, coming back and so we want to welcome him back to the ed States. We want to welcome him to our most Asia Pacific state, and we want to welcome him to the East-West Center, an institution that’s building community with this vast region which is so systemically important to the future of the ed States.Mr. Secretary of State. (Applause.)SECRETARY KERRY: Thank you. Well, good afternoon, everybody. Aloha. It’s wonderful to be here in Hawaii, and man, I can’t tell you how I wish I was as relaxed as some of you in your beautiful shirts. (Laughter.) Here I am in my – whatever you call it – uniform. Uniform, some would say. But it is such a pleasure to be here. Mr. Mayor, it’s great to be here with you. And Mazie, thank you. It’s wonderful to see you, Senator. I’m very happy to see you. Thanks for being here. And governors, thank you for being here very much.Ladies and gentlemen, distinguished guests all, it’s a great, great pleasure for me to be able to be here. And President Morrison, thank you very much for that generous introduction. I appreciate it very much.Charles was way ahead of the curve, folks, in seeing the trend towards regionalism in the Asia Pacific in the early 1990s. And he was calling for community-building within East Asia well before it became a standard topic of discussion on the think tank circuit. So clearly, and to everyone’s benefit, he’s had an ability to focus on the long game. And that is a talent that he actually shares with one of the founding fathers of this institution, a former colleague, beloved to all of you, who became a great friend to me, and that’s Senator Dan Inouye. During my sort of latter years, I actually moved up to about seventh in seniority or something in the ed States Senate, and had I not been appointed to this job, with all of the retirements that are taking place, I don’t know, I might have been third or fourth or something, which is kind of intimidating. But as a result of that, I got to sit beside the great Dan Inouye for four or five years in the Senate. Our desks were beside each other, and we became very good friends. He was one of the early supporters of mine when I decided to run for President in ’04, ’03. But most importantly, Dan Inouye, as all of you know, was a patriot above all who commanded remarkable respect and affection of all of his colleagues. And Hawaii was so wise to keep him in office for so many years.Having just visited yesterday Guadalcanal, having stood up on what was called Bloody Ridge, Edson’s Ridge, and walked into one of the still remaining bunkers that Marines were dug in on against 3,000-plus Japanese who kept coming at them wave after wave in the evening, it’s – it was a remarkable sense of the battle that turned the war. And no place knows the meaning of all of that better than here in Hawaii.Yesterday commemorated really one of the great battles of the Second World War, and so it gave me a chance to reflect with special pride and with humility about Dan’s service to our country. He was a hero in the war, against difficult circumstances which we all understand too well. But he became the first Japanese American to serve in the House of Representatives and the ed States Senate, against all the odds of what was still a prevailing sense in our country of misunderstanding between people. And he just never let that get in the way. He shared a very personal commitment to strengthening ties between the ed States and the Asia Pacific. And that’s why he championed the East-West Center for decades, and I want you to know that President Obama and I strongly support your mission of bringing people together to think creatively about the future of our role in the region and how we overcome the kinds of inherent, visceral differences that sometimes are allowed to get in the way of relationships, and frankly, in the way of common sense.We remember too well in America that slavery was written into our Constitution long before it was written out of it. And we all know the struggle that it took – excuse me – to write it out. So as we look at the world today – complicated, difficult, tumultuous, volatile – for so many of us who have spent decades working on issues central to the Asia Pacific, there’s actually something particularly exciting about this moment. It’s almost exhilarating when you look at Asia’s transformation. And like Dan Inouye, I have had the privilege, as many of you have here I can see, you’ve lived a lot of that transformation firsthand.A number of my – (coughing) – excuse me, it’s the virtue of many hours in an airplane. A number of my ancestors from Boston and from Massachusetts were merchants whose ships dropped anchor in Hong Kong as they plied the lonely trade routes to China. My grandfather, actually, was born in Shanghai and was a businessman who had a partnership with a Chinese businessman. So in our family and in Massachusetts, we’ve had a long sense of the possibilities and of this relationship. Today, East Asia is one of the largest, fastest growing, most dynamic regions in the entire world. And when the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations are complete, about 40 percent of global GDP will be linked by a high-standard trade agreement, a trade agreement that creates a race to the top, not a race to the bottom, where people understand the rules of engagement and there’s accountability and transparency, and business and capital know exactly what the rules of the road will be so they’re attracted to invest each in each other’s countries.After college, I had the privilege of serving in the ed States Navy. And I went through Pearl Harbor. I had a remarkable several days here as a young officer on a frigate before we set sail to cross the Pacific. And I drove all over the island everywhere, in places I probably wasn’t supposed to. But I loved it and then spent a second tour in the rivers of Vietnam. And back then, the word Vietnam – just saying Vietnam – carried with it an ominous meaning. It meant war. It meant huge dissent in America, families torn apart. But today, Vietnam, when you say it, has a whole different meaning to most people. It’s now a dynamic country filled with economic opportunity. It’s a market for our businesses and our investors. It’s a classroom for our children. It has one of the largest Fulbright programs in the world. And it’s a partner in tackling regional economic and security challenges.Such extraordinary transformations have actually become almost the norm in this region. I’ll never forget, 15 years ago, I visited in then Burma – no confusion with Myanmar but now people choose what they want to call it. But I visited with Daw Aung Sung Sui Kyi in the very home in which she was imprisoned for nearly two decades. And this week, I had the privilege of again going back to the very same house – it hadn’t changed, looked the same. She, by the way, 20 years later looks the same. And she is now free to speak her mind as a member of parliament.It’s remarkable. It doesn’t mean all the president are solved. But these transformations are just some of what makes Asia the most exciting and promising places on the planet.I am returning, as President Morrison has said, from actually my sixth trip to the Asia Pacific in 18 months as Secretary of State. And later today, I’ll be meeting with our outstanding Commander of ed States Forces in the Pacific to review a range of America’s formidable military presence issues. I have returned again and again to this region – I can’t tell you how many times I went, Mazie, as a senator to the region. And we are now – we take our enduring interests there, obviously, very, very seriously.201504/367800Actually, those action game players have many other advantages in terms of attention,事实上,动作的玩家在注意力方面还有很多其他优势。and one aspect of attention which is also improved for the better其中之一得到提高的是能够更好地is our ability to track objects around in the world.追踪周围的物体。This is something we use all the time.这个能力我们很多时候都会用到。When youre driving, youre tracking, keeping track of the cars around you.开车的时候你在追踪,追踪着周围的车子。Youre also keeping track of the pedestrian, the running dog,你也在追踪着行人和奔跑着的,and thats how you can actually be safe driving, right?做到了这点才能安全驾驶,对吗?In the lab, we get people to come to the lab,在实验室里,我们会找人到实验室里,sit in front of a computer screen,坐在电脑屏幕前,and we give them little tasks that Im going to get you to do again.然后给他们些小任务,我将要让大家再做一遍相同的小任务。Youre going to see yellow happy faces and a few sad blue faces.你们将要看到黄色的笑脸和一些蓝色的哭脸。These are children in the schoolyard in Geneva during a recess during the winter.这代表了冬天日内瓦的孩子们课间在操场上玩。Most kids are happy. Its actually recess.大多数孩子很开心因为下课了,But a few kids are sad and blue because theyve forgotten their coat.但是还是有几个不太开心用蓝色代表,因为他们忘记穿外套了。Everybody begins to move around,这些孩子开始到处移动,and your task is to keep track of who had a coat at the beginning and who didnt.而你们的任务就是记住谁一开始有外套,谁没有。So Im just going to show you an example where there is only one sad kid.现在的这个例子里面只有一个哭脸。Its easy because you can actually track it with your eyes.这很简单因为你可以用眼睛追踪着它。You can track, you can track, and then when it stops,你看着它,看着它,然后它停住了,and there is a question mark, and I ask you, did this kid have a coat or not?上面有一个问号。我的问题是,这个孩子有外套吗?Was it yellow initially or blue?这张脸一开始是黄色的还是蓝色的?I hear a few yellow. Good.我听到了几个人说是黄色的,很好,So most of you have a brain.大家还是有点儿头脑的。Im now going to ask you to do the task,现在我们再做一遍,but now with a little more challenging task.不过这次加大点难度,There are going to be three of them that are blue.有三个蓝色的脸。Dont move your eyes.不要看其他地方,Please dont move your eyes.千万不要看其他的地方。Keep your eyes fixated and expand, pull your attention.尽量使用你的余光,集中注意力。Thats the only way you can actually do it.只有这样你才能成功。If you move your eyes, youre doomed.如果你移动了你的眼睛就肯定失败了。Yellow or blue?黄色还是蓝色?Yellow. Good.黄色。很好。So your typical normal young adult can have a span of about three or four objects of attention.一般普通年轻人的注意范围大概是三到四个物体。Thats what we just did.就像我们刚才看到的那样。Your action game player has a span of about six to seven objects of attention,而动作的玩家一次可以注意到六到七个物体。which is what is shown in this here.像这个视频里一样。Thats for you guys, action game players.轮到你们大显神通了,游戏玩家们。A bit more challenging, right? 有点挑战性了,对吗?Yellow or blue? Blue.黄色的还是蓝色的?We have some people that are serious out there. Yeah. Good.的确是蓝色的。在座的有些人很有一手嘛!很好!So in the same way that we actually see the effects of games on peoples behavior,我们可以直接看到对于人反应的影响,we can use brain imaging and look at the impact of games on the brain,同样的,我们也可以通过脑成像技术看看对大脑的影响。and we do find many changes,我们看到很多改变,but the main changes are actually to the brain networks that control attention.但是最主要的变化还是表现在大脑控制注意力的部分。So one part is the parietal cortex其中之一是众所周知which is very well known to control the orientation of attention.控制注意力方面的大脑顶叶皮层。The other one is the frontal lobe, which controls how we sustain attention,还有一个则是控制我们如何保持注意力的大脑额叶。and another one is the anterior cingulate,另有一个是控制我们如何which controls how we allocate and regulate attention and resolve conflict.分配和调节注意力以及处理矛盾的前扣带皮层。Now, when we do brain imaging,现在,当我们做脑成像的时候,we find that all three of these networks are actually much more efficient in people that play action games.我们会发现游戏玩家大脑的这三个神经网络结构都比一般人的更有效率。This actually leads me to a rather counterintuitive finding in the literature about technology and the brain.这些使我从文献中找到了关于科技和大脑违背一般人常识的发现。201512/416214

  I want to spend just a moment talking about我想只花一点点时间来谈论the model that weve developed, which allows us to start at the top我们所发展而来的那个模型,那个允许我们从高处开始的模型and look at the drivers of sound, analyze the soundscape看一下那司机的声音,分析下声音的范围,and then predict the four outcomes Ive just talked about.然后预测一下我刚才所说的四种结果。Or start at the bottom,或者按下按钮,and say what outcomes do we want,并说说我们希望怎样的结果,and then design a soundscape to have a desired effect.然后设计一个产生效果的声音范围At last weve got some science we can apply.最终我们得到了我们可以应用的一些科学。And were in the business of designing soundscapes.我们在设计声音范围的一场生意中。Just a word on music. Music is the most powerful sound there is,关于音乐就说一句。音乐是最有威力的一种声音often inappropriately deployed.但它经常被错误地利用。Its powerful for two reasons. You recognize it fast,因为有两个原因使其强大。首先你很快认出了它and you associate it very powerfully.然后你展开了疯狂的联想。Ill give you two examples.我来给你两个例子Most of you recognize that immediately.你们中大多数的人马上就认出了这调The younger, maybe not.年轻人,也许没有认出吧And most of you associate that with something!大多数人会联系到什么吧!Now, those are one-second samples of music.现在,这些都是一秒的音乐的样品。Music is very powerful. And unfortunately音乐很强大。但是不幸的是its veneering commercial spaces, often inappropriately.音乐总是为一些用来装饰那些不适合的商业场合。I hope thats going to change over the next few years.我希望在未来几年有些变化Let me just talk about brands for a moment,让我们先谈论一会儿商标品牌,because some of you run brands. Every brand is out there因为你们中有些事经营品牌企业的。所有的品牌如今making sound right now.都要有自己的主题音乐。There are eight expressions of a brand in sound.在品牌声音中有8种表现方式。They are all important. And every brand needs to have guidelines at the center.他们都很重要。并且所有的品牌都需要把自己的准则放在中心地位。Im glad to say that is starting to happen now.我很高兴地表示现在这一切就要发生了。You all recognize that one. This is the你们都认得出那个声音。这个是most-played tune in the world today.如今世界上被播放最多的调子了。1.8 billion times a day, that tune is played.这个铃声每天被播放18亿次。And it cost Nokia absolutely nothing.并且对于诺基亚而言他们什么也没花什么钱。Just leave you with four golden rules, for those of you who run businesses,这就给你们这些经商的人留下了四条黄金法则,for commercial sound.关于商业音调。First, make it congruent,首先,有一致性,pointing in the same direction as your visual communication.和你们的视觉画面要达到相同方向的沟通效果That increases impact by over 1,100 percent.这大概能增加百分之1100的影响力。If your sound is pointing the opposite direction, incongruent,如果你那声音和画面不一致,指向相反方向,you reduce impact by 86 percent.你会减少百分之86的魅力Thats an order of magnitude, up or down.那是上下数量级的差别啊This is important.这非常重要Secondly, make it appropriate to the situation.其二 ,将其变得适合场景Thirdly, make it valuable. Give people something with the sound.第三,使其有用。给人们一些除了声音之外的东西Dont just bombard them with stuff.不要仅仅用声音来砌合事物And, finally, test and test it again.最后,反复反复的测试Sound is complex. There are many countervailing influences.声音很复杂。有许多抵消的作用。It can be a bit like a bowl of spaghetti:就如一大碗通心粉:sometimes you just have to eat it and see what happens.有时候你得吃了它才知道会发生什么。So I hope this talk has raised sound in your consciousness.所以我希望这个关于声音的演讲可以提升你的意识If youre listening consciously,如果你用心听,you can take control of the sound around you.你可以控制自己周围的声音Its good for your health. Its good for your productivity.这对你的身体有好处。这对你的效率也有好处。If we all do that we move to a state如果我们都那么做,我们就进入了that I like to think will be sound living in the world.一个在世上听上去存在的境界Im going to leave you with a little bit more birdsong.我会给你们留下更多的一些些鸟鸣之歌。I recommend at least five minutes a day, but there is no maximum dose.我推荐你们每天至少听5分钟,但是没有上限Thank you for lending me your ears today.谢谢你们今天借给了我你们的耳朵。201504/367731Gamers dont sit around.游戏玩家不是孤立的Gamers are virtuosos at weaving a tight social fabric.他们很擅长组建严密的社会结构Theres a lot of interesting research that shows一项有趣的调查显示that we like people better after we play a game with them,我们更喜欢那些与我们一同玩游戏的人even if theyve beaten us badly.即便是他们把我打败了,亦是如此And the reason is, it takes a lot of trust原因就是,to play a game with someone.在游戏过程中我们累积了信任We trust that they will spend their time with us,我们之所以信任,就是因为他们和我们花费同样的时间that they will play by the same rules,遵守同样的规则value the same goal, theyll stay with the game until its over.拥有着共同的目标,我们将肩并肩作战(在一起)直至游戏结束And so, playing a game together actually builds up基于此,一同游戏的确可以建立bonds and trust and cooperation.默契、信任和协作And we actually build stronger social relationships as a result.进而,我们会建立一个更强健的社会关系网络Blissful productivity. I love it.幸福的生产力,我非常喜欢这个You know theres a reason why the average World of Warcraft gamer《魔兽世界》的玩家们平均花费plays for 22 hours a week,一周22小时,kind of a half-time job.就像一个兼职一样玩游戏是有原因的Its because we know, when were playing a game,就是因为,当我们玩游戏的时候that were actually happier相对于休闲或者逛街来说,working hard than we are relaxing, or hanging out.我们加倍努力的玩游戏会让我们更开心We know that we are optimized, as human beings,作为人类来说,to do hard meaningful work.我们更喜欢做那些虽然很难但是更有趣的事情(工作)And gamers are willing to work hard如果能够提供一个合适的任务给游戏玩家,all the time, if theyre given the right work.他们就会一直不停地努力玩下去Finally: epic meaning.最后,是史诗的含义Gamers love to be attached to awe-inspiring missions游戏玩家喜欢依附在to human planetary-scale stories.那些关乎人类星际故事的威严任务里面So, just one bit of trivia that helps put that into perspective:你所做的任何一点点的琐事都会成为那个最终的美好愿景的一部分So, you all know Wikipedia, biggest wiki in the world.大家都听说过维基百科,全球最大的WikiSecond biggest wiki in the world, with nearly 80,000 articles,全球第二大的wiki,is the World of Warcraft wiki.就是《魔兽世界》wiki,里面大约有8万篇文章Five million people use it every month.每个月都有500万人在使用它They have compiled more information about World of Warcraft里面集合的有关《魔兽世界》的信息on the Internet than any other比网络上任何其他主题的信息topic covered on any other wiki in the world.都要多They are building an epic story.这就创造了一个史诗般的故事They are building an epic knowledge resource同时也创就了一个关于《魔兽世界》的about the World of Warcraft.如史诗般的巨大的知识资源Okay, so these are four superpowers that add up to one thing:这就是把那四种超能力集中到一件事情上的例子Gamers are super-empowered, hopeful individuals.游戏玩家们就是一个被高度授权、极具希望的群体These are people who believe that they are individually capable他们都认为of changing the world.自己具有改变世界的能力And the only problem is that they believe但问题是他们相信自己能改变的世界是that they are capable of changing virtual worlds虚拟世界,and not the real world.而不是现实世界Thats the problem that Im trying to solve.这正是我所努力去解决的难题Theres an economist named Edward Castronova.有一位叫Edward Castronova的经济学家His work is brilliant. He looks at why他的工作非常卓越。people are investing so much time and energy他研究人们花费这么多时间、and money in online worlds.精力和金钱在网络游戏里面的原因And he says, ;Were witnessing what amounts他说:“我们正在见着大批的人to no less than a mass exodus沉溺于虚拟世界to virtual worlds and online game environments.;和网络游戏当中”And hes an economist. So, hes rational.因为他是一位经济学家,所以他是理性的And he says ...他还说...Not like me -- Im a game designer; Im exuberant.不像我,我只是一个游戏设计师,我充满了活力But he says他还说,玩游戏变得更有意义that this makes perfect sense,因为游戏玩家在虚拟世界里得到了because gamers can achieve more in online worlds than they can in real life.比现实生活中更多的东西They can have stronger social relationships他们在游戏里可以拥有in games than they can have in real life;比现实生活中更好的社会关系they get better feedback and feel more rewarded玩家也可以获得比现实生活in games than they do in real life.中更好的回报以及成就感So, he says for now it makes perfect sense因此,他说对于游戏玩家而言,for gamers to spend more time in virtual worlds than the real world.花费更多的时间在虚拟空间中比现实社会里更有意义Now, I also agree that that is rational, for now.现在我依然觉得这很理性But it is not, by any means, an optimal situation.但是,无论如何,这不是最佳选项We have to start making the real world more like a game.我们不得不从现在开始把现实社会构建得像一个游戏So, I take my inspiration from something that happened因此,我从发生于2500年前的2,500 years ago.一些事情中获取灵感201511/409346

  Hi,everybody. Five years ago, we finally declared that in America, health care is not a privilege for a few, but a right for all.And this week, after more than fifty votes in Congress to repeal or weaken this law; after a Presidential election based in part on preserving or repealing this law; after multiple challenges to this law before the Supreme Court, we can now say this for certain: the Affordable Care Act still stands, it is working, and it is here to stay.大家好。五年前,我们最终宣布,在美国,医疗保险不再是少数人享受的特权,而是所有人都能享有的权利。直到这个星期,这部法律经历了国会试图废除或削弱的50次投票考验;经历了总统选举时期是保留还是废除的争论;在最高法院判决前经历了多次挑战,但现在我们可以明确宣布:《平价医保法》挺住了,该法依然有效,并将继续务于大众。On Thursday, when the Court upheld a critical part of the Affordable Care Act, it was a victory for hardworking Americans all across this country whose lives are more secure because of this law.This law means that if youre a parent, you can keep your kids on your plan until they turn 26.If youre a senior, or an American with a disability, this law gives you discounts on your prescriptions. You cant be charged more just because youre a woman.And you cant be discriminated against just for having a pre-existing condition.上周四,法院对《平价医保法》中争议部分的持,是辛勤工作的美国人民的一场胜利,大家的生活将因这部法律得到更多保障。按照该法规定,如果你身为父母,你可以让你的孩子享受你的医保直至其超过26岁。如果你是老人、残疾人,该法将能保你开处方药时享受折扣。你也不会因为身为女人就被多收保费。也不会因为有既往病史就被拒绝承保。This law is working exactly as its supposed to-and in some ways, better than we expected it to. So far more than 16 million uninsured Americans have gained coverage.Nearly one in three Americans who was uninsured a few years ago is insured today.The uninsured rate in America is the lowest since we began to keep such records.这部法律正在按照当初设计的样子施行,从某种角度来说,甚至要比预期的还要好。截至目前,已经有超过1600万未参保美国人民得到了保障。几乎是每三个几年前未参保的美国人中就有一个已经得到保障。美国的未参保率也降低到有这项记录以来的最低值。The law has helped hold the price of health care to its slowest growth in 50 years.If your family gets insurance through the workplace, not through the Affordable Care Act, youre paying about ,800 less per year on average than you would be if trends before this law had continued-which is good for workers and its good for the economy.该法还将医疗保险价格的增长速度降低到50年来的最低水平。如果你的家人是通过工作单位而不是《平价医保法》获得的保险,你平均每年将比该法实施以前少付1800元的保费,这对广大工薪人士是有利的,对我们的经济也是有利的。The point is, this is not some abstract political debate.For all the misinformation campaigns, and doomsday predictions; for all the talk of death panels and job destruction; for all the repeal attempts-this law is helping tens of millions of Americans.This isnt just about Obamacare.This is health care in America.关键在于,这不是什么抽象的政治辩论。该法经历了所有的充满误导信息的竞选,以及该法注定消亡的传言;经历了该法将产生“死亡委员会[注]”和就业流失的争论,以及多次面临被废除的企图,但它挺过来了,并帮助了数千万美国人民。这并不是什么“奥巴马医保”,而是美国的医保。With this case behind us, were going to keep working to make health care in America even better and more affordable, and to get more people covered.But it is time to stop refighting battles that have been settled again and again.Its time to move on.有了法律的坚强保障,我们就可以继续让美国的医疗保险更优质更便宜,并让更多的人得到保障。但现在我们应该停止过去一而再再而三的斗争了,现在是继续前行的时候了。Because as Americans, we dont go backwards, we move forwards.We take care of each other.We root for one anothers success.We strive to do better, to be better, than the generation before us, and we try to build something better for the generation coming behind us.With this behind us, lets come together and keep building something better right now.作为美国人,我们不走回头路,我们要一直向前。我们彼此相互关爱,我们以成功为基石迈向另一个成功。我们为美好明天而奋斗,为了享有比我们的前辈更美好的生活而奋斗,我们要为我们的子孙后代建设一个更美好的未来。有了这些理想,让我们团结起来,从现在做起,继续建设美好明天。Thanks, and have a great weekend.谢谢大家,祝周末愉快!201507/383962

  Thank you to Acting PresidentChenette, my dearest friend and the person who invited me Gerry Laybourne, theboard, the faculty at Vassar, all of the proud parents that are here, ouralumnae and our alumni, and all the distinguished guests. And to the VassarClass of 2013 – many congratulations.Vassar truly stands as a beaconof hope and opportunity that continues to inspire all of us. You have shown astrong sense of justice, community, and bold activism. Although I know there is always more work tobe done, you have shattered many glass ceilings here...women have always beenin leadership …you are advancing LGBT equality and acceptance, and you do havea campus that’s diverse in more ways than ever before!The education that you receivehere at Vassar is a precious opportunity, one that tens of millions of youngpeople across the world are denied every single day due to poverty, violence,prejudice and injustice.But I know that someday we canactually change that – with students like you leading the way. Students who stood up to the bigotry of theWestboro Baptist Church. You did not stand quietly by. You created a nationalconversation. You raised over 0,000, and you made your voice heard, inspiredaction in others, and produced real results.My hope for this class is thatthis determined courage, this spirit of activism, this fierce opposition tohate will be the rule, not the exception.So I’ve come here to ask youtoday, each and every one of you, just one question: How are you going to takethe lessons that you’ve learned here at Vassar, and carry on this legacy ofmaking a real difference?I hope that each one of you findsthe opportunity to do public service, and truly have an impact on the lives ofso many others.So I want to tell you all alittle bit about my own journey to public service. I was very lucky because Igrew up in a family that had a very strong role model. The role model was mygrandmother. She started her career as a young woman…she never went tocollege…she worked as a secretary in our state legislature in Albany.She had this very bold idea thatwomen’s voices should be heard. There were very few women in elective office 75years ago. She wanted to have a say, and she wanted to have an impact.And she knew somethinginstinctively that all of us know now, that to speak in one voice is veryimportant, but to speak along with many voices is far more powerful. She she asked all the women in thelegislature and all the women she knew in Upstate New York to get involved inpolitics.Together they created anorganization of activism, where these women ran campaigns for about fiftyyears. They did all the door to door work, all the envelope stuffing, all thekinds of things it takes to win modern day campaigns. And that is why they were able to have avoice. They were able to elect peoplewho shared their values, who shared their concerns, and wanted to have the sameimpact on their community that they did.201412/349537。


  I happened to be living in Springfield at the time,and the best part of it was-is that you would close the womens door in the bathroom,当时我刚好住在斯普林菲尔德(Springfield,和波士顿一个州),最精的部分是—如果你到女厕所,关上门and I remember seeing Go Sox, and I thought, really?我记得看到门上写着加油,红袜队,我当时想,不是吧?Or the houses, youd come out, because every game,另外大家都会从屋子里跑出来,因为每一场比赛,well, I think almost every game, went into overtime, right?嗯,我记得几乎每一场比赛都会进入加时赛,对吗?So wed be outside, and all the other lights are on,on the whole block, and kids, like, the attendance was down in school, and kids werent going to school.所以我们会到户外,周围所有的灯都亮着,整个街区都亮着,而孩子们逃课变得比较普遍,他们都不怎么去上学了。But its okay, its the Red Sox, right?但这没什么,因为是红袜队,对吧?I mean, theres education, and then theres the Red Sox,我的意思是,一方面是上学,然后一方面是红袜队,and we know where theyre stacked.我们知道它们孰轻孰重。So this was an amazing experience, and again, yes,所以这是一种绝妙的体验,而且再一次—是的,it was a game, but they didnt write newspaper articles,这是一场游戏,但他们没在报纸上写文章,people didnt say-you know, really, I can die now because the Red Sox won. And many people did.因为人们不会说—你知道,真的,我现在感觉快死了,因为红袜队赢了比赛。 其实很多人那样说了。So games, it means something more to us.所以游戏对我们而言有更多的意义。It absolutely means something more.它绝对拥有更多的意义。So now, just, this is an abrupt transition here.现在切换一下话题。There was three years where I actually did have a real job, sort of.有三年时间,我有了真正的工作(在某种程度上算)。I was the head of a college department teaching games, so, again, it was sort of a real job,我担任了一个学院部门的主管负责教游戏,算是某种意义上的真正的工作,and now I just got to talk about making as opposed to making them.而现在我只是谈一谈做游戏而不是真正的去做出来。And I was at a dinner. Part of the job of it, when youre a chair of a department, is to eat, and I did that very well,有一次我参加了一个宴会。当你是一个部门头头的时候,你的工作之一就是吃,这项工作我完成的很好。and so Im out at a dinner with this guy called Zig Jackson.某次宴会上我认识了这这个人,叫齐格·杰克逊。So this is Zig in this photograph. This is also one of Zigs photographs. Hes a photographer.这张照片里的人就是齐格,他自己的摄影作品。他是一名摄影师。And he goes all around the country taking pictures of himself, and you can see here hes got Zigs Indian Reservation. And this particular shot, this is one of the more traditional shots. This is a rain dancer.他在全国各地跑来跑去,为自己拍照,在这张照片里你可以看到他的印第安人保留地系列照片。再来看这一张,这是较传统的照片之一。这是一位祈雨舞者。And this is one of my favorite shots here.这也是我最喜爱的照片之一。So you can look at this, and maybe youve even seen things like this. This is an expression of culture, right?接下来我们来看这张照片,也许你曾经看到过类似的东西。这是一种文化的表达,对吗?And this is actually from his Degradation series.这张照片实际上是他的退化系列中的一张。And what was most fascinating to me about this series is just, look at that little boy there.这个系列最吸引我的是,看看那里那个小男孩。201602/426383

  Why dont you come in with a list of what you want to discuss.;把你想讨论的事列出来就行。But everyone ignored me and they kept doing their presentations meeting after meeting, month after month.但是所有人都无视我的要求,仍然在做PPT,就这样一个又一个会议,一个月又一个月,没有改变。So about two years in, I said, ;OK, I hate rules but I have a rule: no more PowerPoint in my meetings. And I mean it, no more.;大概两年后,我说,“OK,我不喜欢条条框框,但我要定个规矩,和我开会不用做PPT。我是认真的。别再做了。”About a month later I was about to speak to our global sales team on a big stage and someone came up to me and said,大约一个月之后,我在一个大型场合正要和全球销售团队讲话,一个同事上来对我说,;Before you get on that stage, you really should know everyones pretty upset about the no PowerPoint with clients thing.;“在你上台之前,你应该知道大家对你制定的‘和客户会面不做PPT的规定很有意见。;I said, ;What no PowerPoint with clients thing?;我说,“什么‘ 和客户会面不做PPT?They said, ; You made rule: no PowerPoint.;“他们说:“你制定了一个规定:不做PPT。”So I got on the stage and said, ;one, I meant no PowerPoint with me.之后我上了台就说,“首先,我说的是和我开会不用PPT。But two, more importantly, next time you hear something thats really stupid, dont adhere to it. Fight it or ignore it, even if its coming from me or Mark.;其次,更重要的是,下次你们听到一些你们认为很傻的话,不要去遵循它,而要去提意见或者无视它,哪怕你知道那话是我或者马克说的。”A good leader recognizes that most people wont feel comfortable challenging authority, so it falls upon authority to encourage them to question.一个好的领导者知道大部分人不愿意去挑战权威,所以领导者有义务去鼓励大家来质疑。Its easy to say that youre going to encourage feedback but its hard to do, because unfortunately it doesnt always come in a format we want to hear it.当然说鼓励反馈容易,做起来难。因为听到的反馈往往不是我们想要的那种。When I first started at Google, I had a team of four people and it was really important to me that I interview everyone who was on my team.当我刚开始在Google工作时,我的团队里面有四个人。所以对我而言,由我自己来面试团队的每个成员就尤其重要。It felt like being part of my team meant I had to know you.要成为我的团队的一份子,我必须了解你。When the team had grown to about 100 people, I realized it was taking longer to schedule my interviews.当团队增长到大约有100人的时候,我意识到在面试上花的时间越来越多。So one day at my meeting of just my direct reports, I said ;maybe I should stop interviewing;, fully expecting them to jump in and say ;no, your interviews are a critical part of the process.; They applauded.所以有一天在我的报告会上,我说也许我应该停止面试。那时我完全预计他们会打断我说,“不行,你的面试是流程中很重要的一步。”然而他们都对此非常赞赏。Then they fell over themselves explaining that I was the bottleneck of all time.然后他们转过来解释说我一直都是流程中的瓶颈。I was embarrassed. Then I was angry and I spent a few hours just quietly fuming.我先是觉得羞愧,然后恼怒。我花了几个小时的时间生闷气。Why didnt they tell me I was a bottleneck? Why did they let me go on slowing them down?他们为什么不告诉我我是瓶颈?为什么他们不阻止我拖大家的后腿?Then I realized that if they hadnt told me, it was my fault.后来我明白了:如果没人告诉我,那这就是我的错。I hadnt been open enough to tell them that I wanted that feedback and I would have to change that going forward.我还不够开怀到主动告诉大家我希望得到反馈。我决定从此改变这点。When youre the leader, it is really hard to get good and honest feedback, no many how many times you ask for it.当你是领导,得到有用的真实反馈是很难的,哪怕你反复要求。One trick Ive discovered is that I try to speak really openly about the things Im bad at, because that gives people permission to agree with me, which is a lot easier than pointing it out in the first place.我发现的一个小技巧是尝试主动地谈论你的某些缺点。因为这样会让人愿意来认同我,这比直接指出我的缺点要容易许多。So To take one of many possible examples, when things are unresolved I can get a tad anxious.从众多可能中举个例子来说,当事情没有搞定时,我会有点焦躁。Really, when anythings unresolved, I get a lot anxious.真的,只要有事情没有搞定,我会变得非常焦躁。Im quite certain no one has accused me of being too calm.我敢肯定没人会说我过于冷静。So I speak about it openly and that gives people permission to tell me when its happening.后来我就主动地谈论这个缺点,让大家来认同我,因而可以在我焦躁时告诫我But if I never said anything, would anyone who works at Facebook walk up to me and say, ;Hey Sheryl, calm down. Youre driving us all nuts!;但是如果我对此一句不提,会有Facebook的员工,走上来对我说,“嘿,谢丽尔,冷静点。你快把我们搞疯了!”I dont think so.我可不这样认为。201502/357365

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