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来源:百家咨询    发布时间:2019年10月18日 10:40:53    编辑:admin         

It’s unlike any other creature that has walked the planet. 它和这个星球上其他的生物都不相同。T-Rex is different. Something about Tyrannosaurs and Tyrannosaurus Rex itself is different than other predatory dinosaurs. “雷克斯霸王龙独具一格。霸王龙以及雷克斯霸王龙和其他的掠食性恐龙是不同的。”But for such a celebrated killer able to take on the toughest creatures of the Cretaceous, some things just don’t add up. It’s slow. With a top speed not much more than 25 kilometers per hour, a T-Rex couldn’t even outrun a fit human. It’s also unwieldy, requiring a full two seconds to make a 45-degree turn. 但是,对于这样一种能够击败白垩纪最难对付生物的著名杀手来说,有些东西也不如人意。那就是它的速度。雷克斯霸王龙的最高速度超不过每小时25公里,甚至没有一个健康的人类速度快。它同样十分笨拙,转一个45度的圈就需要整整两秒钟。If a T-Rex were to fall over while chasing a prey item, it might seriously wound itself. And its hands, with only two fingers are completely useless for gripping prey. 如果雷克斯霸王龙在追击猎物时摔倒,那它将可能受到严重的伤害。而雷克斯霸王龙的前肢仅仅两根手指,这对于抓住猎物来说完全没有作用。After its giant size and its huge teeth, the thing we most notice about T-Rex are its dinky, little arms, these tiny, little arms that can’t even reach its mouth. “研究过雷克斯霸王龙巨大的体型和牙齿后,我们接下来最容易注意到的就是雷克斯霸王龙小小的前肢,这些极小的前肢甚至不能触碰到它们自己的嘴部。”The giant T-Rex is a baffling creature. There has to be more to this killer. How did this giant mouth on legs become the ded butcher of the Cretaceous? Was its raw power, its shark-like jaws, or something else entirely?雷克斯霸王龙体型巨大并充满谜团。它身上一定还有更多的秘密。它长在腿部的大嘴又怎样成为了白垩纪最恐怖的“屠夫”呢?是因为它的强壮有力?它鲨鱼般的大口?还是完全因为其他的原因?Fossils of Tyrannosaurus Rex have been unearthed in the U.S., Canada, and even Asia. For scientists, these discoveries point to one conclusion—this carnivore has little to fear, even from the most well-armed herbivore of the Cretaceous, Triceratops. But to bring down an animal this tough takes more than just brawn, muscle, and teeth. It requires planning and strategy. 雷克斯霸王龙的化石曾在美国,加拿大,甚至亚洲被发掘出。对于科学家们来说,这些发现都引向一个结论——这种食肉恐龙基本上无所畏惧,对于白垩纪防御力最强的食草恐龙三角龙也同样如此。但是,想要击倒像三角龙防御力这样强的动物,仅仅依靠发达的肌肉,牙齿还远远不够。同样需要的是计划以及战略。The T-Rex is highly intelligent. Its cerebrum is one of the largest of the prehistoric world. It has the ability to process sophisticated sensory information.雷克斯霸王龙智商极高。它的大脑是史前世界最大的动物大脑之一。它能够处理复杂的传感信息。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201402/276410。

Finance and economics财经商业Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac房利美与房地美Deconstruction delays关闭计划或搁浅A flawed reform of Americas housing-finance market存在缺陷的美国房屋金融市场改革A RARE area of agreement about the financial crisis of 2008 is that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were at the core of the meltdown and are in urgent need of reform.关于2008年金融危机,几个少有的一致观点中就包括:房利美和房地美是这次灾难的主要原因,亟需整改。On March 16th the leading Republican and Democratic members of thekey Senate Banking Committee belatedly released a plan,在3月16日,参议院委员会中几位主要的共和党和民主党议员发布了一份迟来的计划,for restructuring the two publicly traded mortgage giants.内容是整改这两家公开交易的抵押贷款巨头。The plan has received widesp attention in part because it appears to address the most evident problems of Fannie and Freddie,这份计划受到广泛关注的原因部分在于它或将解决两房最为显著的问题,and because it is deemed likely to be approved by Congress.部分则是普遍认为这份计划会在国会通过。Yet neither of these assumptions, on deeper examination, seems to be true.然而仔细一想,这两个假设似乎都很难实现。To satisfy those who want low-priced mortgages on terms that private markets would never endorse,那些需要私有资本市场不会批准的低成本抵押贷款的民众应感到满足,the plan makes explicit the government guarantee on debt which had been implicit for Fannie and Freddie.因为这份计划明确表示政府将会对这些债务做出担保,而这曾是两房的潜在规则。This would lower the interest rate on high-risk loans, while obscuring the cost of the subsidy.这一规定将降低高风险贷款的利率,同时使补贴成本难以计算。To placate those who worry that this in turn would leave the government stuck with mountains of dud loans,那些担心政府会因此接受大量不良贷款的人也不必紧张,a 10% capital cushion must be provided by investors to absorb initial losses.因为计划规定投资者们需要提供10%的资本缓冲来承担首次损失。A fee of 0.1% would be charged on all mortgage-backed bonds, with the proceeds going to three funds, two pre-existing, that will provide subsidies for housing.所有抵押保债券将会收取0.1%的费用,这笔收费将交由三家提供房屋补贴的基金,其中两家已经存在。An as-yet undetermined insurance charge will be levied on top.另外还要征收一项保险费,其数额尚未确定。The result, said Mike Crapo, the ranking Republican senator on the committee, would be a strong step forward to fixing our flawed housing system.委员会中的资深资深共和党参议员Mike Crapo认为,这个结果将是改善我们充满缺点的住房体系的重要进步。If only, say critics, who include investors and both friends and foes of Fannie and Freddie.批评者,包括投资者以及两房的敌友机构认为,哪怕计划得以通过,也会带来很多问题。The first objection is that the law would create an unwieldy bureaucracy,第一个障碍就是该法规将催生一个运作迟缓的官僚体系,with a regulator atop other entities devoted to overseeing functions such assyndicating loans or bundling the loans of small banks.用一个监管机构来监督实体机构行使某些职能,比如银团贷款和捆绑小型的贷款。When the plan was announced, the price of shares in Fannie and Freddie, which account for about two-thirds of the mortgage market, did not budge at first.当这个计划被宣布时,拥有抵押贷款市场三分之二份额的房利美和房地美的股价并没有立刻发生变化。Then they tanked—presumably because investors reached page 387 of the 442-page text,之后却狂跌不止,或许是因为投资者终于把442页的文本翻到了387页,and found enshrined in legislation an earlier 2012 order by the Treasury that expropriated from private investors all profits made by Fannie and Freddie.发现了法律中深藏的一项财政部于2012年下达的命令:没收私人投资者从两房获得的利润。The move is unlikely to help attract the private money needed to supply the 10% in equity underpinning bonds issued under the new plan.这个命令可不会帮助吸引私人资本为新计划将发行的用以持股票的债券提供10%的资金。Opponents of Fannie and Freddie contend that the two played a key role in the crisis,两房的竞争对手们认为,这两家利用好听的经济适用房的授权,by encouraging the issuance of loans with tiny downpayments through a benign-sounding affordable housing mandate.鼓励发行首付极低的住房贷款,从而对金融危机负有很大责任。Nothing much has changed. Under the new plan, downpayments of as little as 3.5% of the loan value would be permitted.但在这方面却没有太大改变。新计划中,首付款可低至贷款的3.5%。Strewn through the proposed law are words such as affordable, equal access and underserved communities,该项被提议的法规中充斥着经济适用,同样途径和弱势群体这类词语,which suggest that lending decisions will be based on political rather than credit criteria.表明关于贷款的决定将取决于政治因素而不是信用标准。The result, says Edward Pinto of the American Enterprise Institute, a think-tank, will be risky lending for those least able to cope.智囊团美国企业协会的Edward Pinto表示,贷款给无法偿还者非常危险。The underlying problem with the new plan is that, like Fannie and Freddie before it, it tries to reconcile two conflicting goals:新计划的潜在问题和这份计划之前两房的行为一样,想要同时完成两个相冲突的目标:protecting the financial system and providing low-cost housing loans to favoured groups. A better approach would be to handle these goals separately and explicitly.即保护金融体系,又想为特殊群体提供低花费的房屋贷款。将两个目前独立而明确地处理会是一个更好的方式。 /201403/282299。

Shes aly lost four babies, at least one to sharks.她已经失去了四个孩子,至少有一只喂了鲨鱼。This new calf would be especially precious.因此这个新生儿显得尤为珍贵。Very little is known about the first days of a calfs life.小海豚刚出生的那几天鲜为人知。Its a rare opportunity for Janet to learn more.珍妮特学习的机会不多。They are all very close, and they just sort of stay together, tight in rest它们靠的非常近,紧紧的挨在一起休息。All the dolphin families in Shark Bay are mostly made up of females.鲨鱼湾的大多数海豚家庭都是由雌性海豚建立的。Just like cuddling in humans, the Beachies spent a lot of time touching and patting.跟人类一样,比奇家庭成员也花了很多时间彼此触摸亲近。Family is everything for dolphins.家庭生活对海豚而言至关重要。201404/284603。

These holes are the unmistakable hallmark of a violent death. Their shape suggest they were made by the teeth of a big cat, but which one? Today there’s only one large cat in the region, the Florida panther. Though similar to the cougar at the western states, its now much rarer. But it was around during the ice age, so could it have killed the glyptodont? 这些裂孔无疑出自一位猛烈的“死亡收割者”。从形状上看,他们出自一种大型猫科动物的牙齿,但是是哪一种呢?今天,在这片区域只存活着一种大型猫科动物——佛罗里达豹。尽管和西部各州的美洲狮有很多相似之处,但是他们却更为稀少。然而换作是在冰河时代,他们能杀死雕齿兽吗?Although it could easily manage a deer, the Florida panther was probably too small to tackle such a giant. But it wasnt the only big cat around 13,000 years ago. There was also the mighty American lion, powerful enough to kill a glyptodont. 尽管能够轻易猎杀一只鹿,但是佛罗里达豹的体型却没有大到能够对付如此一个大型动物。但是在13000年以前,大型猫科动物的种类更多。例如大美洲狮,他们十分强大,杀死一只雕齿兽绰绰有余。The scimitar-toothed cat, known to attack young mammonths, was also big and strong enough. And then there was the most infamous cat of all, the sabertooth. Like the scimitar, it saved its awesome fangs for slashing soft flesh. It would have been unlikely to risk breaking them on bony armor. But the warm climate of ice age Florida made it a sanctuary for another killer cat. Still South Americas top predator, the jaguar is capable of taking prey much larger than itself. Weight for weight, its probably the most powerful cat alive today.这种牙齿呈月牙状的猫科动物经常捕杀年幼的猛犸象,他们体型巨大且十分强壮。而另一个例子就是鲜为人知的剑齿虎。和大美洲狮的月牙状牙齿一样,他们也有着长长的牙齿,并用此来撕扯柔软的肉。但要是用他们在撕咬骨盔也并不可行。然而温暖的气候使冰河时代的佛罗里达成为了另一种猫科“杀手”的避难所,这种猫科动物同样是南美州的顶层捕猎者——美洲虎,它们能够猎杀比自身体型大得多的动物。同样,它们也可能是当今存活的最为强大的猫科动物。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201307/249995。

Feeling down? Youre not alone.你有感到很失落吗?不只你这样。If depression seems pretty common, it is.抑郁看起来很普遍,事实上也是如此。One in every ten adults suffers from depression.每十个成年人里就有一个会患有抑郁症。And thats what has scientists puzzled.这让科学家们感到不解。If depression is a detrimentalcondition, why is it so rampant in the population?如果抑郁对身体有害,那么为什么人群中抑郁症患者如此之多呢?Some scientists think they may have the answer.一些科学家认为他们已经找到了。Depression may have an evolutionary benefit.抑郁也许对进化有好处。It may improve ones chances of fighting off infection.它能提高人体免疫力。Scientists have known that depressed people display an immunoactive condition known as inflammation,一些科学家发现抑郁症人群体内会产生免疫活性,也就是炎症,even when they are not infected.即便他们未受到感染时也会如此。For several years they have been finding that genes linked to depression also affect the function of the immune system.几年来,科学家们逐渐发现与抑郁有关的基因也会影响免疫系统的功能。Stress, which can lead to depression, also modifies the immune system.同样会导致抑郁的压力因素也会改变免疫系统。These findings suggested that depression was somehow linked to the bodys ability to fight disease.从某种程度上讲,这些调查结果表明抑郁与人体免疫力有关。Some scientists now propose that depression might have had an evolutionary advantage in the days before modern medicine and antibiotics.一些科学家提出早在现代药物和抗生素出现之前,抑郁就可能能够给进化带来好处。Infection was a major cause of death in early human history.感染是人类早期历史中导致死亡的主要原因之一。Surviving those infections determined which genes were passed to the next generation.能够在这些感染中存活就决定了哪种基因能够传递给下一代。They suspect that depression helped people, especially children, survive infection.他们推测抑郁可能会帮助人们特别是儿童抵御感染的侵害。Fatigue leads toinactivity and less social contact which helps keep infection from sping.疲劳会让人不愿意运动,同时也会减少社交,由此便会阻止感染的传播。Shunning food helps avoid food sharing which can also sp infection.对食物没胃口就会避免与别人分 享食物,这也能够避免感染传播。Sleeplessness, which is associated with both depression and immune system activation,失眠与抑郁和免疫系统激活也存在联系,may have been a mechanism to keep a person alert to fight off predators after injury.失眠可能会产生一种让人在受伤后能对感染保持警觉的机制。If scientists are correct about this link, it could lead to new treatments for depression.如果科学家们对这些联系的猜测正确的话,那么它们将促成新的治疗抑郁症的方法产生。They are interested in drugs that treat conditions where the immune system attacks the persons ownbody, known as auto immune diseases.他们对用于治疗自体免疫症的药物很感兴趣。It is possible that medications known to treat auto immune disease may be successful in treating depression also.那些已知的用于治疗自身免疫性疾病的药物对治疗抑郁症可能同样有效。201403/281639。