2019年08月19日 10:38:12|来源:国际在线|编辑:健步助手
THE International Cancer Genome Consortium, an alliance of laboratories that is trying to produce a definitive list of the genetic mutations that cause cancer, is accumulating data at an astonishing rate. About 3,000 individual breast tumours, for example, have now had their genotypes published. But these data will not, by themselves, help patients. For that, they have to be collected in the context of a drug trial. And this is just what Matthew Ellis and his colleagues at Washington University in St Louis have done for women suffering from breast cancer. Their methods, if they prove to work for other cancers too, may revolutionise treatment.国际癌症基因组协作组(THE International Cancer Genome Consortium)是试图建立一份会引起癌症的基因突变完整清单的实验室联盟,它积累数据的速度让人吃惊。例如,它已经发表了大约3000种不同的乳房肿瘤的基因型。但光凭这些数据本身无法帮助患者。要医治病人,人们必须结合药物试验采集数据。而这正是在圣路易斯市的华盛顿大学(Washington University in St Louis)工作的马修?埃利斯(Matthew Ellis)及其同事们为罹患乳腺癌的妇女们所作的工作。如果事实明他们的方法对其他癌症也有用的话,这可能会是癌症治疗的一次革命。Dr Ellis and his team sequenced the whole genomes of both cancerous and normal tissue from 46 women with tumours of a type called oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. They also sequenced just the gene-containing regions of the genome-about 1% of total DNA-from an additional 31 women, and parts of the sequences of 240 more. They then compared the healthy and tumorous genomes of each patient, in order to discover which genes had mutated in the cancer.埃利斯士及其团队对46名身患雌激素受体阳性乳腺癌的妇女的癌组织和正常组织进行了全基因组测序。他们也对另外31名病人的基因组中含有基因的那些区域(约占整个DNA的1%)进行了测序,并对其他240名病人的这些部分做了部分测序。此后,为找出癌细胞中哪些基因发生了突变,他们比较了每个病人的健康和癌变基因组。In this, they were following the normal protocol of the cancer genome consortium. The novelty of their approach was that the women in question had each been involved in one of two clinical trials of a drug called letrozole. These trials established letrozole as a standard treatment for people with this type of breast cancer, but not all patients benefit equally from the drug. Dr Ellis hoped to find out why.他们在这一工作中是按癌症基因组协作组的标准程序操作的,但其方法的新颖之处是,他们还同时进行一种名为来曲唑的药物的临床试验。该试验有两种,每个病人都接受其中的一种。这些试验实来曲唑是这类乳腺癌的标准治疗方法,但它对每个病人的疗效并不一样。埃利斯士希望找出其原因。As they report in Nature, he and his team discovered 18 genes that were often mutated. Some were the usual suspects of cancer genetics. These included p53, a gene that, when working properly, suppresses cancer by regulating DNA repair, cell division and cellular suicide, and MAP3K1 and MAP2K4, which both promote cell growth. Others, though, were a surprise. At the top of that list were five which had previously been linked to leukaemia, but were not thought to affect solid tumours.正如他们在《自然》杂志中所报告的那样,埃利斯和他的团队发现了18种经常发生突变的基因,其中有些是癌症遗传学通常怀疑的对象。这中间包括p53,这种基因在正常工作时通过调节DNA对的修复、细胞分裂和细胞自杀来抑制癌症;还有MAP3K1和MAP2K4,它们都能促进细胞生长。但也有些令人吃惊的其他结果。高踞名单前列的5种基因是人们过去认为与白血病有关的,没想到它们也会影响实体瘤。By combining their newly acquired genetic data with clinical data from the participants, Dr Ellis and his colleagues showed that those whose tumours carried mutations in p53 (16% of the total) were less likely to have responded to letrozole than women whose tumours had normal p53. Conversely, those whose tumours had changes in either MAP3K1 or MAP2K4 (another 16%) had better than average responses to the drug.将他们新得到的基因数据与参与试验者的临床数据结合,埃利斯士等人明了,来曲唑对肿瘤中有p53基因突变的病人(占总数的16%)的疗效不如对肿瘤中p53基因正常的病人那样显著。与此相反,这一药物对肿瘤中MAP3K1或MAP2K4有变化的病人(也占总数的16%)的疗效高于平均水平。This sort of information has obvious implications for treatment. And the cheapness of modern gene-sequencing methods, particularly those that are looking for specific mutations suspected in advance, means that a tumour#39;s mutational complement can be worked out easily in an appropriately equipped pathology laboratory. In the case of oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer, the genetic analysis has not yet gone so far as to be able to say with certainty which drug will produce the best result for a given individual, but Dr Ellis#39;s result lays a foundation on which such an edifice might be built for breast cancer and perhaps for other types of tumour, too.这种信息对治疗的含义是明显的。而且,现代基因测序法价格低廉,寻找预先已有怀疑的某些特别的基因突变尤为便宜;这意味着,在拥有合适装备的病理实验室里,人们可以很容易地找出肿瘤基因突变的补体。就雌激素受体阳性乳腺癌来说,基因分析还无法肯定地告诉我们,哪种药物对某个病人疗效最佳;但埃利斯士的结果打下了一个基础,或许可以在此之上为乳腺癌——甚至其他种类的癌症——的治疗建立有效的预测方法。 /201207/192629An Earth-size planet has been spotted orbiting a nearby star at a distance that would makes it not too hot and not too cold - comfortable enough for life to exist, researchers announced September 29.据美国太空网9月29日报道,研究人员最新宣称探测到一颗类似地球的行星,其环绕邻近恒星距离适中,得以保持适宜的气候和温度——舒适程度足以让生命存活下来。If confirmed, the exoplanet, named Gliese 581g, would be the first Earth-like world found residing in a star's habitable zone - a region where a planet's temperature could sustain liquid water on its surface. And the planet's discoverers are optimistic about the prospects for finding life there.如果得以实,这颗被命名为“Gliese 581g”的系外行星将成为第一颗类似地球的世界——该行星的温度可维持表面存在液态水。而探测者们则因此对找到外星生命充满希望。"Personally, I would say, my own personal feeling is that the chances of life on this planet are 100 percent," said Steven Vogt, a professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of California. "I have almost no doubt about it."“就个人角度而言,我认为这颗行星上存在生命的概率为100%,”美国加州大学圣塔克鲁兹分校天体物理学家史蒂文-沃格特说。“对此我几乎毫不置疑。Gliese 581g is one of two new worlds the team discovered orbiting the red dwarf star Gliese 581, bumping that nearby star's family of planets to six. The other newfound planet, Gliese 581f, is outside the habitable zone, researchers said.”Gliese 581g是环绕红矮星Gliese 581两颗行星中的其中一颗,它的发现使该行星系内行星数量增加至6颗。研究人员称,另一颗新发现的行星是Gliese 581f,位于适宜居住区域之外。  The star is located 20 light-years from Earth in the constellation Libra. Red dwarf stars are about 50 times dimmer than our sun. Since these stars are so much cooler, their planets can orbit much closer to them and still remain in the habitable zone. Estimates suggest Gliese 581g is 0.15 astronomical units (One astronomical unit is the average distance between the Earth and sun) from its star, close enough to its star to be able to complete an orbit in just less than 37 days.而红矮星Gliese 581位于天秤星座,距离地球20光年,大约比太阳昏暗50倍。由于这样的恒星温度相对较低,它的行星在近距离环绕其运行的同时还能保持着适宜的气候和温度。初步分析认为Gliese 581g与恒星的距离为0.15个天文单位(一个天文单位约等于地球至太阳的平均距离),较近的轨道距离使得该行星公转一周只需37天。Gliese 581g has a mass three to four times Earth's, the researchers stimated. From the mass and estimated size, they said the world is probably a rocky planet with enough gravity to hold onto an atmosphere. Just as Mercury is locked facing the sun, the planet is tidally locked to its star, so that one side basks in perpetual daylight, while the other side remains in darkness. This locked configuration helps to stabilize the planet's surface climate, Vogt said. Between blazing heat on the star-facing side and freezing cold on the dark side, the average surface temperature may range from minus 31 to minus 12 degrees Celsius, the researchers said.研究人员估测Gliese 581g行星的质量大约是地球的3到4倍。基于该行星的质量和预测体积,研究人员称该行星很可能是一颗岩石行星,具有足够的引力维持大气层。与水星总有一半固定地面对太阳相似,该行星总是始终保持一面朝向恒星,使得星球的一半永久处于阳光之中,而另一半则永久位于黑暗。沃格特称,这种特征有助于稳定行星的表面气候。研究人员还称,在炽热和寒冷的两个半球之间,该星球平均表面温度为零下31摄氏度至零下12摄氏度。 /201010/115140Cards on the table, this is not going to be a forensic review of the iPhone 5S. Seven weeks ago it reached the hands of the public, and since then Apple has struggled to keep their latest flagship smartphone in stock. It’s hard to disagree with those sort of sales numbers, and after spending two weeks with the iPhone 5S I haven’t found any reason to even try. The iPhone 5S is the best all-round smartphone on the market right now.打开天窗说亮话,这篇对iPhone 5S的评测不是为了引发争论。七周前,这部设备到达了大众手中,自那以后,苹果就一直在努力确保这款最新旗舰智能手机的库存。很难对那些销售额数字提出异议,而使用iPhone 5S两周之后,我甚至找不到任何理由来这样做。iPhone 5S是目前市场上最好的多功能智能手机。Yes, that’s a statement that’s going to raise a lot of eyebrows (and I can imagine the comments are aly being mentally composed). There is a lot of choice in the smartphone market right now, and there is no right answer to the question of ‘which is the best phone to buy.’ Every handset and every operating system is a collection of compromises, and the iPhone is compromised in a different way to an Android, Windows Phone, or BlackBerry handset.是的,这样说一定会让很多人扬起眉毛吧(我可以想象,许多正在酝酿之中了)。现在市场上有许多智能手机型号可供选择,关于“哪一款是值得购买的最佳手机”这个问题,没有正确。每一部手持设备、每一个操作系统都是一系列妥协和折中的结果,而iPhone的妥协折中方式与安卓、Windows Phone或是黑莓手机有所不同。The iPhone 5S puts much more focus on ease of use and simple choices than an Android handset such as the Samsung Galaxy S4. Where Android opens up a world of choice in settings, layouts, launchers, and options, the iPhone 5S provides a standard platform for everyone using the handset.相较于三星Galaxy S4等安卓手持设备,iPhone 5S更加注重于易用性和选择的简单性。安卓将整个设置、布局、启动器和选项的世界开放给用户,而iPhone 5S则为使用该设备的所有人提供了一个标准平台。That reduces the appeal of the the iOS platform to the vocal power-users and hacker community who want a platform to play with, but it also makes the handset much more appealing to the general public. For many, smartphones are still complicated little beasts, which is where Apple’s whole ethos for the iPhone and iOS comes in to play. The iPhone 5S is designed for everyday use and to just work, not something that needs to be tweaked and maintained.这一特点降低了iOS平台对影响力较大的超级用户和那些想要有一个平台“玩耍”的黑客社区的吸引力,但却也使其对普罗大众的吸引力增加了。对许多人来说,智能手机依然是难以驯的小野兽,而这正是苹果iPhone和iOS背后整个核心理念发挥作用的地方。iPhone 5S是以日常使用和“够用就好”为目的而设计的,它不是某种需要花心思设置并加以维护的东西。The iPhone 5S is unashamedly aimed at the mainstream user, and it achieves that goal with ease.iPhone 5S的目标受众直指主流用户,而它也轻松达到了这个目标。The focus of the application model used (go into an app, do something, move back to the launch screen, go into another app) is uncluttered, which makes it approachable and understandable. Without a home screen for icons and widgets, or external launchers, you know where to find everything, but this trade-off for minimalism does reduce the configurability that many Android fans enjoy.苹果所专注的应用使用模式(进入一个应用,做点什么,回到启动屏幕,再进入另一个应用)整齐划一,令人感觉亲切,也简单易懂。主屏幕没有图标或小插件或外部启动器,你也知道怎么样去找到需要的东西,但这种极简主义的负面就是减少了许多安卓粉丝喜欢的可配置性。The iPhone switches effortlessly between 3G, 4G LTE, and Wi-fi data, keeping the bills down and the speed as high as possible. The mobile version of Safari is smooth and quick to render pages. I’ve not come across any issues in using it for my regular browsing.iPhone能在3G、4G LTE和Wi-fi数据模式之间轻松切换,使上网费用尽可能低,同时又兼顾了上网速度。Safari浏览器的移动版本流畅无比,打开页面十分迅速。在日常网页浏览中,我从未碰到过任何问题。Connecting to my computer remains one of the joys of the Apple system, if you are happy to buy into the iOS ecosystem. While there are various application suites and connectivity packages on other platforms, there is still no easier way to move a managed music collection from a desktop computer over to a smartphone than iTunes. There’s no need to worry about directory structures, location and copying files on your deskbound computer, or play around with DRM issues. iTunes just works, both for local and purchased media.将其和我的电脑连接依然是苹果系统的一大乐趣之一,如果你乐于接受iOS生态系统的话。尽管其他平台上有各种不同的应用程序套件和连接包,可是仍然没有比iTunes更便于将整理好的音乐合辑从台式机复制到智能手机的方法了。你无需担忧文件夹结构、存储位置、在你的台式机上复制文件,或是处理数字版权管理问题。iTunes自己会搞定一切,无论是本地媒体还是你所购买的媒体文件。The iPhone 5S builds on the design of the iPhone 5, adding in the new 64-bit A7 processor, and introducing the M7 motion co-processor. Both of these are very much on the bleeding edge, with only a handful of applications set up to make use of them at the moment. Going forwards though, these two chips and their architecture are going to be keystones of the platform, which makes the 5S as future proof a smartphone as you could hope to buy.iPhone 5S基于iPhone 5打造,增加了全新的64位A7处理器,并引进了M7动态协作处理器。这两项都处于技术前沿地位,目前仅有少数几款应用程序能利用它们的优势。不过,随着时间的推移,这两款芯片及其架构将成为苹果平台的基石,这也明了5S将会是你未来所想要购买的智能手机。While the 5S is geared towards being a mainstream phone with appeal, it’s not perfect. Much of that is down to the software, specifically iOS 7. The reworking of Apple’s mobile operating system has been critiqued from some areas as reducing the functionality of the device, looking like a ‘My First Smartphone’ OS, and reducing the flexibility of the handset.尽管5S的设计意图是成为拥有吸引力的主流手机,但它不是完美的。不足之处主要在于其软件,特别是iOS 7操作系统。苹果移动操作系统的改动中,有些地方被大家诟病:减少了该设备的功能性,看起来像“我第一部智能手机”的操作系统,以及降低了这款手持设备的灵活性。I think a lot of the noise around the look of iOS 7 is more to do with the familiarity of iOS 6 rather than an appreciation of iOS 7. When things change, it’s rare for the existing user base to be anything other than vocal about a change. While I could point out the countless changes as a cosmetic level, the loss of highlighting on selectable text options, and the abundance of the white backgrounds and spindly text, this is the almost modernist look that Apple’s Jony Ive has chosen.我认为,围绕着iOS 7 外观的种种噪音更多地在于大众对iOS 6的熟悉度,而不是与iOS 7的欣赏程度有关。当事物发生变化时,现有用户群对某种变化表示抗议是常有的事。我能够指出美观层面上发生的无数变化,但没有高亮显示的可选择文本选项,以及数量众多的白色背景和细长型文字——这近乎是苹果的乔尼?艾维(Jony Ive)所选择的现代派外观。That’s not to say there are areas that should have been examined. The look of iOS 7, and therefore the look of the iPhone 5S is not quite consistent. Apple’s strength is keeping everything simple and easy to understand, and that requires a laser-like focus, so it’s just a shame that there are a number of areas that make me do a double take on the OS. Case in point the keyboard. For whatever reason, there are three different styles of keyboard that could show up – a modern dark style, a modern white style, and the old grey and black keyboard. There may be technical reasons why these are still available to first and third party developers, but it’s an area I would have expected Apple to be a lot more professional.这并不是在说,有些地方苹果应该事先核查。iOS 7的外观和iPhone 5S的外观并不十分一致。苹果的强项在于让所有事物保持简单易懂,而这要求有极高的专注度,然而,这一新版操作系统中有不少让我花点时间才能搞懂的地方,不得不说是个遗憾。以键盘为例。不知出于什么原因,手机会出现三种不同风格的键盘——现代深色风格、现代白色风格,以及旧有的灰黑键盘。第一方及第三方开发人员依然可获得这些选择,这当中或许有技术原因,但我原本期望苹果能在这上面更为专业一些的。I found the various options and locations in the Settings app to be a mixed bag as well. There’s a certain logic to grouping settings by function (such as notifications), but you also have individual apps names for other settings . Splitting these out over multiple locations means a lot of hunting for a specific option in an app, with the settings for alerts, retrieval, and updates in different locations.我发现,“设置”里的各种选项和位置设定也有些混乱。按照功能(如通知)将设置选项分组的做法背后有一定的逻辑,但其他设置中也出现了每个应用的名称。将这些信息分散在多个不同的位置意味着在一个应用中寻找特定选项的搜索量很大——提醒、检索和更新等设置都处于各个不同的位置。 /201312/267305

With about 10 million new iPhone 6s ordered in the initial days on the market, a whole lot of old iPhones are destined for the scrap heap. Sure, you could sell, donate or recycle your old Apple iPhone, but you probably will not. And there are better things to do with it.鉴于新款iPhone 6在上市后的最初几天内,就被订购了大约1,000万部,许许多多的旧iPhone注定要被扔进垃圾堆。当然,你可以出售、捐赠或回收你的旧iPhone,但还可以有更好的处置办法。One creative example: At the Missouri University of Science and Technology, a biology class is making old iPhones into microscopes. Using less than worth of supplies, the old phones are mounted onto a lens and can magnify an object to 175 times its size.一个富有创意的例子发生在美国的密苏里科技大学(Missouri University of Science and Technology),这里有一堂生物课正在把旧iPhone改装成显微镜来使用。利用价值不到10美元的零部件,便可将这些旧手机安装在一片透镜上,把观察对象放大到原始大小的175倍。Even an old phone with a cracked screen can be repurposed, says Josh Smith, editor of GottaBeMobile.com. “You’re only really limited by your imagination,” Smith says.网站GottaBeMobile.com的编辑乔什o史密斯说,即便是屏幕破裂的旧手机也可以被赋予新的用途:“事实上,唯一限制你的只有自己的想象力。”Here are 10 smart – and cheap – uses for old iPhones.以下是旧iPhones的10种巧妙又廉价的用途。Clock时钟Set your old phone on a dock or a stand and use a clock app. With Standard Time (.99), you will have a timepiece unlike any other. With this app, your clock is a non-stop time lapse of construction workers switching out pieces of lumber to shape the actual time. “It’s mesmerizing,” says Shawn Roberts, 47, an Oakland, California, marketing executive.把旧手机安设在一个接口坞或架上,并且使用一款时钟应用程序。借助于《标准时间》(Standard Time)这款应用程序(3.99美元),你就会拥有一款与众不同的时钟。使用这款应用程序后,你的时钟就会变成一部不间断的延时视频,画面显示建筑工人不断地把几段木材摆成表示实际时间的形状。加州奥克兰的一位营销主管、现年47岁的肖恩o罗伯茨说:“这很有吸引力。”You can also set up flexible alarms and get the phone to play soothing white noise as you go to sleep. Set it close enough to the bed, and it can be a sleep tracker, too, with an app like SleepBot (free).你还可以灵活设置闹钟,并且在你睡觉时让手机播放舒缓的白噪音。此外,如果把它放在离床足够近的地方,它还可以被用作睡眠追踪器,当然这要利用像SleepBot(免费)这样的一款应用程序。Music for your car在汽车内播放音乐Take your music library on the road. Some cars come equipped with docking ports for iPhones and have dashboard screens so you can navigate your musical options hands-free. Or you can just use the cigarette lighter for power.带上你的音乐库一起上路吧。部分汽车配备了用于iPhone的对接口,而且还有仪表屏,所以你可以以免提方式浏览音乐选择。或者,你也可以用汽车里的点烟器来给手机提供电力。Remote Control遥控器Televisions, speakers and other devices now have apps that allow users to make their iPhones into sleek remotes. Carm Lyman, 42, of Napa, California, converted his iPhone 4 into a remote for his household sound system after his iPhone 5 arrived. Lyman can control the audio levels and activate speakers in various parts of his home as well as access different music services.电视机、扬声器及其他设备现在都有相应的应用程序,让用户能够把iPhone变成时尚遥控器。加州纳帕的卡姆o莱曼现年42岁,他在收到iPhone 5之后,便把自己的iPhone 4改成遥控器,来控制他的家用音响系统。莱曼可以在家里的各个角落控制音响系统的音频水平,并且使用不同的音乐务。Surveillance System监控系统Apps can convert an old iPhone that has access to WiFi into a surveillance camera and motion detector. Presence, which is a free app, provides a live stream from the area you want to monitor. You can set it up to record clips when it detects motion, too.应用程序可以把一部可接入WiFi的旧iPhone变成一个监控摄像头兼动作检测器。作为一款免费应用程序,Presence提供你想要监视地区的实时监控视频。此外,你还可以把它设置成检测到动作的同时开始录制视频剪辑。If you buy a robotic viewing stand for about 0, you can move the camera 360 degrees rather than stick with a stationary view.只要购置一款价格大约为100美元的机械观测架,你就可以让这个监控摄像头转动360度,而不需要一直保持固定视域。Cookbook菜谱No need to go through recipe books or hunt around for other devices when you have a kitchen iPhone. Download a cookbook app, such as My Recipe Book (99 cents) or Big Oven (free), and just leave the device on the kitchen counter. It takes up almost no space and will hold far more recipes than any book.如果你有一部厨房iPhone,那么就没有必要翻阅烹饪书或者寻找其他设备。下载一款菜谱软件,比如《我的烹饪书》(My Recipe Book,99美分)或者《大烤箱》(Big Oven,免费),然后只需把手机留在厨房柜台上。它几乎不占用任何空间,而且可容纳的菜谱远远多于任何一本烹饪书。Extra Storage额外的存储空间Need a place to store old photos and music or other files? Turn your old phone into a storage drive using a free app like USB amp; Wi-Fi Flash Drive.需要有个地方来存储旧照片和音乐或者其它文件吗?那就利用一款像《USB和Wi-Fi闪存驱动器》(USB amp; Wi-Fi Flash Drive)这样的免费应用程序,把你的旧手机变成一台存储驱动器吧。Voice Recorder语音记录器Why buy a digital voice recorder when you have a retired iPhone? Using any of several free apps, including Voice Recorder and Voice Record Pro, you will have a designated memo recorder or a device to record interviews and speeches.如果你有一部退役的iPhone,为什么还要购买数码录音机呢?使用几款免费应用程序中的任何一款,比如Voice Recorder和Voice Record Pro,你就会拥有一部专用的记录录音机或一部设备,来录下采访和演讲。Document Scanner文档扫描仪Genius Scan and Doc Scan are two apps that will turn an iPhone into a handy portable scanner that you can use for work, school reports, genealogical research, or recording receipts. And they will not cost you a penny. For and up, you can buy a stand that makes your iPhone into a stationary scanner.Genius Scan和Doc Scan这两款应用程序可以把iPhone变成一部方便的便携式扫描仪,你可以用于工作、学校报告、家谱研究或者记录菜谱。而且这两款应用程序不会花你一分钱。你可以购买一个架,让iPhone变成一台固定扫描仪,架最便宜的价格为20美元。Baby Monitor婴儿监视器Sure, you can spend 0 or more on a baby monitor, or you can just set your old iPhone up to watch streaming of your baby as well as hear and even talk to him or her. Cloud Baby Monitor (.99) also allows parents to receive the signal on a wireless network or on WiFi so they do not have to be within a certain number of feet of the monitor.当然,你可以花费100多美元购买一部婴儿监视器,或者你可以把旧iPhone设置成观看宝宝实时监视视频,并且监听宝宝动静,甚至和宝宝说话。《云婴儿监视器》(Cloud Baby Monitor,3.99 美元) 也可以让家长在无线网络或WiFi上收到视频信号,这样他们就不必局限在距离监视器几英尺的范围之内了。Vehicle Tracker车辆追踪器Whether you need to find your car if it is stolen, record where you have traveled, or spy on your teenage driver, the built-in GPS in your phone can be used as a tracking device. An app like InstaMapper (.99) lets you watch the vehicle in real-time and have a record of it. Of course, you may end up taking the simple path of letting a child use your old iPhone as an iPod Touch. Keep in mind that the phone can still dial 911, even if it does not have cellular service, Smith said.无论你是要在自己的汽车被盗之后需要找回汽车,还是记录下自己曾经开车经过哪里,或者是暗中监视你十几岁小孩的驾车情况,你手机的内置GPS(全球定位系统)均可被用来当作一部追踪装置。像InstaMapper(2.99美元)这样的一款应用程序让你能够实时监视车辆,并且把情况录制下来。当然,你可能最终采取简单的办法,那就是让小孩把你的旧iPhone当作iPod Touch。史密斯说,记住,即便没有移动务,旧iPhone仍然可以拨打911。You can also use your old phone as a back-up in case your new model suffers irreparable harm. That said, the battery of a phone that sits in a drawer unused could drain to the point where it is no longer viable.此外,你还可以把旧手机当作新款手机遭受不可弥补的损害时的备用手机。即便如此,如果把手机电池放在抽屉里不使用,那么过了一段时间电池里的电量会耗尽到再也无法使用的地步。 /201410/332272

The U.K. has left itself vulnerable to cyberattacks and state-sponsored spying by allowing a Chinese company, Huawei Technologies Co., to become a major player in Britain#39;s telecommunications industry without adequate security checks, a parliamentary committee said Thursday.英国议会一个委员会周四表示,在没有进行足够安全检查的情况下,中资企业华为技术有限公司(Huawei Technologies Co.)就成为英国电信业的主要供应商,这令英国容易受到网络攻击和政府持间谍活动的骚扰。The report by the Intelligence and Security Committee marks the second setback in as many months for the company in Europe, a market that has become more important as it runs into political roadblocks in the U.S. and elsewhere.英国议会情报和安全委员会(Intelligence and Security Committee)出具的这份报告标志着华为数月内在欧洲遭遇第二次挫折。在美国和世界其它地区遭到政治阻力之后,欧洲市场对华为的重要性增加。In May, the European Union said it planned to investigate the company over alleged unfair trade practices.今年5月欧盟表示,它计划对华为涉嫌不公平贸易做法的指控进行调查。The U.K. Parliament#39;s security watchdog said it was #39;shocked#39; at the government#39;s failure to monitor Huawei#39;s activities and called its strategy for monitoring or reacting to cyberattacks #39;feeble at best.#39;英国议会的这一安全委员会说,它对政府未能监控华为的种种活动感到“震惊”,并称政府的监控策略或对网络攻击的反应“充其量只能算是软弱无力的”。It noted that a system set up in 2010 in the U.K. to monitor Huawei#39;s activities is funded and run by the company itself─something it said should be changed. #39;A self-policing arrangement is highly unlikely either to provide, or to be seen to be providing, the required levels of security assurance,#39; the report said.该委员会指出,2010年在英国设立的一个监控华为各项活动的系统是由华为出资和运营的。该委员会认为这种情况应该改变。报告说,这种自我监管的安排极不可能提供所需级别的安全保障,或是在外界看来不可能提供这样的保障。The committee of lawmakers is charged with scrutinizing the U.K.#39;s security service, secret intelligence service and government communications headquarters.该委员会的英国议员负责审查英国的安全务、秘密情报机构和政府通信总部。Most of the concern about Huawei─the world#39;s second-largest telecom-equipment vendor by revenue after AB L.M. Ericsson ERIC-B.SK -1.97% of Sweden─surrounds its perceived links to the Chinese government, it said.报告说,对华为的大多数担心与外界认为其与中国政府存在关联有关。按收入计算,华为是全球第二大电信设备供应商,排在瑞典的爱立信(AB L.M. Ericsson)之后。The report said China is suspected of being one of the main perpetrators of state-sponsored cyberattacks in the U.K. It didn#39;t cite specifics, but the committee#39;s 2010-2011 annual report─parts of which were redacted─said the targets of suspected attacks were in government as well as industry.报告称,外界怀疑中国是发生在英国的多起受政府持网络攻击的发起者之一。报告没有详述具体情况。但该委员会2010-2011年度报告(报告部分内容经过修订)说,可疑攻击的对象既有政府,也涉及行业。#39;In this context, the alleged links between Huawei and the Chinese State are concerning, as they generate suspicion as to whether Huawei#39;s intentions are strictly commercial or are more political,#39; the report said.报告说,在这种情况下,华为和中国政府涉嫌存在联系令人担忧。因为这令人产生怀疑,即华为的意图是纯粹出于商业考虑还是更具政治内涵。In the U.S., Huawei has essentially been blocked from selling gear to major operators because of similar concerns. A congressional intelligence committee report concluded its presence posed a national-security threat.在美国,出于类似担心,华为基本上遭到封堵,无法向主要运营商出售设备。美国国会一个情报委员会出具的报告得出结论说,华为的存在对美国国家安全构成威胁。Last year, the Australian government prevented Huawei from working on the rollout of the country#39;s high-speed broadband network.去年,澳大利亚政府阻止华为参与该国推出的高速宽带网络建设。Huawei, which was founded in 1987 by Ren Zhengfei, a former officer of the People#39;s Liberation Army, describes itself as a private, employee-owned company and denies direct links to the Chinese government or military. It operates in more than 140 countries and employs more than 150,000 people.华为1987年由曾在中国军队役的任正非创立。该公司将自己描述为一家民营且由员工所有的企业,否认自己同中国政府或军方存在直接关联。该公司在140多个国家运营,雇员总数超过15万人。But the U.K. report─parts of which were also redacted─said there was a #39;lack of clarity about its financial structures.#39;但英国议会该委员会出具的这份报告(报告部分内容也经过修订)说,华为的财务结构不清晰。#39;Moreover, Huawei#39;s denial of links to the Chinese State is surprising, given that such links to the State are considered normal in China,#39; it said.此外,报告说,华为否认自己同中国政府存在联系令人惊讶,因为企业和政府之间存在这种联系的现象在中国非常普遍。#39;We are not convinced that there has been any improvement since then in terms of an effective procedure for considering foreign investment in the critical national infrastructure,#39; the report said. It added that the difficulty of balancing economic competitiveness and national security had resulted in a stalemate.报告说:我们并不认为在此之后,在制定有效程序审查国家重要基础设施的外国投资方面有任何改善。报告补充说,在经济竞争力与国家安全之间寻找平衡的困难导致了僵局的出现。In response, the government said that there are #39;security risks inherent to any sophisticated telecommunications network and system,#39; but insisted that the vetting process had been improved and updated since 2005.作为回应,英国政府说,任何复杂的电信网络和系统都不可避免存在安全风险,但政府坚持说,审查程序自2005年以来已经被改进和升级。#39;We now have governance structures and working practices in place which address these risks, including supply chain threats to the telecommunications infrastructure specifically, and escalation of decision-making processes as necessary.#39; a spokesman for the government said.英国政府的一名发言人说:我们现在有相应的管理结构和具体的工作方式来应对这些风险,包括电信基础设施特有的供应链威胁;我们的决策程序也进行了必要的升级。Huawei issued a statement saying it was willing to work with all governments in a completely open and transparent manner to reduce risks to cybersecurity.华为发布了一份声明,称愿意以完全公开透明的方式与各国政府合作,以减小网络安全风险。#39;We have always committed to creating value for the economy, working closely with the U.K. government and our customers...to meet their requirements,#39; it said.华为在声明中说:我们一直承诺为经济创造价值,与英国政府及我们的客户密切合作……满足他们的需求。The committee also raised concerns about Huawei-run Cybersecurity Evaluation Centre─a testing system established in the U.K. in 2010 to monitor any risk Huawei poses to security, known as the Cell.委员会还表达了对华为运营的网络安全评估中心(Cybersecurity Evaluation Centre)的担忧。这个测试系统于2010年在英国建立,旨在监测华为对安全构成的风险,也被称为Cell。It #39;strongly recommended#39; that the staff in the Cell be replaced by government security staff. It also called for the country#39;s top security adviser, Sir Kim Darroch, to conduct an urgent review to determine why it is operating at a reduced capacity in terms of staff and remit, and whether it will be able to provide the level of security assurance required.报告强烈建议用政府的安全人员代替Cell的工作人员。报告还呼吁英国最高安全顾问达罗克(Kim Darroch)进行一次紧急评估,以确定为何Cell的工作人员和职能都在减少,以及它是否能够提供所需的安全保障级别。Huawei responded by calling the Cell one of the most advanced in the cybersecurity field globally.华为回应说,Cell是全球网络安全领域最先进的系统之一。One of its biggest British customers, BT, said it tests #39;third party equipment both before and after deployment to ensure there are no vulnerabilities,#39; and that no risks had been found.华为在英国最大的客户之一英国电信公司(BT Group PLC)说,为了确保不存在缺陷,该公司在部署第三方设备前后都会对其进行测试,并表示没有发现风险。#39;Our testing regime enables us to enjoy constructive relationships with many suppliers across the globe,#39; it said. #39;One of these is Huawei with whom we have had a long and constructive relationship since 2005.#39;英国电信公司说:我们的测试系统使我们得以与全球许多供应商保持建设性的关系,包括华为。我们与华为自从2005年以来一直保持着长期的、建设性的关系。Other European countries have expressed concerns but generally don#39;t have outright bans. In France for instance, telecommunications executives say that the government generally discourages them from buying Chinese equipment for the core of their networks, but not for cellphone base stations and radio equipment.其他欧洲国家曾经表达过担忧,但是基本上没有发出明确的禁令。比如,法国电信行业的一些高管说,政府基本上不鼓励他们购买中国设备用于网络的核心部分,但是不包括手机基站和无线电设备。Huawei and its Chinese competitor ZTE Corp 000063.SZ -1.26% . accounted for 23% of wireless-network spending in 2012 in Europe, Middle East and Africa, up from just 6.8% in 2007, according to the market-research firm Infonetics.根据市场研究公司Infonetics的数据,欧洲、中东和非洲2012年的无线网络出中,华为和中国竞争对手中兴(ZTE Corp.)占了23%,相比之下,2007年的这一比例仅为6.8%。The EU is investigating whether the Chinese government is providing unfair subsidies to Huawei and ZTE, which could have allowed the companies to sell into the European market at unfair prices.欧盟正在调查中国政府是否向华为和中兴提供不正当的补贴。这些补贴能够使这两家公司以不合理的价格在欧洲市场销售产品。Huawei and ZTE have denied any dumping practices or receiving illegal state subsidies.华为和中兴否认有任何倾销行为,也否认获得过不正当的政府补贴。Huawei had held up its cooperation with the British government as a model. Last year Huawei said it would invest #163;1.3 billion ( billion) in the U.K. and add 500 jobs to its workforce in the country.华为曾经将其与英国政府的合作树立为典范。华为去年表示,将向英国投资13亿英镑(约合20亿美元),并在英国新增500个工作岗位。It also counts John Suffolk, former chief information officer for the U.K. government as its global cybersecurity officer. In a report written last fall, Mr. Suffolk called for increased regulation and greater cooperation between Huawei and governments of concerned countries.华为还聘请了英国政府的前首席信息官员萨福克(John Suffolk)担任全球网络安全主管。萨福克在去年秋天撰写的一份报告中呼吁加强监管,扩大华为与相关国家政府之间的合作。 /201306/243452

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