兰溪市人民医院是医保定点医院吗挂号在线

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年11月13日 18:55:15
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HONG KONG — China’s Internet companies, in recent years, have been the shining stars of growth, with Alibaba and Tencent rivaling in size some of their most formidable global competitors.香港——近几年来,中国的互联网企业一直是经济增长中的亮点,阿里巴巴和腾讯的规模堪与全球最强大的竞争对手媲美。Inspired by their success and driven by huge buyouts of smaller companies by China’s Internet giants, investors have poured money into new start-ups.它们的成功,以及中国互联网巨头斥巨资收购小型公司的潮流,促使投资者纷纷将资金注入了新成立的初创企业。But new figures from the end of 2015 show that wave of investment may be coming to an end, or at least slowing.但是从2015年底的最新数据来看,这波投资热潮可能即将结束,至少是在放慢速度。In China, venture capital investment fueling the growth of new start-ups fell 29 percent in the fourth quarter from the level in the third quarter, according to a new report from CB Insights and KPMG. The report, which calls the drop in funding a “crash,” says it is linked to economic uncertainty in the region.风险投资推动了新生初创企业的增长,但研究公司CB Insights和毕马威(KPMG)发布的一份新报告显示,中国第四季度的风险投资比第三季度减少了29%。该报告形容这种融资减少是“暴跌”,认为它与地区经济状况的不确定性有关。Among the contributors may be the Chinese Internet giants that have fueled the boom. Hiring freezes at Alibaba and Baidu have signaled recent caution about spending, according to Mark Natkin, founder of the research firm Marbridge Consulting in Beijing.之前推动那波繁荣的中国互联网巨头,可能也在暴跌当中发挥了作用。调研企业北京迈瑞咨询有限公司(Marbridge Consulting)的创始人马克·纳特金(Mark Natkin)认为,阿里巴巴和百度冻结招聘,显示它们最近在出上变得谨慎。“A year or two ago, V.C.s felt they didn’t have to drive a company all the way to I.P.O. for an exit because Baidu, Tencent and Alibaba were rolling down the aisles with their shopping carts,” he said, referring to venture capital firms. He pointed out that now those firms are less focused on smaller companies, and instead are preoccupied with consolidating more mature sectors like group buying and ride-hailing apps.“一两年前,风投觉得不必一直把初创公司推到上市才能退出,因为百度、腾讯和阿里巴巴在大举收购小公司,”他说。他指出,目前巨头们不那么关注于收购小公司了,而是忙着在较为成熟的领域进行整合,比如团购、拼车应用。A looming question is how much recent market turmoil in China will affect private fund-raising in 2016. A major slowdown could dent Beijing’s ambitions to continue the rapid growth of the Internet industry.一个迫在眉睫的问题是,中国近期的市场动荡会对2016年的私募融资形势造成多大的影响。经济的严重放缓,可能会打击北京让互联网行业保持快速增长的雄心。In recent economic plans, the Chinese Communist Party has identified Internet-related businesses as fundamental to the transition of the Chinese economy from one centered on infrastructure investment to one based on consumer spending.在最近的经济计划中,中国共产党已经表示,与互联网相关的企业,在中国经济从依靠基础设施投资向依靠消费出转型的过程中,是一个根本性的力量。The slowdown comes as total Asian venture capital investment hit levels last seen in 2013 in North America, before the most recent boom in investment there. Just last week China announced a billion fund to help bail out struggling electronics makers and other tech firms, a potential indication that the recent slowdown and stock market turmoil could spill over into the strategically important tech sector.在中国投资放缓之际,亚洲风险投资总体达到了北美2013年的水平,当时北美还没有出现最近的投资热潮。上周,中国宣布提供300亿美元的资金,帮助那些苦苦挣扎的电子产品生产商及其他科技企业摆脱困境,这个潜在的迹象说明,最近经济放缓及股市震荡的情况会影响到具有重要战略意义的科技行业。The Chinese trend follows a broader pullback in global venture capital investment at the end of 2015. In the ed States, deals fell for the second straight quarter to their lowest level since 2011, according to the report. In the last quarter of the year, the total amount of money funding private companies fell by 30 percent from the previous quarter.中国的这种趋势符合2015年末全球风投广泛回撤的形势。报告显示,在美国,交易连续第二个季度下滑,降至2011年来的最低水平。在去年第四季度,私有公司拿到的投资总额比前一季度下降了30%。Yet the drop-off in China and Asia comes amid a very different context than the drop-off in the ed States. In Asia, the increase in venture capital funding rose much more sharply after 2013. Such investment in Asia jumped from just .8 billion in the first quarter of 2014 to .2 billion in the third quarter of 2015. In the fourth quarter it fell to .7 billion.但与美国风投金额减少的情况相比,中国和亚洲地区风投金额减少的背景完全不同。在亚洲,风投资金在2013年后大幅增加,从2014年第一季度的28亿美元增加到了2015年第三季度的142亿美元。而第四季度,风投金额降至97亿美元。Still, 2015 was a banner year for Asian venture capital investment, with deals totaling .7 billion in 2015, well above the .1 billion in 2014 and the meager .4 billion in 2013.但2015年仍是亚洲风投领域的丰收年,这一年的交易总金额达到397亿美元,远高于2014年的211亿美元,以及2013年极少的金额——64亿美元。The report said venture capital firms may be sitting out the latest investment rounds because they expect valuations to come back down to earth in the next year or two. In Asia, roughly one-third of investment in start-ups comes from large corporations, compared to just a quarter in North America.报告称,风投公司或许不会参加最新一轮的融资,因为它们预计估值会在未来一两年回归低位。在亚洲,初创公司获得的大约三分之一投资来自大型企业,而在北美,这个比例只有四分之一。Lyndon Fung, an analyst with KPMG’s U.S. capital markets group, wrote in the report that Chinese investors are also increasingly looking abroad.毕马威美国资本市场分析师冯瑞麟(Lyndon Fung)在报告中写道,中国投资者也越来越多地将目光投向了国外市场。“We are seeing Chinese V.C. investors and V.C.-backed companies shifting their focus to invest in the international market, where things are a bit more stable, to acquire complementary technologies to strengthen their ecosystem,” he wrote.“我们看到中国的风投,及获得风投持的公司,将投资重点转移到了状况比较稳定的国际市场,从而取得互补性的技术,增强其生态系统。” /201601/424054

  Search-engine giant Google launched a new service Wednesday that it hopes will reverse the trend of people gravitating away from the World Wide Web in favor of Facebook and other apps on their mobile phones.搜索引擎巨头谷歌在周三发布了一项新的务,谷歌希望通过这项务扭转人们迷恋用万维网的Facebook 和在手机上使用各种APP的趋势。The new service, called Amp, works by partnering with news publishers and other content providers to help them create Web content that downloads to mobile phones and tablets up to 85 times faster.这项新的务被称为Amp, 和新闻发布者及其他内容提供者一起来帮助创造万维网内容,以此将下载到手机和平板上的速度提高了85倍。It#39;s a seemingly simple concept and one that consumers may not even notice. But the stakes are high for Google, which competes with apps such as Facebook for eyeballs and ad dollars.这似乎看起来是个简单的想法,但是却没有被消费者注意到。这个尝试对谷歌来说也是风险很高,因为这个和像Facebook 这样的APP 竞争吸引力和广告收入。That battle has gotten tougher on smartphones and tablets, where apps generate three times as much attention as the Web, according to research firm eMarketer. The trend toward in-app browsing is only expected to worsen over time. By 2017, the gap is expected to widen to three hours and 23 minutes on mobile apps vs. just 52 minutes on the mobile Web, eMarketer predicts.这项务在智能手机和平板电脑 方面将愈发艰难,因为其吸引力将是万维网的三倍,搜索引擎公司eMarketer 说道。在应用程序浏览的趋势是随着时间的推移,预计将会恶化。2017年,差距将扩大,在移动应用程序需要三小时23分钟,而在移动网络上只需要52分 钟,eMarketer预测。;We love the World Wide Web. To some degree, on mobile, it has not fully satisfied users#39; expectations,; said Google#39;s head of news, Richard Gingras. ;We are hoping to change that,; Gingras said at a launch event Wednesday in Manhattan.“我们爱万维网。在某种程度上,移动,它已经不能完全满足用户的期望,”谷歌的新闻领导,李察金格拉斯说。“我们希望改变,”金格拉斯星期三在曼哈顿的活动启动仪式上说。One reason for the gap is speed. When users click on a news link and it#39;s slow to respond, they will exit and go elsewhere. ;That#39;s not good for us,; Gingras said.这个差距的一个原因就是速度。当用户点击新闻链接时,她反应很慢,用户就会退出然后浏览其他地方。“这对我们来说是不好的” 金格拉斯说。Early results show download speeds up to 85 times faster when content is created using Amp, said David Besbris, vice president of engineering at Google.老用户说,当内容由Amp 创造时,其下载速度就提高85倍,谷歌搜索引擎的副董事长说道。Google launched the new Amp service, which is being co-sponsored by Twitter, to a room full of news publishers at a cafe in downtown Manhattan on Wednesday. Twitter is a stand-alone app but it also relies on Web-generated links to drive traffic.谷歌推出了新的务,这是星期三,新闻出版商在曼哈顿市中心的一家咖啡馆和推特共同发起的。推特是一个独立的应用程序,但它也依赖于网络生成的链接,以推动流量。The Amp service is free for content providers, Google#39;s executives said. They expect to eventually expand the service beyond news content to other mobile content providers.Amp 务对内容提供者是完全免费的,谷歌的领导说。他们希望能超越新闻内容最终扩展其业务到其他移动内容提供者那里。;This is about making sure the World Wide Web is not the World Wide Wait. And to make sure that platform evolves,; Gingras said.“这就是在让万维网不在是万等网转变。并在确保这项平台在扩展演变,” 金格拉斯说道。 /201510/402557

  PayPal is on the hunt for international acquisitions to drive growth and fend off predators, as it prepares to separate from eBay and become an independent company in the first of several big technology split-ups this year.PayPal正在物色国际收购目标以推动增长并防止自己被收购。该公司眼下正准备脱离eBay成为一家独立的公司——这将拉开今年数家大型科技公司分拆的序幕。Chief executive Dan Schulmantold the Financial Times that acquisitions would be a priority, as PayPal uses the bn war chest that is a legacy of the split.PayPal首席执行官丹#8226;舒尔曼(Dan Schulman)向英国《金融时报》表示,收购将会是公司的优先考虑事项,因为此次分拆给它带来60亿美元的现金储备。“The balance sheet affords us the opportunity to look opportunistically where it makes sense to acquire,” he said. “I think there is a tremendous opportunity to look across the world.”他说:“当前的财务状况给我们带来了物色有价值的收购标的的机会。纵观全球,我们有着巨大的收购机遇。”The strong balance sheet would also support PayPal’s lending programmes, he noted.舒尔曼指出,强劲的资产负债表也将持PayPal的贷款项目。PayPal will pass a milestone towards independence today as pricing begins for its shares. Shareholders of eBay will get one share in PayPal per share they hold when the formal split takes place on July 17.今日PayPal将会启动股票定价,从而向成为一家独立公司跨出里程碑意义的一步。7月17日正式分拆时,eBay的股东每持有1股eBay股票将获得1股PayPal股票。The company’s enterprise value could be about bn, roughly two-thirds of eBay’s valuation, analysts at Wedbush estimated.Wedbush的分析师估计,PayPal的企业价值大约为400亿美元,大约是eBay估值的三分之二。PayPal’s rapid growth — revenues were up 19 per cent last year, with customers rising 13 per cent — has come increasingly from outside the eBay empire.PayPal的迅速增长——去年收入增长19%,客户增长13%——越来越来自eBay帝国的外部。Last week PayPal announced it would spend nearly bn to purchase Xoom, a growing international remittances company, which will leave about bn in net cash on its balance sheet.PayPal上周宣布,将斥资近10亿美元收购Xoom,这将让公司资产负债表上剩下约50亿美元现金。Xoom是一家正在成长中的国际汇兑公司。Other recent acquisitions include Braintree, which bolstered PayPal’s presence in processing software used in mobile apps. That deal included Venmo, a money transfer app for splitting the cost of meals or paying rent, which has seen total payment volumes quadruple in the past year.PayPal最近的收购还包括Braintree公司,后者让PayPal加大进军移动应用中的处理软件。该交易包括了Braintree旗下转账应用Venmo,该应用可用于分担餐费或者付租金。Venmo在过去一年里的付总额增长了3倍。Even as PayPal looks for acquisitions, it is considered a takeover target itself, particularly when cashed-up companies such as Apple and Google are trying to bolster their own payments businesses.就在PayPal寻求收购目标之际,它本身也被视为收购目标,尤其是在苹果(Apple)和谷歌(Google)等资金充沛的公司努力提升自己的付业务之际。 /201507/384363。

  

  Nongzheng Quan,shu《农政全书》Nongzheng Quanshu (also Comprehensive Treatise on Agricultural Admin-istration) ,was written by Xu Guangqi (1562~1633) in the late Ming Dynasty.Born in the Songjiang area in Jiangsu Province ( now in Shanghai) where agriculture was very advanced, he was devoted to the agricultural development all his life.During the three-year period of mourning for his deceased father, he con-ducted in his hometown massive agricultural and ploughing experiments, and then went to Tianjing for similar experiments several times, the consequence of which was the completion of the agricultural encyclopedia. He died in his tenure of office,and it was his friend who helped publish the book in the 12th year of the reign of Emperor Chongzhen, i.e.in 1639.The book is divid-ed into 60 volumes, including the agriculture-oriented thought, land policy, water conservancy, farm tools, arboriculture, sericulture, animal husbandry,relief poliaes and the like. Besides summarizing his experiences of succeeding in growing crops and cot-ton, he went into details about water conservanolt and relief policies. He studied the lean years in the Chinese history, even delving into the concrete situations of the ill locust plagues which ever happened in China. The most effective way of putting an end to the lean years, he believed, was to establish the water conservancy projects on a large scale. In the Northwest, as he instantiated his point, instead of delivering grain from Southeast with great efforts, people should learn to reclaim the wasteland and establish the water conservancy projects on a large scale, turning Northwest into a major grain yielding area. A great num-ber of reference books written before or at the time were recorded h Non,gzheng Quanshu ,and the understandings and perspectives of the author presented.It was a great agricultural work of special importance in the Ming Dynasty.《农政全书》由晚明徐光启( 1562~1633)著。徐光启生于农业发达的江苏松江地区,他一生热爱农业,在为父亲丁忧的三年间,在家乡进行了较大规模的农业耕种试验,后又几次赴天津进行农业试验,写出这部农业百科全书。他死在任上,是朋友帮助将这部书于崇祯十二年( 1639)刊行的。全书60卷,分农本、田制、水利、农器、树艺、蚕桑、牧养、荒政等门,除总结自己种植粮食作物和棉花的成功经验外,还对水利和荒政以较大篇幅进行了研究。他研究了中国历代的荒年,甚至仔细研究了111次蝗灾的具体情况。他认为要彻底消灭荒年就要大兴水利,比如在大西北,与其耗费运力从东南运送粮食,不如开垦西北荒地,大兴水利,把大西北建成产粮基地。书中辑录了大量前代和当时的文献,也提出作者的心得和见解,是明代重要的农业科学巨著。 /201601/419328Just three months after raising an enormous sum of money from investors, Uber is at it again.三个月前刚从投资者那里筹集到一大笔钱的优步(Uber)又要融资了。The ride-hailing service is planning to raise close to billion in new venture capital from investors, according to people with knowledge of the matter. Investors are looking at a valuation of billion to billion.知情人士称,这家叫车务公司计划从投资者那里筹集近10亿美元风险投资。投资者预期该公司的估值在600亿美元到700亿美元之间。Such a fundraising round would make Uber the world#39;s most valuable private startup by far. A round just this summer valued the company at more than billion, a bit more than Facebook#39;s last big private capital raise in 2011.这样一轮融资会让优步成为目前世界上估值最高的初创公司。今年夏天那一轮融资对该公司的估值是500多亿美元,略高于Facebook上市前在2011年进行的最后一轮融资中的估值。Nearly as eye-popping as its soaring valuations has been the furious pace at which Uber has been raising money. The latest round of financing will be the eighth that the company has sought over the last five years.几乎和日渐飙升的估值同样吸引眼球的,是优步的融资步伐。最新一轮融资将是该公司在五年时间里的第八次融资。More precise targets on the size and the valuations will be determined after the company begins talks with investors in coming weeks, said the people, who spoke on the condition of anonymity. Executives at Uber and the company#39;s board have approved another round, and the company plans to start holding official conversations in the next few weeks, they said.要求匿名的消息人士称,有关融资规模和公司估值的准确目标,接下来几周该公司与投资者开始谈判后,才能确定下来。他们表示,优步的高管和公司董事会已经批准进行另一轮融资,公司计划在未来几周正式开始对话。An Uber spokeswoman declined to comment Friday.周五,优步的一名女发言人拒绝置评。While Facebook#39;s last big fundraising round took place a year before the social network went public, Travis Kalanick, Uber#39;s founder and chief executive, has little interest in going public in the near future.尽管Facebook最后一轮大规模融资结束一年后,这家社交网络公司便上市了,但优步创始人兼首席执行官特拉维斯·卡兰尼克(Travis Kalanick)对于在近期内上市几乎没什么兴趣。“We#39;re like eighth-graders. We#39;re in junior high and someone is telling us that we need to go to the prom, and it#39;s just a little early,” Kalanick said at The Wall Street Journal#39;s WSJDLive Conference in Laguna Beach, California, on Tuesday. “Let us get into high school before we start talking about these sorts of things.”“我们就像八年级学生。我们刚上初中,就有人对我们说,要参加毕业舞会,实在有点早,”卡兰尼克周二在《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)在加州拉古纳海滩举办的WSJDLive全球科技大会上说。“我们还是先上了高中再谈这些事情吧。”Founded in San Francisco in 2009, Uber has swollen to operations in more than 300 cities across 63 countries around the globe.2009年成立于旧金山的优步,业务已遍及全球63个国家的300多个城市。Throughout Uber#39;s rapid expansion, investors have poured money into the company at a staggering rate. To date, the company has raised more than billion from investors including Benchmark and Google Ventures, as well as large financial firms like Goldman Sachs and TPG Growth.在优步的快速扩张中,投资者大笔投钱的速度令人震惊。迄今为止,该公司已筹集了逾80亿美元,投资者包括Benchmark和谷歌风投(Google Ventures),以及高盛(Goldman Sachs)和TPG Growth等大型金融机构。 /201510/405832

  Sands China has turned to a gaming outsider with political links to Beijing as its new chief operating officer, an effort to strengthen ties to government as the sector struggles with tumbling revenue.金沙中国(Sands China)任命了一名行业外的、在北京拥有政治人脉的人士出任新的首席营运总裁,以加强与政府的联系。行业目前正疲于应对营收锐减。The Hong Kong-listed unit of Sheldon Adelson’s Las Vegas Sands has chosen Wilfred Wong, a former construction executive, to take on the role of chief operating officer and president, replacing Rob Goldstein following his move to the US parent company.金沙中国是谢尔登阿德尔森(heldon Adelson)旗下金沙集团(Las Vegas Sands)的香港上市子公司。该公司已选择前建筑业高管王英伟(Wilfred Wong)出任其总裁兼首席营运总裁,接替即将回到美国母公司的罗布戈尔茨坦(Rob Goldstein)。Mr Wong was a member of China’s National People’s Congress from 2007-2012 and has served in various posts in both the Hong Kong and central government.王英伟曾在2007年至2012年担任中国全国人大代表,并曾在香港和中央政府内担任过不同的职务。Analysts at Bernstein Research pointed to his “strong ties” to the Chinese government as the key to his appointment, adding that they expect his main responsibility to be acting as a liaison with officials in Macau and Beijing.伯恩斯坦研究公司(Bernstein Research)分析师指出,王英伟与中国政府的“密切关系”是他获此任命的关键因素。这些分析师还表示,他们认为他的主要职责是充当金沙中国与及中央政府官员之间的联络人。 /201509/399513America’s largest technology companies have joined Apple’s fight against the government over data protection and security, in an unusual display of unity by the Silicon Valley rivals. 美国大型科技公司纷纷加入苹果(Apple)的战队,持后者就数据保护和安全与美国政府进行斗争。这些相互竞争的硅谷公司在此事上表现出了异乎寻常的团结。 More than a dozen motions filed on Thursday sided with Apple as it tries to resist a demand to write software that would help the FBI unlock the San Bernardino shooter’s iPhone. Civil liberties groups and IT trade associations lined up alongside dozens of law professors and cryptography experts, after Apple filed its own motion for the judicial order to be withdrawn last week. 周四,这些公司提交了十几份动议,持苹果努力抵制一项要其编写软件帮美国联邦调查局(FBI)解锁圣贝纳迪诺击案凶手iPhone的要求。上周苹果提交要求撤销这一法庭令的动议后,公民自由组织、信息科技行业协会以及数十名法学教授和密码学专家联合起来站在苹果一边。 “If the government prevails, then this case will be the first of many requiring companies to degrade the security and to undermine the trust in their products so essential to privacy in the digital age,” the American Civil Liberties Union wrote in its brief. 美国公民自由联盟(American Civil Liberties Union)在其案情摘要中写道:“如果政府获胜,那么此案将催生许多要求企业降低安全和自毁人们对其产品信任的案子,而在这个数字化时代,安全和信任对于隐私有着至关重要的意义。” James Comey, FBI chief, warned at a congressional hearing this week of the dangers of creating “warrant-proof spaces”, saying: “The tools we use to keep you safe are becoming less and less effective.” FBI局长詹姆斯#8226;科米(James Comey)本周在美国国会听会上针对造就“抗令状空间”的危险发出警告,他表示:“我们用来保护人们安全的手段正逐渐失去效力。” In one heavyweight grouping led by Google, Microsoft, Facebook and Amazon, 15 tech companies collectively worth more than tn said the government’s order against Apple “exceeds the bounds of existing law and, when applied more broadly, will harm Americans’ security in the long run”. 以谷歌(Google)、微软(Microsoft)、Facebook和亚马逊(Amazon)为首、合计市值超过2万亿美元的15家重量级科技公司表示,美国政府对苹果的命令“逾越了现行法律的界限,若被更加广泛地采用,终将损害美国人的安全。” The companies, who also include Cisco, Dropbox, Snapchat and Yahoo and are together used by billions of people around the world, noted that they “often compete vigorously with Apple — and with each other” but “here speak in one voice because of the singular importance of this case to them and their customers”. Users were demanding increased protection from hackers as they store more and more personal information on devices such as smartphones, they said. 这些公司还包括思科(Cisco)、Dropbox、Snapchat和雅虎(Yahoo!),它们在全世界合计拥有数十亿用户。这些公司指出,它们“与苹果、以及彼此之间经常展开激烈竞争”,但“现在以一个声音发声,是因为此案对它们以及它们的用户有着独特的重要性”。它们表示,随着用户往智能手机等设备里存储的个人信息越来越多,他们也在要求加强保护措施、防止黑客侵入。 While being careful to note that they were not “shielding those who break the law”, the group said it wanted to resist the government’s attempt to “commandeer a company’s own engineers to undermine their products’ data security features”. If their engineers were forced to rewrite their software in this way, “those new versions would not be the same product any more. Box would not be Box; Gmail would not be Gmail; WhatsApp would not be WhatsApp; and so on”. 这些企业谨慎地指出,它们并不是在“保护犯法者”,而是想抵制政府“强征一家企业的工程师去破坏他们产品数据安全特性”的企图。如果以这种方式迫使它们的工程师重写它们的软件,“那些新的版本将不再是原来的产品。Box将不再是Box,Gmail将不再是Gmail,WhatsApp将不再是WhatsApp,别的也是如此。” A second group of tech companies including Airbnb, Twitter, LinkedIn, Reddit and eBay made a separate filing accusing the government of “circumventing the procedures adopted by Congress” to “enlist the judiciary in re-writing laws without engaging in an essential public debate”. 包括Airbnb、Twitter、领英(LinkedIn)、Reddit和eBay在内的另一群科技公司也提交了动议,谴责政府“绕开国会通过的流程,在不展开必要的公开辩论的情况下就拉司法部门重写法律。” /201603/430527

  What if someone came up with a new technology product that was hailed as a breakthrough with the potential to rival the smartphone, but then didn’t make it available to 85 per cent of possible buyers?如果有人设计出了一款被誉为突破性的、有潜力与智能手机匹敌的新科技产品,但又无法让85%的潜在买家用上,结果会怎样?That is what Apple is about to do with the launch of its Watch. It will start collecting orders online from Friday and release the device in nine countries in two weeks.这就是苹果(Apple)推出其智能手表Watch时将会面临的问题。该公司将从本周五起接收在线订单,并于两周后在9个国家发售这款设备。For something that carries with it the best hope yet for a new “wearables” computing platform, the Watch risks being hamstrung. Only a subset of Apple’s existing customers will end up owning one. That is because it is yoked to the iPhone (which is used by only one in six smartphone owners): Watch gets its connectivity from the iPhone, and the only apps that work on it are extensions of the ones that are carried by Apple’s App Store for use on its own mobile devices.迄今为止,苹果Watch是被人们寄予最高期望的新式“可穿戴”计算平台,但它可能难有大作为。苹果的现有客户中,只有一小部分人最终能拥有这款产品。这是因为它与iPhone绑定在一起,而iPhone用户仅占智能手机用户的六分之一。苹果Watch通过iPhone与外界连接,而且它搭载的应用都是苹果应用商店(App Store)中苹果自身移动设备所载应用的扩展。According to influential US management professors David Yoffie and Michael Cusumano, this is just the latest manifestation of Apple’s halfhearted acceptance of the significance of tech platforms. In their book Strategy Rules*, to be published next week, they argue that the late Apple co-founder Steve Jobswas instinctively drawn to building self-contained products — tightly integrated pieces of technology that worked on their own terms.颇具影响力的美国管理学教授戴维#8226;约菲(David Yoffie)和迈克尔#8226;库苏马诺(Michael Cusumano)表示,这不过是一个最新的例子,明苹果并不全心认可技术平台的重要性。两人在他们下周将出版的新书《战略规则》(Strategy Rules)中表示,已故苹果联合创始人史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯(Steve Jobs)热衷于打造自成一体的产品(即按照苹果自己的设定运行、彼此高度整合在一起的各种科技设备)是其性格使然。Platforms, by contrast, benefit from network effects as other tech companies add complementary products and services, such as apps, which in turn draw more users. Jobs finally bowed to the power of the platform idea with the App Store for Apple’s mobile devices. But, according to Mr Yoffie and Mr Cusumano, the mix he exhibited is still evident at Apple and could result in the tech group squandering a lead in the post-smartphone computing platform.相比之下,技术平台可从网络效应中获益,因为其他科技公司会添加补充性的产品和务(比如应用),进而吸引更多用户。乔布斯最终屈从于平台理念的力量,为苹果移动设备推出了应用商店。但在约菲和库苏马诺看来,他所展现的这种暧昧态度如今在苹果仍十分明显,而且可能导致这家科技集团在后智能手机时代的计算平台领域失掉领先优势。The picture is not black and white. It is probably better to think of the Watch as an extension of an existing tech platform, rather than a product with no platform aspirations at all. It will, after all, run stripped-down apps from third parties. As such, it represents a first, cautious play in a new market where there are likely to be rethinks along the way.事情没有那么绝对。更合理的看法或许是,把Watch视为苹果现有技术平台的一个扩展,而非一款毫无平台抱负的产品。毕竟,它将运行来自第三方的简版应用。本质上讲,它代表一个新市场中的首次谨慎试水,随着时间推进,苹果可能会有新的考量。History shows that Apple is quite prepared to make adjustments. After all, it displayed a similar caution with version 1.0 of other gadgets, including the iPod and iPhone. The iTunes music software, an integral part of the iPod, was initially limited to the Mac. The iPod only took off once the software was opened up to PC users. In a similar vein, the iPhone was initially designed to run only Apple’s applications.历史经验表明,苹果在做调整前会做充分的准备。毕竟,它在1.0版本的其他产品(包括iPod和iPhone)上也展现出了同样的谨慎。作为iPod组成部分的音乐软件iTunes最初仅限Mac使用。iPod是在该软件向PC用户开放后才开始热卖的。与此类似,iPhone最初也只能运行苹果的应用。The first iterations of these products didn’t set the world on fire. Apple sold fewer than 1m iPods in the first year and only about 6m iPhones. Watch 1.0 should at least do much better than that. Most analysts are predicting sales of 20m-40m in the first year. But this could still represent a missed opportunity if Apple cedes a dominant market share in wearables to Google’s Android, as it has in smartphones.这些产品的最初版本在问世时都未曾让世界兴奋不已。在问世的头一年,iPod只售出不到100万部,iPhone只售出约600万部。第一代Watch的表现至少应该会比这要好得多。多数分析师预测,Watch头一年的销量将达2000万至4000万块。但是,如果苹果将可穿戴设备的主要市场份额拱手让与谷歌(Google)的Android,就像它在智能手机市场所做的那样,即便这样的销量可能仍表示苹果错失了良机。The trick will be deciding when — and if — to treat the Watch as a platform in its own right. Such decisions, made in the heat of the moment, don’t always look like calculated strategy choices taken in a cold and deliberative manner.棘手的是决定何时以及是否将Watch视为一个独立平台。在情绪高涨的时候做出的此类决定,看上去并不总像是冷静而慎重做出的有计划的战略选择。According to various accounts, for instance, Jobs was deeply opposed to opening up iTunes and only gave in when his managers ganged up against him. Mr Yoffie and Mr Cusumano describe the scene as told to them by one former Apple executive: “After yet another heated argument, [Jobs] hurled an expletive at the assembled managers, yelled, ‘Do whatever you want, you’re responsible,’ and stormed out of the room.”举例来说,有多种说法称,乔布斯曾强烈反对开放iTunes,当他手下的经理联合反对他后,他才屈。约菲和库苏马诺援引一名前苹果高管的话描述了那一幕:“在经过了又一番激烈的辩论后,(乔布斯)朝着联合起来的经理们甩了句脏话,嚷道,‘你们想怎么做就怎么做吧,你们负责,’然后怒气冲冲地离开了房间。”For the Watch to cut its tie with the iPhone, some fundamental issues would need to be solved, ranging from battery life (needed to connect to a 3G network) and cost (the 3G chip and a separate data plan) to usability.Watch要想切断与iPhone的捆绑,需要解决一些根本问题:从电池续航时间(这是连接3G网络所需的)、成本(3G芯片和单独的流量套餐)到可用性。If one of the Watch’s main uses is to display notifications pushed out by smartphone apps, could it have an independent existence? It may be that wearables like this are never more than marginal peripherals for smartphones, rather than pieces of a new computing platform in their own right.如果Watch的主要用途之一是显示智能手机应用推送的通知,它还能独立存在吗?或许,这类可穿戴设备永远只是智能手机无关紧要的外设,而不是新的独立计算平台设备。The more immediate challenge for Apple, meanwhile, will be to convince its existing loyal customers that there are enough good reasons to brandish a computer on their wrists, even one bearing the stylish hallmark of Apple design studios. There will be plenty of time to loosen the ties with a Watch 2.0.与此同时,苹果面临的更紧迫挑战是,如何说现有的忠实客户相信一点:他们能找到充分的理由向别人炫耀戴在他们手腕上的计算机,即便上面带有苹果设计工作室的时尚标识。至于用第二代Watch来“松绑”,时间还充裕得很。 /201504/369389

  

  

  Stewart Butterfield, co-founder of Slack, the communication app for office workers that has been growing like a weed, does not mince his words when he discusses the changes to working life caused by smartphones and the sp of cloud software.近来发展迅猛的办公聊天工具Slack的联合创始人斯图尔特巴特菲尔德(Stewart Butterfield),在谈到智能手机和云软件的广泛传播给办公生活带来的变化时,并没有拐弯抹角。Slack represents one response to this trend. It is a chronological flow of team conversation akin to a group chat, or a Facebook news feed. Workers post their contributions — messages, links to websites or files — into this searchable repository, organised into channels.Slack是顺应这股潮流的一个代表。它是一款类似群组聊天或者Facebook信息流功能的群聊时间流应用。员工们将自己贡献的内容——信息、网页链接或者文件——放入这个可搜索的、按频道分类的信息库中。A rival vision is represented by Dropbox, a cloud storage system which also claims to be seeing wide adoption in offices but which puts files, not a stream of chatter, at the centre.而Dropbox——一个同样号称在办公室广为使用的云端存储系统——则代表着相反的观点。不同于Slack,Dropbox的关注点不是聊天信息流,而是文件本身。This view holds that workers will congregate around more static repositories of information, communicating inside or alongside the files.该观点认为,员工们将以更为静态的信息库为核心,在文件内部或者围绕着文件展开交流。Mr Butterfield does not hesitate before delivering a characteristically curt put-down of Dropbox: “They’re probably just wrong.”对于Dropbox的观点,巴特菲尔德没有犹豫,以他特有的不客气简洁回击:“或许他们错了。”If the boss of the hottest new app to enter office life has flaws, a lack of certainty is not one of them.如果这位当前最炙手可热的办公应用软件的老板有什么缺点的话,缺乏确定信心绝不会是其中之一。Slack’s headlong growth suggests he has hit on something, though at less than two years old it is still early. Mr Butterfield says the service has been growing exponentially, adding new users at a rate of about 5 per cent a week. Slack says 1.1m people use its service each day and that it has 300,000 users covered by subscriptions.Slack的急速增长说明巴特菲尔德的观点有一定道理——尽管对于创建不足两年的Slack来说,这样的结论还为时尚早。巴特菲尔德称,Slack的业务呈指数增长,用户量每周增长5%。Slack称每日有110万人使用其务,并有30万名订阅用户。“It’s a much more profound change than people realise,” Mr Butterfield says of the way mobile and cloud technologies are affecting work. “The endpoints are people — not documents, or files, or content, or ‘stuff’ in the generic sense. The number of people for whom data stored in the form of a file is the most important thing is getting smaller and smaller all the time.”“这是比人们意识到的更加深刻的改变,”巴特菲尔德谈到手机和云技术对工作方式的影响时说。“它们的端点是人,而不是文本、文件、内容或者普遍意义上的‘东西’。以文件为主要形式来存储数据的人越来越少。”Thoughtful and intense, as well as flip and dismissive, Mr Butterfield is acerbic at one moment and liable to dive into an extended technical explanation the next.巴特菲尔德言语犀利,傲慢无礼,却又富有见地和热情。他往往这一刻还尖刻地着什么,下一刻却又投入地向人详细阐明一项技术。If devising the formula for a successful viral internet service is like catching lightning in a bottle, he has the distinction of now having done it twice: Flickr, the photo-sharing site he co-founded in 2004 and sold to Yahoo the next year, was one of the first signs of the social media wave that followed.如果说成功设计出一款广受欢迎的互联网务就像用瓶子捕捉闪电一样困难,那么他已经两次完成了这近乎不可能的事:他于2004年与人合伙创建了照片共享网站Flickr,并于次年将其卖给雅虎(Yahoo)。Flickr是后来的社交媒体浪潮的最早萌芽之一。Slack takes its own cue from social networking. But getting the formula correct involves much more than an aptitude for finding the right social chemistry, its boss says.巴特菲尔德说,Slack本身是受社交网络的启发,不过找到正确配方,所需要的远远不止发现正确的社交“化学反应”的能力。It is also about making use of what he calls the “profusion of software” inside companies. With more corporate functions being automated through cloud services — from keeping track of customer orders to monitoring IT systems — Slack is designed to integrate their output into a single stream of communication: a notification could be posted to the stream, for instance, each time a new order comes in or a customer tweets about a product.Slack的成功还在于利用他所称的公司内部“丰富的软件资源”。当前,越来越多的企业职能——从追踪客户订单到监控IT系统——通过云务实现了自动化。Slack的设计意图就是整合企业信息输出,将其汇总为单一的信息流:例如,每当产生新订单或者客户针对产品发tweet时,信息流中都可以发通知。That makes Slack a digital spine for a business, with a single search box for tracking both human- and machine-generated data.这就使得Slack成为了企业中的信息柱。不论是人还是机器产生的数据,都共用一个搜索框,以供追踪。The aim is to create “a positive feedback loop, where the more attention you pay to it, the more it becomes something that saves time in switching between multiple obligations”.Slack的目标是建立“一个正反馈环,你越重视它,它就越能在切换不同职能中节省时间”。The formula has been a hit with venture capital investors as much as with users. Slack has aly raised 0m in its short life, with the most recent funding round putting a valuation on it of .8bn — notable even in the current buoyant funding environment in Silicon Valley.该软件不仅广受用户欢迎,还是风投家们竞相追逐的对象。创立时间不长,Slack的筹资额却已达到3.4亿美元。在最新一轮融资中,它的估值达到28亿美元——即便是在当前融资环境一片大好的硅谷,这也是个了不起的数字。Asked why Slack has raised so much, Mr Butterfield says: “Because we could.” With more than a quarter of its users paying for the service, Slack is “pretty much even on a cash-flow basis aly,” he says.当被问到Slack为什么能筹到这么多款项时,巴特菲尔德答道:“因为我们有能力。”当前用户中有超过四分之一的人付费,“Slack可以说已经建立在现金流的基础上了,”他说道。But stashing away money in the good times could become a competitive advantage in a bust. “I wouldn’t wish a crash on anybody, but the best-case scenario for us is that money becomes harder to get,” he says.不过要趁着日子好过时把钱存好,这样到了日子不好过的时候,这笔钱就会成为竞争优势。“我倒不是希望哪家公司垮掉,不过对我们来说,最有利的情况就是,筹资环境变难,”他说道。To justify the sky-high expectations, Mr Butterfield will have to prove that Slack is more than just the latest faddish office-messaging system. The challenge now is the one that faces all new enterprise software companies with a bright idea: to move fast enough to keep ahead of the copycats, while finding a way to steer between giant competitors that might see Slack as a rival and try to crush it.为了达到外界高企的预期,巴特菲尔德必须要明,Slack不仅仅是一个风靡一时的办公聊天系统而已。Slack所面临的问题也是当前所有新兴的、有着优秀创意的软件公司都要面临的问题:既要快速创新把模仿者甩在后面,又要找到办法在可能视Slack为对手、试图将之摧毁的同行巨头之间周旋。The race to keep Slack’s user numbers growing exponentially turns on overcoming barriers to its adoption. A key product enhancement planned for later this year, for instance, would greatly simplify things for corporate IT departments that want to control the many different Slack group chats that may have sprung up inside their businesses. Slack is also adapting its service to meet different international sensitivities.为保持用户数量呈指数增长的态势,Slack着手破除阻碍用户使用的障碍。例如,Slack计划于今年晚些时候进行一次关键的产品升级。升级后的Slack将大大简化企业IT部的工作,方便其控制企业内同时进行的不同群组聊天。Slack还在调整务以满足不同的国际需求。Avoiding head-on confrontation with the giants of the software industry, meanwhile, means not challenging their own businesses directly. “In this moment now, we have effectively no competition and we’re young and new enough that no one hates us yet,” Mr Butterfield says.同时,要避免与软件行业巨头产生正面冲突,就意味着不要直接向其业务发起挑战。“此时此刻,我们实际上还没有竞争者。我们是年轻的新面孔,还没有人怨恨我们,”巴特菲尔德说道。His plan for keeping it that way is to go broad rather than deep: find millions more users for the existing service, rather than add many new functions that suck in more and more of its users’ attention.为保持当前局面,他的计划是拓宽覆盖面,而不是深化产品功能:发掘更多的客户使用现有产品,而不是增加许多新功能吸引现有客户的注意力。“People are paying us between and 0 a year [per user]. If we can get 100m people to do that, that looks like a pretty good business,” he says.“(每名)用户每年向我们付80到100美元。如果我们能拥有1亿名付费用户,那将是一笔相当不错的生意,”他说道。The biggest danger of all, though, is that some new piece of software will do to Slack what it is trying to do to more established software companies: offer a service that is even more basic and easy to use, and that starts to generate network effects as groups of workers find it slots almost unnoticeably into their office lives.然而,当前最大的风险是出现某种新的软件,用Slack对付那些更老牌软件公司的方法来对付Slack:为用户提供一种更基础、更便于使用的软件,当员工群体发现该软件潜移默化地改变了他们的办公生活时,就会产生网络效应。“The thing I worry about most is someone coming up with something that is much, much simpler but delivers most of the value — like they find the magic formula so that you can get 80 per cent of the value of Slack but with only 20 per cent of the complexity.”“我最担心的是有人设计出一款简单得多,却能实现Slack多数价值的应用程序——好比他们找到了某种魔法配方,其复杂程度只有Slack的20%,却能实现Slack 80%的价值。” /201508/389950

  

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