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眉山中华纹绣网简阳市哪里有好的纹绣学校宜宾眉妆培训学校哪家好 Im starting in the south.我将从南方开始。For many visitors, it is Spain.对于许多游客来说,它是西班牙。But away from the beaches, these are magnificent sights.但远离海滩,壮观的景色呈现在人们眼前。Grand palaces, castles, and masks, remind us of a different culture from a distant time, a time when Spain was called Al-Andalus.宏伟的宫殿、城堡和面具提醒着我们在遥远的过去有着截然不同的文化,当时西班牙被称为Al-Andalus。What is often forgotten is over 700 years mush of Spain was ruled by Muslims, and the South was its beating heart.而常常被人遗忘的是超过700年统治西班牙的是穆斯林,而南方是它跳动的心脏。Southern Spain was an unique frontier where east met west with explosive results.西班牙南部是东方和西方的爆炸性结果的一个独特的前沿。This is the story of how Islamic Spain became one of the most remarkable civilizations ever seen.这个故事就是伊斯兰西班牙如何成为最非凡的文明。注:听力文本来源于普特201211/207259Business Aviation Flight to the future商业 航空 飞向未来Modernising creaking air-traffic systems will be a huge task空中交通系统现代化进程任重道远THESE days a ,000 car comes with GPS satellite navigation fitted as standard.如今一辆价值15,000美元的车子配备GPS卫星导航系统已经是司空见惯。But a 0m airliner still has to be guided through the skies by spoken instructions from a bloke with a radio in a control tower.但是一架1.5亿美元的飞机却仍然要通过接受控制塔的无线电设备的语音指令航行。That is because air-traffic management (ATM) systems are stuck in the 1950s.其原因在于现行的空中交通管理系统(ATM)还停滞在20世纪50年代。Instead of flying straight, planes must zigzag from one ground beacon to the next, and ascend and descend in steps, at each stage obtaining permission from the ground.从一个地面信标到另一个, 飞机必须蜿蜒飞行而不是直线飞行,一会升一会降,而这每一个步骤飞机都需要从地面取得许可。The controllers radar only shows planes approximate positions, so they must space them well apart.并且,因为雷达只显示飞机的大概位置,所以控制员必须从很远的地方来定位。All this wastes fuel and causes congestion and delays.所有这些都导致了燃油的浪费,还会造成交通拥堵和延误。The average flight in European airspace is 50km (31 miles) longer than it need be.在欧洲,飞机运行的距离平均都要比实际所需距离长50公里(31英里)。So the worlds aviation authorities are seeking to modernise the whole system, streamlining the routing of flights and providing much more real-time information to pilots and controllers.因此,全世界的航空当局正致力于革新整个航空系统,使航行路线更为顺畅,提供飞行员和管制员更加及时的信息。This could lead to huge orders for electronics firms, which is why, in his recent jobs speech, President Barack Obama called for billion of extra cash to speed up Americas ATM-modernisation project, NextGen.电子工业也会紧跟着收到巨额订单,这就是为什么奥巴马总统在最近的就业报告中提出要用额外的10亿美元来加速发展美国的航空交通管理系统现代化项目 - 下一代(NexGen)。A study by consultants from McKinsey of Europes equivalent project, SESAR, finds that its costs should be dwarfed by the fuel savings and the economic boost from squeezing more flights into Europes busy skies.麦肯锡公司的咨询顾问通过研究欧洲相类似的一个项目(SESAR)发现系统现代化以后节省的燃油费用,以及更多航班加入带来的经济效益要远远超过项目的投入。America stands to make similar gains.这项发现也适用于美国。It is in everyones interest to invest in modernisation, but the airlines are wary:投资现代化总是回报颇丰,但是航空业却并非如此:several times in recent history they have bought expensive kit only to find they cannot use it because controllers have failed to upgrade their equipment to match.在近代历史上,人们好几次购买了非常昂贵的设配,却发现这些设配根本没用,因为控制设配没有升级,所以不能与之配套。These sorts of ambitious projects to introduce new technology, with countless participants, are prone to cock-ups.这些雄心勃勃的项目引进新的技术,还有不计其数的参与者,却常常一团糟。Those involved in ATM modernisation want to avoid what happened when mobile-phone standards were set, with different countries ending up with incompatible systems.先前在设置手机标准的时候,每个国家最后都设立了自己的系统标准,和其他国家的系统都互不兼容,参与空中交通管理系统(ATM)现代化的人希望不会重蹈覆辙。To guard against that risk, the UNs International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) has just held a summit in Montreal, at which it divided the long list of ATM modernisation projects into manageable chunks, on which the worlds aviation authorities will try to agree standards, one at a time.为了避免此类风险,联合国的国际民用航空组织(ICAO)刚刚在蒙特利尔举行峰会, 在这次峰会上,ICAO把ATM现代化项目分成一个个更易于管理操作的阶段目标,而在这些阶段目标上,全世界的航空当局将会达成世界共同的标准。The process has started well, though developing countries are said to worry about rich countries imposing costly programmes on them.目前这一计划已经开始起步,与此同时,发展中国家很担心发达国家会将昂贵的项目强加给他们。Agreeing on technical standards will be difficult enough.统一技术标准已经是一件非常困难的事,Harder still, says Nancy Graham, an ICAO official, will be paying for it all. Officials in Brussels talk of providing /201301/219158成都/素秀半永久机构做绣眉毛多少钱

遂宁化妆纹绣学校眉山纹绣工作室 绵竹市纹绣师资格

成都熙华纹绣培训韩式半永久纹眉定妆培训 Obituary;Michael Lassen;讣告;迈克尔.拉森;Michael Lassen, stained-glass artist, died on September 8th, aged 61;迈克尔·拉森,花玻璃艺术家,卒于9月8日,享年61岁;ALMOST nothing is known of the men who built the great medieval cathedrals. A masons mark chiselled on a column; a game of nine-mens-morris scratched on a stone; a gargoyles half-human face, of foreman or master of works, are all that remind observers of the crowds of labouring souls who raised Canterbury or Winchester, Beauvais or Cologne.对于建造中世纪大教堂的那些人我们几乎一无所知。一个被刻进圆柱的工匠的标记;一个在石头上乱划的九人莫里斯游戏;一个怪兽状滴水嘴的半人脸,那些工头或者大师的作品,都会让观者想起那些建造坎特伯雷,温彻斯特,科隆或韦伯大教堂的那些千万劳苦大众的在天之灵。The dangers of such projects were legion. Contemporary illustrations show cathedral spires collapsing, vaults caving in, high scaffolding keeling over in a chaos of planks and poles. Casualties were expected, and were many, though the fabric accounts often could not name them. In modern times the labour is no less perilous; but in the days of health-and-safety and hard hats, accidents are rare. Hence the horror in Durham when, on September 3rd, Michael Lassen fell from a ladder as he helped to fix a new stained-glass window in the south quire aisle of the cathedral. He died some days later in hospital.这些大项目危险重重。同时代的画作显示了大教堂尖塔的倾倒,拱顶的塌陷,高高的脚手架倒在一片八七八糟的木板和柱子中。尽管凭零星的记录难以命名,但意外事故的确在所难免而且经常发生。时至今日,这种劳动的危险一点也没有减少。因此,在9月3日达勒姆发生了惨案,当迈克尔。拉森帮助修复一个大教堂南边唱诗班席位的色玻璃窗时,他从梯子上摔了下来。几天后他在医院里死去。Climbing up in the south quire to look at the traceries originally, he had found them heavily fissured, like all Durhams ancient sandstone. Blocks were missing on the exterior, and one side of the main arch was worn away almost to a skeleton, as though two or three centuries of wild north-east weather had blown through it. But all the stone had been carefully stabilised before his work began.爬到南唱诗班席位上去原本是去看花饰窗格,他却发现他们已经严重破裂,就像所有达勒姆古老的沙岩那样。那些石块已经掉了,主拱经过两三百年的东北风吹过,一侧已经破损得只剩一个骨架, 但在他的工作开始之前是所有的石头都被仔细地固定下来。The window was of the Transfiguration of Christ, made by Tom Denny, and one of the largest to be installed in Durham in modern times. Mr Lassen was working from top to bottom, fixing the glass he had leaded. He started with the small quatrefoil lights of the Holy Spirit and the crucifixion, proceeding down through the main panels of Christ and his followers on the mountain, with all the way the white shaft of Gods transfiguring light growing broader through the fire-and-storm colours of the glass. The four principal lights, nicknamed after the chief figures in them, were Cuthbert, Moses, Elijah and Michael; they became familiar friends. He was fitting a small panel at the bottom left-hand side, a pane of bruised blue glass that showed the broken and suffering about to be transformed by light, almost the last piece in the window, when he fell. He was not particularly high up, working at the ledge. But stone flags are unforgiving.窗户是圣容显现,为汤姆丹尼所造,这是在现代达赫姆大教堂要安装的最大的一个。拉森的工作从顶部到底部,负责修复玻璃。他从那些圣灵和十字架的四叶草光芒和开始,接下去通过基督的主体和他在山上的追随者,从上到下,神的美丽的光线透过火红色的玻璃逐渐变光,投射出白色的光柱。四道主要的光,以里面的主要任务命名,分别是库斯伯特,西,以利亚和迈克尔。他们成为熟悉的朋友。当迈克尔坠落的时候,他正在安装左手边底部的一个小的镶嵌板,那是一块磨损了的蓝色玻璃,几乎是窗户上的最后一块玻璃。他其实并不是特别的高,也不是特别靠边缘。但是石板是无情的。Mr Lassen had been called in late to lead and fix this window. The man originally contracted had fallen ill, and the deadline for the installation, the end of September, was fast approaching. Help was needed fast; Mr Lassen provided it, expertly and fully. The tight timetable troubled him; but he was not a keen marathon runner for nothing.拉森很晚的时候被召来领导修复窗户。起初签约的那个人生病了,而九月底工期的最后时限即将到来。拉森专业而不遗余力地提供了急需的帮助。紧张的时间表给他添了麻烦,但拉森不是一个只顾跑步的马拉松运动员。His training had been traditional, in the Government School of Stained Glass at Hadamar in Germany; though English, he had spent many childhood years in Bavaria. After working as a glazer and glass-restorer, he had turned to glass-painting and designing, gradually obtaining commissions in churches all over Britain. His own windows, at St Cadocs chapel in Cowbridge in South Wales, or in the Church of Sts Peter and Paul at Great Somerford in Wiltshire, showed a love of blocks of pure colour carefully contained within thick, angular leads, especially glowing blues and rich reds: the medieval way of glass. His figures, too, had a medieval solidity, dignity and stillness about them.拉森在德国哈达马尔的国立花玻璃学校受到过传统的训练,尽管是个英国人,但他很多童年时光都是在巴伐利亚度过的。在成为一名上釉和玻璃安装工后,他转而从事玻璃绘和设计,逐渐获得了英国各地教堂的任务。他自己的窗作品,遍布南威尔士考布里奇的圣卡多克礼拜堂,威尔特郡大萨默福德的圣彼得圣保罗教堂,展示了他对于仔细地填满又厚又尖的纯色块的热爱,尤其是鲜艳的蓝色和饱满的红色:这是中世纪式的玻璃。他的形状,也具有中世纪的坚固,端庄和沉静。Lead and fire铅与火The techniques needed to lead and fix his own glass had barely changed. He would stretch the H-section lead strips, or cames, to stop “creep” in the soft, ductile metal; cut them expertly straight with his pliers, so as to leave no gaps between them when they were moulded round the glass pieces; apply the hot chisel-tip of the soldering iron just long enough to melt the solder, not the lead, when joining the strips together. The double-layered and plated technique of leading Mr Dennys glass, with the lines almost lost in the painting, was at first new to him, and correspondingly tricky. But by the time of the Durham project he had become an enthusiast, and all was going well until he fell.他固定和修复自己的玻璃所需要的技术几乎没有什么变化。他伸展H型铅条,或卡梅斯,消除柔软韧性金属的脆性; 熟练地用他的钳子把它们弄直,这样当镶嵌上玻璃后就不会产生空隙;用滚烫的带凿头的焊接烙铁刚好溶化焊条,当把两个条焊接起来时不会化掉铅条。起初这种在涂色中几乎不留线条的双层镀金属的工艺对他来说是全新的,而且技术性很强。但是随着达赫姆项目的进行,他对此越发痴迷,一直到他从那里坠落。A memorial service for him was held at the foot of the window while the scaffolding still covered it. Mr Lassen, who worked from Bristol, was barely known in Durham, although he had once had a studio at Worship Farm, not far away. To most of the people who attended, extending the human crowd in the bottom panels of the window, he was just “that nice chap” who had had the accident. But when September 25th came, the day of dedication, he was remembered in a different way. The clue lay in George Herberts poem “The Windows” which was sung as an anthem at evensong. Man was “a brittle crazy glass”:Yet in thy temple thou dost him afford This glorious and transcendent place To be a window, through thy grace.一个为他举办的纪念仪式就在那窗户脚下进行,脚手架还没有拆掉。来自布里斯托尔的拉森在达赫姆几乎不为人知,尽管他在不远的礼拜农场有一个工作室。对于来参加纪念仪式的人群来说,他就是那个出事故的“好小伙”。但是当9月25日,奉献日这天到来的时候,他以一种不同的方式被怀念。而线索就藏在乔治·赫伯特的一首诗里“窗”,这是晚祷的一首赞美歌。人是一块“易脆的疯狂的玻璃”:然而,栖身在你的圣殿,透过你的恩典,他这一光荣而超然的地方是一扇窗As the congregation pressed through afterwards into the south quire aisle they found the windows still wreathed in incense, like the cloud of God that had enveloped Jesus on the mountain. Through it shone the glass. Its golds and blues were smoky in the evening light, but the central column blazed white, like the transfiguration of a man; and of all men, named or un-named, whose lives and skills are embedded in the stone and glass of great cathedrals.众人在集会通过南唱诗班的走廊,他们还发现窗户依然在香缭绕,像神云笼罩了耶稣在山上。通过它闪耀的玻璃,金色和蓝色在夜色里显得烟雾迷茫,但中央纵队开辟白色像一个人变身,和所有的人,有名的无名的,他们的生命和手艺,都早已嵌入大教堂的石头和玻璃中。 /201209/201491彭州市培训半永久广元纹绣培训多少钱



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