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2018年06月18日 23:30:41 | 作者:美丽分享 | 来源:新华社
原味人文风情:Dear Emilia,亲爱的 Emilia:You just turned 18. So, as your future self, here is some advice that Id like to give you.你刚满十八岁。所以身为未来的你,这里是我想给你的一些建议。Emilia Clarke Reads a Letter to Her 18-Year-Old SelfEmilia Clarke 为十八岁的自己读一封信This particular journey that youre on is unlike any one of your friends that youre with right now. What theyre doing is gonna bring them joy and happiness, and what youre doing is also gonna bring you maybe a little more struggle, and some joy and happiness as well. There are gonna be times when someone says that dream that youve had your entire life, the moment when someone says thats not possible—it is. I know you didnt get into drama school this time around, but you will. You have the strength to overcome it.你所踏上的这趟旅程和你现在身边任何一个朋友的都不一样。他们在做的事会带给他们喜悦和幸福,而你在做的也会带给你,可能会多点困难,但也会带来一些喜悦和幸福。有些时候会有人说你一辈子的梦想,当有人说那不可能实现的时候--梦想是可能实现的。我知道你这时候没考进戏剧学院,不过你以后会的。你有能力克。And you can go to the parties, and youre gonna have fun at the parties, but you dont need to do everything that everyones doing. You know, aint nothing wrong with a Diet Coke—aint nothing wrong.你可以去参加派对,而且你在派对上会玩得很高兴,不过你不用做大家都在做的事。你知道的,喝健怡可乐没什么不对--没什么好不对的。Eighteen-year-old Emilia, Im gonna e this sunscreen song at you. I know you know it. You are not as fat as you think you are. There are some women who look some way, and there are other women who look another way, like, a whole other way. And the way that the other women look, people love, because they look like women.十八岁的 Emilia,我要对你引述这首防晒乳之歌。我知道你晓得那是什么。你没你想得那么胖。有些女人看起来是一种样子,有另外一些女人看起来是另一种样子,象是,完全不同的样子。而那另外一些女人的样子,人们爱死了,因为她们看起来像女人。So, when it comes to relationship advice, theres other things that come along with relationships. You think that theyre, like, inspecting everything and, you know, and kinda looking at you in a way of, sort of, that makes you feel uncomfortable or judged or whatever it is. Chances are theyre not. Chances are theyre just super happy to be there.那么,讲到恋爱建议,恋爱会带来其它事物。你以为他们在检视着每件事,然后,你知道,以一种方式看着你,让你觉得不自在或被品头论足还是什么的。很可能他们并没有。很可能他们只是很开心能在那。Youre gonna feel some serious heartbreak. Youre gonna feel some, like, proper...some proper things. And the reason why its gonna hurt so much... Its because that heartbreak is gonna make you doubt yourself. You put yourself out on a plate and you bare everything, and someone says that they dont really like that. So that makes you feel...like youre not worth it. But you are, and theres lots of people who are gonna tell you that you are worth it.你会有些痛彻心扉的心碎体验。你会有些真切的...一些真切的领悟。而那会如此痛的原因是... 那是因为那种心碎会让你质疑自己。你全心奉献自己,而且你裸地摊开一切,但某个人却说他们并不真的喜欢那样。所以那让你感到...象是你并不值得。不过你值得,而且未来会有许多人告诉你你是值得的。The people in your life, when all the lights are off, the real people who you really love, just hug them, like, every day.在你生命中的人们,当所有灯都熄灭时,你真心诚意爱着的真实的那群人,就抱抱他们吧,象是,每天都抱。Okay. So parting words, little Emilia...littler Emilia, Im just gonna say that, um, you know, its autumn right now, because its October, but...winter is coming. And wear sunscreen!好了。道别的话,小 Emilia...小一点点的 Emilia,我只是要说,嗯,你知道,现在是秋天,因为现在是十月,但是...凛冬将至。还有要擦防晒乳!Love, Emilia爱你的,Emilia201706/511197A new day and a new opportunity.新的一天,新的机遇The flock stay in close contact by calling to one another.鹤群通过互相鸣叫保持密切联系Weak from lack of food and water, they use thermals, rising columns of warm air, to gain height.尽管它们缺食少水,日渐衰弱,可它们会利用热空气--呈圆柱形上升的热气流来获取高度For many, this is their first journey across the Himalayas.许多蓑羽鹤都是第一次踏上穿越喜马拉雅的旅程For some, it will be their last.而有些却是最后一次The golden eagles have been expecting them.金雕早已企待它们的到来The eagles work in pairs to separate a young crane from the flock.两只金雕合作将一只小鹤从队伍中分离出来It escapes the clutches of one and is caught by another.它躲过了其中一只的追捕,却没能逃过另一只的利爪But even a young crane is a heavy prize and the eagle has to struggle to control it.一只小鹤的份量也是挺重的,金雕不得不努力控制飞行The mother can wait no longer. This is a desperate race against worsening weather.母鹤可不能等得太久。这是一场与恶劣气候的死亡赛跑The rest of the flock battle on.鹤群其它成员开始背水一战In the final ascent, every wing-beat becomes an exhausting struggle.上升过程中每扇一下翅膀都得用尽全身气力At last, they are over the highest barrier that lies in their way.最后它们终于翻越了旅途中最高的障碍But like all who visit the world of the high mountains, they dare not linger.不过,与所有高山世界的拜访者一样,它们也不敢逗留。201704/506212

So, has everybody heard of CRISPR?有人听说过 CRISPR吗I would be shocked if you hadnt.你没听过我也不感觉很吃惊This is a technology -- its for genome editing and its so versatile and so controversial that its sparking all sorts of really interesting conversations.它是一种基因编辑技术手段 由于其功能多样 备受争议的特点引起了各种各样非常有趣的争议Should we bring back the woolly mammoth? Should we edit a human embryo?我们应该将灭绝的长毛象复活吗 我们应该编辑人类胚胎吗And my personal favorite: How can we justify wiping out an entire species that we consider harmful to humans off the face of the Earth, using this technology?我最喜欢的一个问题是 我们如何将人类使用这项技术使那些我们认为对自己有害的全部物种清除出地球这种做法变得有理可据This type of science is moving much faster than the regulatory mechanisms that govern it.这种科技比控制它本身的常规技术发展的还要快And so, for the past six years, Ive made it my personal mission to make sure that as many people as possible understand these types of technologies and their implications.在过去的六年中 我都将使更多的人了解这种技术和它们的涵义作为自己的使命Now, CRISPR has been the subject of a huge media hype,现在 CRISPR已经成了媒体炒作的焦点and the words that are used most often are ;easy; and ;cheap.;并且被大众媒体贴上了 简单 容易的标签So what I want to do is drill down a little bit deeper and look into some of the myths and the realities around CRISPR.我想将这个话题深入下去 探究CRISPR的奥秘以及现实状况If youre trying to CRISPR a genome, the first thing that you have to do is damage the DNA.如果 你想编辑一个染色体 你得首先破环DNA分子The damage comes in the form of a double-strand break through the double helix.这种破坏需要从双螺旋结构上斩断双链结构And then the cellular repair processes kick in, and then we convince those repair processes to make the edit that we want, and not a natural edit.随后细胞的修复机制开始插手这时我们就可以让这些修复系统来改造我们想要的基因了这不是自然的改造Thats how it works. Its a two-part system.这就是这种技术的原理 这是一个两步走的技术Youve got a Cas9 protein and something called a guide RNA.首先要有一个Cas9蛋白质 还有一种向导RNAI like to think of it as a guided missile.可以将其比作定向引导导弹So the Cas9 -- I love to anthropomorphize so the Cas9 is kind of this Pac-Man thing that wants to chew DNA,于是Cas9蛋白质 我喜欢将其拟人化 Cas9 就像是吃豆人中的小圆脸迫不及待地想要吃掉 DNAand the guide RNA is the leash thats keeping it out of the genome until it finds the exact spot where it matches.向导RNA相当于拉住它 使它远离染色体的牵引绳(类似遛)直到它找到特定的位点And the combination of those two is called CRISPR.这两种分子的结合体就叫做 CRISPRIts a system that we stole from an ancient, ancient bacterial immune system.它是在效仿一种极其古老的细菌免疫系统The part thats amazing about it is that the guide RNA, only 20 letters of it, are what target the system.最令人惊奇的部分是 RNA 虽只有20个有效信息但却是整个结构的定位部分This is really easy to design, and its really cheap to buy.CRISPR 设计起来非常容易并且价格低廉So thats the part that is modular in the system; everything else stays the same.这种手法已经被模块化 并且一成不变This makes it a remarkably easy and powerful system to use.因此这种技术用起来十分便捷 并且有效The guide RNA and the Cas9 protein complex together go bouncing along the genome,向导 RNA 和 Cas9 蛋白质组成一个整体在染色体上来回穿梭and when they find a spot where the guide RNA matches,当它们发现一个与向导 RNA 吻合的部位时then it inserts between the two strands of the double helix, it rips them apart,就会嵌入双螺旋结构 将其撕裂that triggers the Cas9 protein to cut, and all of a sudden,导致 Cas9 蛋白质开始切割工作 于是突然之间youve got a cell thats in total panic because now its got a piece of DNA thats broken.你就让一个细胞处在了极大的恐慌之中因为它的一条 DNA 被破坏What does it do It calls its first responders.这时它该怎么办呢 呼叫现场急救员There are two major repair pathways.细胞有着两种主要的修复机制The first just takes the DNA and shoves the two pieces back together.第一种是直接将断掉的 DNA 接上This isnt a very efficient system, because what happens is sometimes a base drops out or a base is added.这种方法不是最有效的由于有时会多一个链环有时又会少一个Its an OK way to maybe, like, knock out a gene, but its not the way that we really want to do genome editing.这种方法只能 算撞出一个基因来但不是我们通常想要的基因改造方式The second repair pathway is a lot more interesting.第二种修复机制更为有趣In this repair pathway, it takes a homologous piece of DNA.在这种机制中 细胞会寻找一条相同的 DNAAnd now mind you, in a diploid organism like people,在有着双染色体的生物 比如说人类weve got one copy of our genome from our mom and one from our dad,我们得到了我们父母 各自的一组染色体so if one gets damaged, it can use the other chromosome to repair it.如果一条 DNA 受损 细胞可以用另外一条来修复它So thats where this comes from.这就是这种技术的原理The repair is made, and now the genome is safe again.修复成功之后 染色体又重获安全The way that we can hijack this is we can feed it a false piece of DNA, a piece that has homology on both ends but is different in the middle.我们将其调包的方法是用一条新的DNA替换中间段两端与原来相同的新DNA来修复它So now, you can put whatever you want in the center and the cell gets fooled.于是你可以随心所欲地将你想要的中间部分安装上去细胞本身却毫无察觉So you can change a letter, you can take letters out,你可以改变基因中的一条信息 也可以删除它but most importantly, you can stuff new DNA in, kind of like a Trojan horse.但最为重要的是你可以像特洛伊木马一样 将一条全新的 DNA 嵌入CRISPR is going to be amazing, in terms of the number of different scientific advances that its going to catalyze.CRISPR 的作用出人预料 它能推动许多不同领域的科技发展The thing thats special about it is this modular targeting system.它的特殊之处在于这个攻击系统模块I mean, weve been shoving DNA into organisms for years, right?我们多年来一直尝试着将 DNA 嵌入生物体中But because of the modular targeting system, we can actually put it exactly where we want it.但由于这种模块攻击系统我们能将它放在我们想要的地方The thing is that theres a lot of talk about it being cheap and it being easy.问题是现在有很多关于 它的廉价性和便捷性的话题And I run a community lab.我有一所社区实验室Im starting to get emails from people that say stuff like,并且开始收到人们的来信;Hey, can I come to your open night我能在开放夜来你那吗?and, like, maybe use CRISPR and engineer my genome?;我能用 CRISPR 编辑一下自己的基因吗?Like, seriously. Im, ;No, you cant.; ;But Ive heard its cheap. Ive heard its easy.;讲真的 我说 不能 但我听说那很便宜 很简单啊Were going to explore that a little bit. So, how cheap is it? Yeah, it is cheap in comparison.我们谈谈这个吧 究竟有多便宜 相对来说确实便宜Its going to take the cost of the average materials for an experiment from thousands of dollars to hundreds of dollars, and it cuts the time a lot, too.实验所需材料花费从几千美元降至几百美元 还能节约很多时间It can cut it from weeks to days. Thats great.几周的工作几天就能完成 这很好You still need a professional lab to do the work in; youre not going to do anything meaningful outside of a professional lab.但你仍需要专业的实验室来做 没有实验室是不可能完成这项技术的I mean, dont listen to anyone who says you can do this sort of stuff on your kitchen table.我是说 别相信那些类似你能在你家厨房做这个实验这种说法Its really not easy to do this kind of work.做这个工程真的不那么容易Not to mention, theres a patent battle going on, so even if you do invent something,更不用说 一场专利之争正在进行 所以即使你有某些重大发现the Broad Institute and UC Berkeley are in this incredible patent battle.布罗德研究所和 UC 伯克利也在为专利权而争斗不休Its really fascinating to watch it happen,隔岸观火很有趣because theyre accusing each other of fraudulent claims因为他们都在不断控诉对方 称其发布诬告性言论and then theyve got people saying, ;Oh, well, I signed my notebook here or there.;他们中的有人常常说 我在我的笔记本上到处都记了笔记This isnt going to be settled for years.这件事好几年都没完And when it is, you can bet youre going to pay someone a really hefty licensing fee in order to use this stuff.即使真的解决了到那时你就得为使用这项技术付高昂的费用So, is it really cheap? Well, its cheap if youre doing basic research and youve got a lab.所以它真的便宜吗 如果你有自己的实验室 并且在做基础学科实验的话 确实很便宜How about easy? Lets look at that claim. The devil is always in the details.容易吗 现在我们来谈谈这个 魔鬼总藏在深处We dont really know that much about cells. Theyre still kind of black boxes.我们仍然不十分了解细胞 他们就像是一个黑匣子For example, we dont know why some guide RNAs work really well and some guide RNAs dont.比如说 我们不知道为什么有一些RNA十分好用有一些却不好使We dont know why some cells want to do one repair pathway and some cells would rather do the other.我们也不知道为什么 一些细胞采用一种修复机制另一些采用另外一种And besides that, theres the whole problem of getting the system into the cell in the first place.除了这些以外在一开始 将这个系统植入细胞时同样面临着问题In a petri dish, thats not that hard, but if youre trying to do it on a whole organism, it gets really tricky.在培养皿中 这不是很难可是如果是整个生物体那就很麻烦了Its OK if you use something like blood or bone marrow those are the targets of a lot of research now.采用血液或是骨髓是可行的它们也是现在的研究重点There was a great story of some little girl who they saved from leukemia有个关于一位女孩的奇迹 她患了白血病by taking the blood out, editing it, and putting it back with a precursor of CRISPR.最后通过将血取出 人为将其改造后放回人体最终痊愈——用的是CRISPR的前期技术And this is a line of research that people are going to do.这是一种人们希望从事的研究But right now, if you want to get into the whole body, youre probably going to have to use a virus.但是如果你想针对整个人体可能就要用到病毒了So you take the virus, you put the CRISPR into it, you let the virus infect the cell.采集病毒以后 将 CRISPR 放进去你需要让病毒感染细胞But now youve got this virus in there, and we dont know what the long-term effects of that are.但只要你将病毒注入细胞内部就可能出现长期的副作用Plus, CRISPR has some off-target effects, a very small percentage, but theyre still there.而且 CRISPR 还有一些伤及无辜的攻击行为只占很小一部分—— 但总是存在的Whats going to happen over time with that?一段时间过后又会发生什么呢These are not trivial questions, and there are scientists that are trying to solve them, and they will eventually, hopefully, be solved.这不是小事 有科学家一直想要解决这些问题 而且它们最终会被解决 很有这种可能But it aint plug-and-play, not by a long shot. So: Is it really easy?但研究需要时间 这种方法真的容易吗Well, if you spend a few years working it out in your particular system, yes, it is.在经过几年的深入研究之后它才真正变得容易Now the other thing is, we dont really know that much about how to make a particular thing happen by changing particular spots in the genome.还有一个问题是我们不知道怎样通过改变染色体中的某个部位来达到我们想要的目的Were a long way away from figuring out how to give a pig wings, for example.我们现在还无法获知怎样使一只猪长出翅膀Or even an extra leg -- Id settle for an extra leg.或是多长一条腿 就拿这个举例That would be kind of cool, right?那会十分有趣 不是吗But what is happening is that CRISPR is being used by thousands and thousands of scientists to do really, really important work,但是现在成千上万名科学家正在将CRISPR这项技术应用于很重要的工程中like making better models of diseases in animals, for example, or for taking pathways that produce valuable chemicals构建更好的动物疾病模型 或是找到可用的化学物质生产方法and getting them into industrial production in fermentation vats, or even doing really basic research on what genes do.用它们进行工业生产和发酵甚至是有关基因功能的基本研究This is the story of CRISPR we should be telling, and I dont like it that the flashier aspects of it are drowning all of this out.这就是 CRISPR 的故事 我不想让它浮华的那一面将它真正的光芒掩盖了Lots of scientists did a lot of work to make CRISPR happen,很多科学家都为制造CRISPR做出了很多贡献and whats interesting to me is that these scientists are being supported by our society. Think about it.让我感到欣慰的是 这些科学家得到了社会的广泛持 想一想Weve got an infrastructure that allows a certain percentage of people to spend all their time doing research.我们有着能够让一小部分人愿意倾其一生从事科学研究的机构That makes us all the inventors of CRISPR, and I would say that makes us all the shepherds of CRISPR.这使得我们都成为CRISPR技术的发明者 而我想强调的是那也使我们成为这项技术的引领者We all have a responsibility.我们都需要有很强的责任感So I would urge you to really learn about these types of technologies,所以我迫切地希望你们能够真正地了解这项技术because, really, only in that way are we going to be able to guide the development of these technologies,因为只有这样我们才能掌控这些技术的发展the use of these technologies and make sure that, in the end, its a positive outcome for both the planet and for us. Thanks.引导这些技术的应用方向 确保这项技术最终能够给地球和人类都带来好的结果 谢谢大家201706/515035

I feel good about this. I really do, thank you.我很开心。我真的很开心,谢谢。Thank you very much. Of course.真是感谢你。不客气。My name is Mark Bustos. I am a hairstylist based at New York City我叫马克·布斯托斯。我在纽约当一名发型设计师。On my days off I go out on the street and I look for homeless people to help out我休假的时候会到街上,找无家可归的人来帮助他们whether itd be a haircut or just conversation无论是通过剪发还是聊天。Just tried to help out in any way to brighten someones day.我只是想试着帮助他们,让他们能有愉快的一天。Nice to meet you. What do you think about a haircut today? Free? Free.很高兴见到你。你今天想不想剪个头发?免费的吗?免费的。Is this where I sit? This is your seat. Ok. Just sit, my friend.你要我坐在这儿吗?你坐在这儿。好的。请坐吧,我的朋友。Feels good. Feel like a new man. Thank you.感觉很好。我觉得自己像变了一个人。谢谢。I can see myself now. Thank you. Thank you very much.我现在可以看到自己了。谢谢。非常感谢。I think grooming helps them take the next step in life just by giving them a little bit more confidence我觉得剪头发可以帮助他们踏出人生的下一步,给他们多一点自信,or even to just walk a little taller.让他们更能抬头挺胸。I wanna feel good when I got my interview next week and now Im feel it that way. Feel real good我下星期去面试的时候,希望能有自信,我现在很有自信。我非常开心。201702/491180

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghais English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。201612/481033

The first time I saw the campus, it was incredible.我第一次看到这个园区时,感到很不可思议Theres volleyball nets and colorful umbrellas.这儿有排球场和五颜六色的户外遮阳伞And you see people walking their dogs.你会看到有人在遛It feels kind of like a playground, a big playground.这就像是一个操场 一个大操场The atmosphere around Google, its definitely very eccentric, but also very academic.谷歌的氛围绝对非常古怪 但也有浓浓的学术氛围At Google, we actually do have the ability to make more of an impact on people and more of a change in one year than many people do in their lifetimes.在谷歌 我们真的能影响别人,并在一年内做出比很多人一生都多的改变Its an environment in which very few limitations are placed on where your mind can be during the day.这是一个很少限制你的思考的环境,在白天你可以思考任何你想思考的问题,没有人会管你Youre all starting your teams this week.这周你们都开始团队工作了And some great advice is to not to be afraid to fail.有一个好建议是不要害怕失败But we want to flip that around a little bit and say dont be afraid to succeed.但是我们想把这句话反过来,不要害怕成功My names Matt Malone. Im a graduate intern here at Google in Consumer Operations this summer.我叫Matt Malone,我是一个刚毕业的实习生,今年夏天在谷歌消费者运营中心工作I have a background as a Infantry officer in the Army.我曾经在军队里做过步兵军官I thought leading people directly on the ground as a combat leader would provide the greatest leadership challenge.那时我就明白 做一名战斗指挥官,在地面指挥别人能带来最大的领导挑战And then I switched over to working in Intelligence.之后我就变为脑力劳动者Thats where I really started to fall in love with technology.那就是我真正开始爱上科技的时候My name is Paola Correa. I go to the University of Miami.我叫Paola Correa,我在迈阿密大学读书And I study advertising and marketing.学习广告与市场营销When I was little, I used to collect ads.我小的时候经常收集广告I used to get a kick out of going to different places and seeing how the same message would impact differently and would look differently.去不同的地方,看到同样的信息如何产生不同的影响 变换不同的面貌,我感到很快乐My name is Kim Day. Im from Melbourne, Florida.我叫Kim Day,我来自佛罗里达州的墨尔本市Im studying physics and computer science at the Florida Institute of Technology.我在佛罗里达科技大学学习物理与计算机科学I grew up on the space coast of Florida.我在佛罗里达的太空海岸长大And I always grew up watching the shuttles take off from the Kennedy Space Center.我总是看着航天飞机从肯尼迪航空中心升入空中And I knew that I really wanted to work with technology and be able to be on the cutting edge.我就知道我很想从事科技方面的工作并走在时代前沿My name is Florian Koenigsberger, and Im from New York City.我叫Florian Koenigsberger,我来自纽约Google as a company was attractive to me because they are a tech company thats been so much more than that.谷歌是一个非常吸引我的公司,因为他们远非仅仅是一家科技公司There isnt a place that Google is not.谷歌可以成为一切Im Grant Oakley. Im from Spokane, Washington.我叫Grant Oakley,我来自华盛顿州的斯波坎市Just the process of coding is actually surprisingly fun.事实上光编码的过程就已经够有趣了You get this epic win at the end of the day, where you throw up the arms in celebration.你在一天结束的时候得到这个“史诗胜利”,你可以伸展双臂来庆祝一下Its exciting to work at Google because unlike a lot of software companies, I use Google products every day.在谷歌公司是一件非常激动的事情,因为不同于其他很多软件公司 我每天都用谷歌产品Thats pretty exciting.那非常激动人心So were headed upstairs.来 我们上楼Ive always thought of work as just—as work.我一直只把工作当成——工作This is going to be your desk right here.这将是你的办公桌At Google, its completely different.在谷歌 这完全不一样At Google, I was extremely excited to start at work.在谷歌 我对开始工作感到极其激动I could barely sleep the first night.我第一天晚上几乎睡不着觉Yeah, my inbox has aly been exploding.是的 我的收件箱已经炸了How many?有多少?Yeah, 45 emails for your first days pretty good.45封是鼓励你第一天出色的表现的Im working in the Online Help Center.我在在线帮助中心工作And my project is part of an effort that will completely change the way Google is reaching out to consumers and helping them with Google products.我的项目是彻底改变谷歌接触顾客的方式和帮助他们使用谷歌产品的一部分Our help centers are not just the US.我们的帮助中心不是仅限于务美国But we have them in 40 plus languages.还包括务其他40多种语言的国家So you have to think about how were going to manage that complexity.所以你必须思考,我们如何处理那样的复杂性From your first day as a Google intern, youre treated as a regular employee.从你成为谷歌实习生的第一天起,你就已经被当做一名正式职员看待了Dont presume that just because youre an intern as such that youre not a member of the team.不要仅仅把你当成一个实习生,而不是团队的一员One usually expects as a new person to be at the bottom of the knowledge totem pole.实习生总是把自己当成是公司知识底层的菜鸟The fact that Im not is an illustration of how much responsibility is given to us as interns across the board.“我不是”的事实可以说明在全公司中有多少责任放在了我们实习生的身上Paola?Paola?How are you?你最近怎么样?Doing good. Im Chris.不错,我是ChrisNice to meet you.很高兴认识你I worked with a couple of interns last year.我去年和几个实习生一起工作And every intern that Ive seen come on has just exuded Googliness.每一个我遇到的实习生都散发出一种谷歌精神Ill get the hang of it eventually. Youll get the hang of it. OK.我一定要弄个明白,你会弄明白的,好的Dont be afraid to ask. OK.不要害怕提问,好的Is their work going to be challenging?他们的工作会变得富有挑战吗?Yeah, because the most important work is challenging.是的 因为最重要的工作很有挑战This summer, Im working on an email notification for Google Accounts.今年夏天我要负责为谷歌账户发电子邮件通知And its going to be sent out to thousands of users. And its going to make their accounts more secure.这将会被发给成千上万个用户,这也会使他们的账户更加安全My code helps developers test their code very efficiently.我的编码能帮助开发者有效测试他们的编码And that way, they can write good stable code for the products.那样他们就能为产品写出又好又稳定的编码You will be working on something that not only your team, but the entire Google will see.不仅仅是你的团队 还有整个谷歌都会看到你的工作Basically, internship is like a good experience towards becoming a full-time hire, right?实际上 实习是一段非常好的让你过渡成为全职员工的很好的经历 对吧?The one thing that all the interns definitely have in common is passion and motivation to get these things done.所有实习生肯定都有的共同点就是把事情做好的热情和动力Because you dont necessarily have to know everything. But you have to be willing to learn.因为你不必什么都知道,但你必须有一颗乐于学习的心Is this your first time at Google? Yeh!这是你们第一次来谷歌吗? 对!The week has been unstoppable, restless, a bunch of activities.这一周我忙得完全停不下来 毫无喘息之机有太多活动了Theres always something new.总有新事物出现And the next activity or the next person that we meet is more exciting than the last.而且我们遇到的下一个活动 下一个人永远比上一个更加令人激动They do a really, really good job of making you understand the way this place thinks.他们真的 真的很好地让你理解了这里的思维方式I think, specifically, of an exercise we did that gave a completely new perspective on how to brainstorm.尤其是我觉得有一个练习给了我一个全新的视角 让我明白如何头脑风暴What is brainstorming to you? Tell me what you guys said.你头脑风暴到了什么?告诉我你们这些家伙说了什么Its focused on learning to put aside your它的重点在于学着把你的看法放在一边judgments right away and avoid criticizing new ideas that may seem strange to you.不要批评那些你看起来可能会觉得很奇怪的新想法Impossible is not a word thats thrown around very often.“不可能”不是一个经常被忽略的词I think it helps you imagine.我认为它能帮你充分发挥想象I certainly did not associate imagination with productivity before coming here.在来这儿之前 我当然没把想象力和生产力联系起来But I think this place makes that real.但我觉得这里能让这变的真实For the rest of it, I know that there will be a lot of work involved, maybe some work that I dont know how to do.另外 我知道这儿会有很多工作要做 可能还有一些我根本不知道怎么做的工作But a little bit of fear is good.但是有一点点害怕是好事I do feel a lot different after being here for my first week.来这儿待了一个礼拜后,我确确实实改变了很多I guess Ive always identified myself very much with the military. I was in the military for five years.我想我曾经已经把自己变得非常军人化了,我曾在军队待了五年But Im starting to see myself as a Googler.但我开始把自己看成一个谷歌人I see myself as someone who fits in here. I dont feel like an outsider. I feel Googley.我把自己看成一个融入这儿的人,我不觉得自己格格不入,我觉得自己很谷歌I would say meeting Sergey was definitely one of the highlights of my week, month, maybe year.我想说遇见Sergey是我一周 一个月甚至一年中最精的事情之一Hes fine, just stopped and shakes my hand. And then he rode off on his elliptical bike.他人很好 停下来和我握手,然后骑着他的健身车离开Its pretty great.这棒极了Maybe it is a little early to say that after Ive only been here a week or so, but I just feel like theres always going to be something new youre going to learn every day.可能要这么说还有点为时过早,不过在我来了这儿大概一个礼拜以后,我觉得这儿每天都有新东西要你去学And thats really the best part about being an engineer.而这就是做一名工程师最棒的地方If this is what being an intern feels like, Id love to be an intern for the rest of my life.如果这就是一名实习生的生活,我简直想在这儿做一辈子实习生201706/513960

Youve probably seen a dog tilt its head in response to a weird noise or something you said. Its super cute, but why do they do it?你一定见过对奇怪的噪音或你的话做出歪头的反应吧。超级可爱的说,但是它们为什么要歪头呢?The answers not entirely clear, and there hasnt been any peer-reviewed research about it.我们还不是很清楚其中奥秘,也不曾有对其做过研究。But a couple of scientists hypothesize that head-tilting might help dogs see and hear us better.不过,有几位科学家假设,歪头可能会帮助们更好的观察、倾听我们。One popular idea comes from a 2013 blog post by a psychologist named Stanley Coren,2013年,一位名叫Stanley Coren的心理学家在客上发表了一篇大家普遍认可的观点,who studies dogs and their behaviors, among other things.这位心理学家主要研究及它们的行为等。He thinks that puzzled tilt means a dog is trying to see you better.他认为让人摸不着头脑的歪头,代表着想更好的看清你。When you speak to someone, dog or otherwise, you express a lot of emotion with the lower half of your face.当你和某人或等说话时,你的大部分表情会通过脸的下半部分来表达。And according to a small 2015 study, it seems like our canine companions can tell the difference between facial expressions that show emotion, like happiness or anger.根据2015年的一项小研究,似乎我们的犬类同伴能够分辨表达情绪的面部表情,如开心或生气。But a dog with a bigger muzzle might not be able to see your smile or frown clearly,但是鼻口部较大的可能看不清你的微笑或皱眉,so Coren suggests that tilting helps them get a better view.所以,Coren认为歪头能够帮助它们仔细观察。He tested this idea by surveying 582 dog owners online, asking them to describe their dogs breed or head shape,通过对582名主人做在线调查,Coren对这个观点进行了检测。Coren要求主人描述他们的种类或头型,and then rate how frequently their dogs do the head-tilting thing.并估计们歪头的频率。The data were split into two groups. One was brachycephalic dogs with flatter faces like pugs;数据被分为两组。一组是扁平脸的短头,如八哥犬;and the other was a mix of mesaticephalic dogs with medium muzzles like beagles and dolichocephalic dogs with long noses like greyhounds.另一组是中等鼻口的中型头,如猎犬和长鼻子长头,如灰的混合组。In Corens survey, 71% of owners of bigger-muzzled dogs reported that their pups ;frequently;, ;most of the time; or ;always; tilt their heads when spoken to,在Coren的调查中,71%的大鼻口的主人称,在和他们的说话时,它们“经常”、“大部分时间”、“总是”歪头,as opposed to only 52% of owners of smaller-muzzled dogs.而仅有52%的小鼻口主人反映过这种情况。That, he says, is a statistically significant difference, but 52% is still a lot of dogs, so this probably isnt the whole story.Coren表示,从数据上来看,差别非常明显,但是52%仍是相当大的比例。因此,该观点并不能代表整个事情的原委。A psychologist who runs a dog cognition lab named Alexandra Horowitz thinks that dogs could be trying to hear us better with those sideways looks.一位经营一家认知实验室的心理学家,Alexandra Horowitz认为侧眼看能使它们更好地倾听我们。Specifically, she thinks theyre tilting their heads to adjust the floppy parts of their ears, called pinnae, to get a better sense of where sounds are coming from.她认为们歪头是为了调整耳部的耷拉部分--耳廓,以便更好地分辨声音的来源。A third take from a dog trainer named Steven Lindsay, is that dogs tilt their heads because one part of their brain is involved in both listening and body language.第三种观点来自一位训师,Steven Lindsay。她认为歪头是因为它们大脑的一部分负责了听力和肢体语言两个区。We think a region called the nucleus ambiguus controls a dogs head movements, as well as the muscles in a dogs middle ear that help it perceive subtly different sounds.我们认为疑核区域控制着的头部动作以及中耳的肌肉,能帮助它们精确地察觉不同的声音。So Lindsay suggests that when your pup is listening, it cant help but show you with its body, too.因此,Lindsay认为,当你的在倾听时,它们会情不自禁的向你展示它们的肢体语言。We dont really know how accurate any of these guesses are, but we do know that dogs tilting their heads is real cute.我们并不清楚这些猜测是否准确,但是我们都认同歪头的动作太可爱啦。So to any animal psychologists out there: round up some puppies, do some research, and post more of these adorable s online... for science!所以建议我们的心理学家:养一些,做一些研究,然后上传更多可爱的视频...当然,为了科学嘛!Thanks for asking, and thanks especially to all of our patrons on Patreon who keep these answers coming.谢谢大家的提问,特别感谢Patreon上一直提问的观众。If youd like to submit questions to be answered, or get some s a few days early, go to patreon.com/scishow.欢迎登陆patreon.com/scishow向我们提问并观看我们的视频。And dont forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!另外,不要忘记去youtube.com/scishow订阅我们的栏目哟!201707/515889

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