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2019年10月20日 23:29:16 | 作者:乐视专家 | 来源:新华社
Shang Dynasty商朝Economy and Society社会与经济From the findings on the site of Yin, the capital city of the Shang, archeologists found out that the productivity of the Shang Dynasty reached a relatively high level even during the former period.从商朝都城殷的遗址所发现的东西看来,考古学家们发现商朝的生产力在其前期就已经但到了一个相对高的水平。As far as agriculture was concerned, farm implements had been improved.就农业而言,农耕工具已经得到改进。石犁、铁锹和镰刀被广泛运用。基本的作物包括粟和小麦。Stone ploughs; spades and sickles were widely used. The primary crops included millet and wheat.更重要的是,商朝的青铜器皿制造空前繁荣。More important, the Shang Dynasty thrived in the manufacture of bronze vessels.Bronze culture has appeared in China before 3000 and achieved its zenith around the 13th century B.C.青铜器的历史在中国始于公元前3000年,在公元前13世纪左右达到顶峰。Bronze objects affected not only people’s daily life but the arms of the state.青铜制品不仅影响着人们的日常生活还影响着国家的武器装备。Its wide use enabled unprecedented accomplishments of the Shang Dynasty in politics, economy, culture and art.它的广泛使用使商朝在政治、经济、文化和艺术方面取得了空前的成就。In the reign of King Wuding, the landmark was the appearance of an alloy of copper, lead and tin.在武丁执政期间,铜、铅、锡合金的出现是一个里程碑。Bronzewares were under mass production.人们大量生产青铜器。They fell mainly into two classifications : cooking vessels and alcohol containers.它们主要被分为两类:烹饪器皿和盛酒的容器。Among them,the famous works of art include simuwu quadripod, which is 732.84kg in weight as the largest bronzeware ever found anywhere in the world.在它们之中,司母戊鼎是最著名的工艺品,它重达732.84公斤,是世界上最大的青铜器。It was made in tribute to the deceased mother of Shang king.它是献给商朝君主已故母亲的礼物。Another is a wine container that has four goats resting on its rim.另外一个是四边都有山羊的一个盛酒的容器。The Shang Dynasty marked the coming of Bronze Age.商朝标志着青铜时代的到来。At the same time, great development came about in other industries as well.在同一时期,其他工业也取得了很大的发展,In handicraft, the operation went under much subtler division of labor.手工业上,手工的操作被划分的更加精细。It was recorded that a hundred lines emerged in handicraft at that time.记载显示那时的手工业已有100种线存在。Shang craftsmen acquired the skill of inlaying and carving and had their jade wares, stone wares and ivory wares brilliantly decorated.商朝的工匠们需要掌握镶嵌、打磨和华美装饰他们的玉制品、石器和象牙制品的技能。Textile workers invented the simple jacquard loom, which could produce high-quality silk fabric with a hidden pattern.纺织品工人发明了简单的提花织机,用这种织机可以织出高质量的带有隐藏图案的丝织品。Additionally, the Shang people also made significant progress in medicine, transportation and astronomy.除此之外,商朝人民在医学、交通和天文学上也取得了巨大的进步。During this period, important events were recorded on tortoise shell and animal bone using Oracle Script, which is the oldest known Chinese form of written communication.在这段时期,重要的事件由甲骨文记录在龟壳和动物骨头上,这是中国已知的最古老的文字交流。The tradition of ancestral worship has a long history in China.祭祖的传统在中国有了很长的历史。Archeologists have found it was practiced even in Prehistoric Times (1.7 million years to the 21st century B.C.).考古学家们发现甚至在史前时期(公元前1700000年到公元前21世纪)祭祖就在被实行。With the emergence of farming,people worshipped the heaven in hope of favorable weather for crops.随着农业的出现,人们怀着求得对作物来说的好天气而祭天。It actually was a kind of nature worship.Another kind of worship was ancestor worship, also called soul worship.另一种祭祀方式是祭祖,也被称为鬼魂崇拜。People offered sacrifice to their ancestor, praying for blessings bestowed by their ancestors.人们为祖先供奉祭品,祈求祖先的保佑。From the Xia Dynasty onwards, Kings were endowed with supreme authority.从夏朝开始,君主被赋予了至高无上的权力。In order to secure his power, the king combined ancestral worship and nature worship to create the God or the Heaven, and proclaimed himself the agent or the descendent of the God.为了守护他的权力,君主会将祭祖与祭天结合起来,创造一个神或天庭,宣称自己是上天的代表和在凡间的后代。In the Shang Dynasty, slavery system prevailed.在商朝,奴隶制度盛行。The aristocrats enjoyed all the luxuries while the slaves lived a dog#39;s life. They belonged to their lord.贵族享受着荣华富贵,奴隶却过着一样的生活。奴隶属于他们的主人。After the slave owner died, the slaves were often buried alive as human sacrifice together with animal offerings.当奴隶主去世之后,奴隶会被活埋,与牺牲一起作为活人祭品。 /201509/393980China plans to launch Kuaizhou-1 solid-fuelled carrier rocket in December, a breakthrough in its commercial rocket launches.我国计划于12月发射快舟一号固体燃料运载火箭,这是我国商业火箭发射领域的一次突破。The news was announced last Wednesday at the 11th China International Aviation And Aerospace Exhibition by Lyu Xiaoge, a spokesperson for China Aerospace Science and Industry Corp.中国航天科工集团发言人吕晓戈于上周三在第十一届中国国际航空航天览会上宣布了该消息。Kuaizhou is a low-cost carrier rocket with high reliability and short preparation period.快舟火箭是一种成本低、可靠性高、准备周期短的运载火箭。It was designed to launch low-orbit satellites weighing under 300 kg.它是为发射重量在300公斤以下的低轨道卫星而设计的。The rocket is launched via a mobile launch vehicle and will primarily launch satellites to monitor natural disasters and provide disaster-relief information.快舟火箭将由一台移动发射车发射,将主要发射监测自然灾害、提供救灾信息的卫星。 /201611/477711

Electronic Dreams: How 1980s Britain Learned to Love the Computer By Tom Lean Bloomsbury/Sigma £16.99 《电子梦:20世纪80年代英国人如何迷上计算机》(Electronic Dreams: How 1980s Britain Learned to Love the Computer),汤姆#8226;利恩(Tom Lean)著,Bloomsbury/Sigma出版,售价16.99英镑。 In 1983 Britain proudly boasted the highest level of computer ownership in the world, technology historian Tom Lean tells us in his entertaining and affectionate, if for the most part nostalgic, book on the country’s relationship with computers. About one in 10 UK homes, he writes, had a computer, more than in the US or Japan. 1983年英国自豪地宣称拥有全球最高的计算机普及率,科技史学家汤姆#8226;利恩在他的书中写道。这本书有趣、深情,以大篇幅的怀旧,叙写了英国和计算机之间的渊源。他写道,大约每10个英国家庭就有1家拥有计算机,超过当时的美国或日本。 At the same time, the UK had several computer manufacturers, one of which was making more of them than any other company in the world — Sir Clive Sinclair’s Sinclair Research. There was even a Welsh computer, the Dragon 32. And the UK had an early version of the internet, Prestel, set up by the Post Office. It trialled an early version of Ocado et al, with the wonderfully terrible name, The Armchair Grocer. 同时,英国当时有数家计算机制造商,其中一家的计算机产量超过世界上的任何其他公司,这就是克莱夫#8226;辛克莱爵士(Sir Clive Sinclair)的Sinclair Research公司。当时甚至还有一种名为Dragon 32的威尔士产计算机。英国还出现了互联网的雏形——英国邮局(Post Office)建立的视讯系统Prestel。Prestel试验了类似Ocado等在线超市的雏形系统,就是名字蹩脚了点儿,叫“扶手椅杂货铺”(The Armchair Grocer)。 Another remarkable fact from Electronic Dreams: which UK company would you imagine was, by 1951, the world’s first to use a computer for business, and started making computers for other companies? 《电子梦》还展示了另一个令人惊讶的事实:你能想象在1951年是哪家英国企业在全世界率先将计算机应用于商业、并开始为其他公司制造计算机吗? It was J. Lyons and Co, the teashop chain. Its computer business, LEO, kept going until 1963. Lyons’ role as a computer manufacturing pioneer is the more astonishing — at least to anyone old enough to remember the ostensibly low-tech J. Lyons cafés — in that there was stiff competition from within the UK; companies such as Ferranti, Elliott Brothers, English Electric and British Tabulating Machinery were all selling British boffin-made computers globally. 那就是连锁茶商J. Lyons and Co。其计算机业务LEO一直经营至1963年。Lyons作为计算机制造业先驱更为令人震惊的是(至少对年纪足够大的人而言是如此,他们还记得Lyons看起来科技含量很低的咖啡馆),当时Lyons在英国面临激烈的竞争。Ferranti、Elliott Brothers、英国电气(English Electric)以及英国制表机械(British Tabulating Machinery)等公司都在向全球出售着英产计算机。 Britain’s role in computing, as it emerges in Lean’s book, is similar to England’s place in the history of football. At each juncture, from the work of Alan Turing to Sir Clive to Sir Tim Berners-Lee, even to Sir Alan Sugar at a stretch, the UK was a prime innovator, only later to become a minor player. 在利恩的书中,英国在计算机领域的地位,堪比英格兰之于足球史。在每一个转折点上,从艾伦#8226;图灵(Alan Turing)的研究,至克莱夫爵士,再至蒂姆#8226;伯纳斯#8226;李爵士(Sir Tim Berners-Lee),直至艾伦#8226;休格爵士( Sir Alan Sugar),英国一度都是计算机行业的创新先锋,后来却变得无足轻重。 Yet while the average non-Brit would probably regard Britain’s part in computing history to be about as interesting as, say, Portugal’s, the UK does still punch significantly above its weight. While few in Britain, you would suspect, used a British computer between around 1995 and the emergence of the Raspberry Pi in 2012, UK tech companies such as ARM, which has its roots in Acorn Computers, are still of global importance. 不过,虽然对那些并非英国人的大众而言,在计算机史上英国就跟葡萄牙一样名不见经传,英国却仍然在这一领域尽力而为。难以想象在1995年左右至2012年卡片式电脑树莓派(Raspberry Pi)诞生之间,在英国还有人使用国产电脑,然而,英国的科技公司,比如起源于Acorn计算机公司(Acorn Computers)的ARM,在全球仍然举足轻重。 But the British are slightly in love with stories of national failure, and it is hard for a true Brit not to giggle slightly ing that the Post Office picked up only 6,000 Prestel users in its first year, peaking at 90,000, with just 12,000 when it died in 1991. The French pre-internet computer network equivalent, Minitel, peaked at 9m. 但英国人对于讲英国失败的故事会有一种微妙的喜爱,读到Prestel的兴衰史每个真正的英国人都会忍俊不禁。在Prestel建立的头一年,英国邮局只网罗到6000名该系统的用户,Prestel巅峰时期的用户量是9万,到1991年倒闭时是1.2万。而法国与之对应的互联网前身Minitel,用户量的巅峰值是900万。 This book is nevertheless very much for British ers, mostly of a certain age. I enjoyed reminiscences of people starting British computer magazines and shops in the 1970s, but as history it is a little niche. 不过这本书在很大程度上是为英国人而写,特别是某特定年龄段的英国人。我就很喜欢其中追忆上世纪70年代英国计算机杂志及商店创始者的部分。但作为历史类书籍,这本书略显小众。 When it steers, however, towards the colourful history of Sir Clive — especially reminding us of the 1984 fight in a Cambridge pub with his erstwhile right-hand man, Chris Curry, by then at rival Acorn — it is glorious stuff. Lean accuses the British tabloid press of overblowing the incident, but I still feel it was a bit underblown. 书中对克莱夫爵士的精轶事描写尤为精湛,使我们对1984年剑桥小酒馆发生的冲突记忆犹新,在那里克莱夫爵士与他曾经的得力助手、当时为竞争对手Acorn效力的克里斯#8226;柯里(Chris Curry)发生争执。利恩指责英国小报对这一事件过分渲染,但我仍觉意犹未尽。 It prompted a marvellous 2009 B drama, Micro Men, but had it happened in Palo Alto, it would have made a Hollywood movie. 由这段插曲还衍生出一部精的B电视电影《英国电脑鼻祖》(Micro Men),如果它发生在帕罗奥图(Palo Alto),一部好莱坞电影说不定会应运而生。 /201604/436632

Smog in Europe and North America could be more than 25 times more lethal than the average air pollution found in Chinese cities, a new study suggests.一项最新研究发现,欧洲和北美的雾霾致命性可能比中国城市平均空气污染水平高出25倍以上。In the largest ever study of its kind in the developing world, researchers tested the effects of air pollution on the health of people in 272 cities in China.在这项有史以来针对发展中国家进行的最大规模的同类研究中,研究人员测试了中国272个城市里空气污染对人体健康的影响。They found average annual exposure to fine particles, known as PM2.5, in those cities was more than five times higher than the level recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO), according to a paper in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.研究人员发现,在这些城市中,人们的年均PM2.5接触量是世界卫生组织建议水平的5倍多。研究论文发表在《美国呼吸系统和重症护理医学杂志》上。However they also discovered that it was much less likely to increase the death rate than PM2.5 in Europe and North America.但研究人员也发现,与欧洲和北美的PM2.5相比,中国的PM2.5致命性要低得多。The researchers, led by Dr Maigeng Zhou, of the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, suggested this was because China is affected by large amounts of natural dust blown by the wind from arid areas, while most pollution in the West comes from industry.中国疾病预防控制中心周脉耕士领导的这个研究团队提出,这是因为中国的空气污染源于从干旱地区吹来的大量天然尘土,而西方的污染主要来自工业。They found that for every increase of 10 micrograms of air pollution in a cubic metre of air, the mortality rate increased by 0.22 percent, discounting deaths from accidents.他们发现,如果不考虑意外事故造成的死亡,中国每立方米空气里的污染物每增加10微克,死亡率就增加0.22%。Professor Frank Kelly, an expert in environmental health at King’s College London, who was not involved in the study but has studied air pollution in China, told The Independent: “Those relative risks are considerably less than those seen in Europe and the US.英国伦敦大学国王学院环境健康专家弗兰克-凯利教授告诉《独立报》记者:“这些相对的风险明显比欧洲和美国小得多。”凯利没有参与此项研究,但研究了中国的空气污染。“For premature mortality [in Europe] we are working on a six percent increase per 10 micrograms.”凯利说:“就(欧洲的)过早死亡率来看,每立方米空气污染物每增加10微克,死亡率将增加6%。”That suggests air pollution in Europe is about 27 times more toxic than average air pollution in China.这表明,欧洲空气污染的毒性约为中国的27倍。However Professor Kelly said cities like Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong were likely to suffer from Western-style air pollution.但是,凯利教授说,北京、上海和香港这样的城市可能也存在“西式”空气污染。;The natural dust component there is not of the magnitude that it would dwarf the coal, biomass and fossil fuel signals,” he said.“那儿空气中天然尘土的数量还不足以使煤炭、生物物质和化石燃料等因素相形见绌。”“That [the lower mortality rate] may be true in certain cities whose pollution is not dominated by local power generation or major traffic congestion.”他说:“在污染物主要不是来自当地电厂或严重交通拥堵的某些城市,(死亡率较低)可能是事实。”Natural dust particles can cause physical damage to the lungs and trigger an asthma attack. Particles of carbon produced when fossil fuels are burned can lead to similar problems but they are also coated with toxic heavy metals, chemicals and volatile organic compounds.天然粉尘可能使肺部受损,引发哮喘。燃烧化石燃料时产生的碳微粒可能导致类似问题,但它们外表还包裹着有毒的重金属、化学物质和挥发性有机物。These are able to pass from the lungs into the blood stream where it is thought they cause further damage to the body.这些物质可能从肺部进入血液,据称这会给身体造成进一步损害。Areeba Hamid, an air pollution campaigner with environmental group Greenpeace, said: “Toxic air causes havoc to people’s health wherever in the world they live.环境团体绿色和平组织的反空气污染活动家阿丽芭-哈米德说:“有毒空气给世界各地人们的健康造成严重损害。”“We now know fumes from diesel vehicles are a lot more toxic than car companies claimed and this is a big cause of air pollution in Europe and North America.“我们如今知道,柴油车排放的废气毒性比汽车公司宣称的要大得多,而这是欧洲和北美空气污染的一大原因。”“These companies have a lot to answer for, but so far they’ve managed to avoid any real accountability.”“这些公司要承担很大责任,但到目前为止它们都避免承担任何真正的责任。”The study of cities in China found the average annual expose to PM2.5 was 56 micrograms per cubic metre, compared to the WHO guideline limit for safe air quality of 10 micrograms.对中国城市的这项研究发现,PM2.5的年均接触量为每立方米56微克,而世界卫生组织的空气质量安全标准为每立方米10微克。People who were older than 75, had less education or who lived in hotter places were more likely to die.75岁以上、教育水平较低或生活在较热地区的人死亡风险更高。It is thought people in warmer cities were more likely to spend time outside or leave their windows open, thereby breathing more polluted air, the researchers said.研究人员说,在较热城市生活的人到户外去或开窗的时间可能更长,因此会吸入更多的污染空气。They also speculated that less well educated people might have poorer access to health care or experience poorer environmental health conditions.他们还推测说,教育水平较低的人享受医疗务的机会较少,他们接触的环境卫生状况也较差。 /201702/492437

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