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长春第二医院无痛人流多少钱京东面诊长春市结核病医院治疗妇科怎么样

来源:久久生活    发布时间:2019年12月10日 20:00:18    编辑:admin         

In the rare free moments she has had this year between visiting Ebola centres in west Africa and pleading for support in front of the UN, Dr Joanne Liu, international president of Médecins Sans Frontières, re The Plague by Albert Camus. Unsurprisingly, it had extra resonance this time. She was particularly struck by the narrator Dr Rieux’s statement that he keeps going because he has never managed to get used to seeing people die. Telling me this, she pauses. “I think today it’s one of our problems. Somehow we got used to death and then we dehumanised it. We account for conflicts in figures. Ebola is 13,500 infected, 5,000 people have died…#8201;People are losing their sense of empathy, their sense of wanting to do something.”身为无国界医生组织(MSF)的国际主席,廖满嫦医生(Dr Joanne Liu)今年颇为忙碌,她不时要前往西非的埃拉疫区,还要赴联合国(UN)请求援,不过她还是忙里偷闲重读了阿尔贝#8226;加缪(Albert Camus)所著的《鼠疫》(The Plague)。不出所料,这次阅读让她感触更深了。她尤其被书中的叙述者李欧医生(Dr Rieux)的自白所打动:他之所以能坚持下去,是因为他始终不习惯看到人们死去。说到这里,她停顿了一下,接着说道:“我觉得这是我们现在的一个问题。我们不知怎么就习惯了死亡,在对待死亡问题上变得没有了人情味。我们用数字来说明事故。埃拉病毒已造成13500人感染,5000人死亡……人们正在失去同情心,没有了想要做点什么的心思。”No one can accuse MSF or the woman who leads it of that. Since the current outbreak of Ebola was confirmed in Guinea in March, the organisation has worked with more than 6,000 patients, manning the front lines in west Africa for months before the world started to take notice. MSF realised this epidemic was different from previous ones almost immediately. “Our experience [with Ebola] is that it’s in a remote village and the chain of transmission dies very quickly#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;That’s it. It’s over in less than three months,” says Liu. “This was different because it was geographically sp.” But the international community didn’t want to know: “We were told that we were getting too excited and ringing the alarm when everything was under control.” Matters were complicated by the sheer number of global crises demanding attention this year. “There was South Sudan and the Central African Republic [CAR]#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;DRC#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;Ukraine#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;and then Gaza was a full-blown crisis in July.”对于这种状况,没人能指责MSF或是这位女主席。自从3月份几内亚实爆发了埃拉疫情以来,该组织已经接治了6000多名病人,在其坚守西非前线几个月后世界才关注起这次疫情。MSF几乎立刻就发现,此次埃拉疫情不同于以往。“根据我们的经验,埃拉疫情一般发生在偏远村庄,传播链很快会中断……就是这样。疫情会在不到3个月内结束。”廖满嫦称,“而这次爆发的疫情并不一样,因为病毒能在地域间传播。”然而,国际社会并不想了解其中究竟。“我们听到的说法是,我们过于激动了,大惊小怪,其实一切都在控制之下。”今年国际上发生了太多需要关注的危机,这使事情变得复杂。“有南苏丹内战和中非共和国政变……刚果民主共和国……乌克兰……接着是7月加沙地带全面爆发的危机。”MSF works in all of those places, with more than 32,000 staff in 67 countries last year. Founded in 1971 and largely privately funded, it provides independent humanitarian aid while bearing witness to what it sees on the ground.MSF在所有这些地方都在运作。该组织成立于1971年,大部分经费靠私人捐助,去年成员总数超过32000名,遍布67个国家。MSF提供独立的人道救援,同时也现场见各种灾难。Liu only became international president in October 2013. It seems an understatement to say it’s been a tough first year on the job. “It has hijacked all my life,” she laughs. When thinking about how best to describe it, three words keep coming back to her. Challenging — there have been so many places needing attention. Overstretched — the whole sector has reached its limits. And gap — a hole has been exposed in people’s ability to respond. “We’ve been running behind a train that is moving faster than the response has been in west Africa since the beginning,” she says.廖满嫦于2013年10月才出任MSF国际主席。如果说任期第一年是艰难的,似乎有些轻描淡写。“这份工作绑架了我全部的生活,”她笑着说。当她思考如何形容这份工作比较恰当时,脑海中不停地闪现三个词。挑战性——始终有太多地区需要关注。超负荷——这一领域已经达到了极限。差距——人们做出反应的能力暴露出了不足。她称:“我们就像一直跟在火车后头跑,与我们在西非做出反应的速度相比,它要快得多。”. . .……Liu was born in Quebec, Canada to Chinese immigrant parents. For her, MSF is a calling. As a teenager she a book by a French doctor about his time with the organisation and that was that. “I remember ing that when I was young and saying, ‘Oh my god, this is a real life,’” she says. After her medical training she volunteered with the organisation repeatedly, spending time in the field from Darfur to Haiti and heading the Canadian branch. The opposite of self-promoting, she shows little interest in her own achievements: “I find myself a bit boring because I somehow always wanted to be MSF.”廖满嫦出生在加拿大魁北克一个华裔移民家庭。对她而言,加入MSF是受到了感召。她年少时读过一本法国医生写的书,讲述他在该组织工作的经历。“我记得读那本书时我还很年轻,我说‘我的天啊,这才是真实的生活’,”她说。在接受过医疗培训后,她多次成为该组织的志愿者,在达尔富尔、海地等多个地方工作过,后来还负责加拿大分。对于个人取得的成就,她非但没有夸夸其谈,反而显得不太乐意提起:“我觉得自己有点无趣,总是想着要当个无国界医生。”Boring is not the word most would use to describe someone whose work, this year alone, has seen her travel to Syria, the CAR, Myanmar, the DRC and Sierra Leone among other countries, not to mention multiple trips to the UN and Montreal, where much of her life remains. Liu is a force to be reckoned with: the words flow out of her, punctuated only by the occasional “how you say” as she pauses to allow her French-English translation skills time to catch up with her brain.因为这份工作,她仅今年内就去过了叙利亚、中非共和国、缅甸、刚果民主共和国和塞拉利昂等等许多国家,更别提还多次前往联合国和蒙特利尔(她主要生活的地方),对于这样一个人,多数人都不会用“无趣”来形容。与她交谈需要集中精神认真应付:她侃侃而谈,只是偶尔插句“你怎么说”做个停顿,给点时间让自己法译英的技巧赶上大脑思考的速度。This is a woman who, while based in Switzerland, planned to spend her August holidays doing shifts in the Canadian hospital with which she remains associated as a paediatric emergency physician — “to keep a clinical hand in”. Ebola put a stop to that but she is determined to find somewhere to practise in Geneva. She laughs when asked how she fits it all in. “I feel that [in] any position of this kind of exposure and commitment, you have to accept that you won’t be as balanced as you would like. I always think of it as a privilege, an honour.”常驻瑞士,却计划着利用8月份的假期在加拿大医院(她仍然是该院的儿科急诊医生)轮班——“要保持临床的工作”,她就是这样一个女人。埃拉终止了这一计划,但她决定在日内瓦找个地方继续执业。当被问到如何适应这一切时,她大笑起来。“我觉得,处在这种要面对公众、肩负着使命的职位上,你就得接受一个事实,你没法做到像你希望的那样,各个方面都兼顾到。我总是把它看作一种殊荣,深感荣幸。”Her relentless travel schedule has also served up some difficult insights. “Our humanitarian aid system is sick and needs to be fixed. It needs to get a reality check and get back humanity,” she says. She recounts with disdain a supposed DRC success story about a displaced woman with the resilience to support herself. It turned out she had become a prostitute. “I can’t believe that you’re giving me that#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;That’s resilience for you?” she says, then mentions another visit to a displaced persons camp in the CAR. “People were talking to me with their two feet in mud. And I said, ‘This is not possible, that in the 21st century we still have to see that.’ And that for me is really a call for how can we do better?#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;Can I stand on a spot where I don’t have my two feet in water?”不停出差也使她得以深入了解情况。她称:“我们的人道救援体系出了问题,需要被修复。这需要进行一次现实检查,重新回到人道主义的宗旨上。”她以不屑的口吻讲了一个发生在刚果民主共和国的故事,一个无家可归的妇女,坚强地自力更生养活自己,被视为一个成功的援助案例,结果发现她已经当了。“我不敢相信你就拿这个回报我……这就是你的坚强?”她称,接着又提到了在中非共和国一次探访难民安置营的经历。“人们跟我说话时,两只脚还踩在泥里。我说,‘这不可能,都21世纪了我们还能看到这种情况。’这使我认真思考,我们怎样做得更好?……我能站在一个不用把双脚踩在水里的地方吗?”MSF is not necessarily the popular kid in the humanitarian aid playground. For one thing, it is unusual in having financial autonomy: 89 per cent of its funding comes from individual and private donors. The flexibility that such independence brings also ushers in critics. “Some people say that sometimes we’re a loner, and I accept that. And some people say we’re arrogant and it happens and I’m quite aware of that,” says Liu. “But it’s important to be self-sustaining because that’s what gives you the capacity to respond quickly.” In the case of Ebola, this meant arriving on the spot while others were still having meetings.在人道救援圈子中,MSF未必是受欢迎的。拥有财务自主权是该组织与众不同的一个地方:其89%的资金来自个人和私人捐助者。这种因为财务独立而具有的灵活性也招致了批评。“有些人说,有时我们是孤单的,我同意这个说法。还有人说我们是傲慢的,确实是这样,我也相当清楚这一点,”她说,“但是自给自足很重要,因为这才使你拥有迅速反应的能力。”以埃拉疫情来说,这意味着,在其他人还在开会讨论时,MSF便抵达了疫区。Once in the thick of something, MSF stresses the importance of staff sharing what they see. So Liu stood up repeatedly in front of the UN and begged for boots on the ground, rather than mere promises. “I think that when people heard MSF say we were losing the battle, it was a bit of a shock for everybody.” Still, she feels it was the return home for treatment of two infected American missionaries in August that really woke people up. “All of a sudden it was knocking at our door#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;these were our neighbours, these were our colleagues, these were our people#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;And when it changed from them to us, then it got traction,” she recalls.每到形势最紧张的时候,MSF会强调成员们分享各自见闻的重要性。因此,廖满嫦反复向联合国请求采取实际行动,而不仅仅是口头承诺。“我觉得,当人们听到MSF说我们正在输掉这场战争时,每个人都有点震惊。”然而,她认为,直到8月份两名受感染的美国传教士回国接受治疗时,人们才真的醒悟过来。“突然间,它就敲响了我们的家门……这些人是我们的邻居,我们的同事,是我们的同胞……而当‘他们’变成‘我们’时,才引起了关注,”她回忆称。For Liu, the effect of such proximity was not surprising. Indeed, she thinks the closeness that most MSF workers have to situations propels them to act. For these doctors, it’s not just nameless people in a far-off country who are dying but the cousins of the nurse who has been with them since the beginning of the epidemic. MSF employs a ratio of about 10 national staff to every international member and Liu believes they are the true heroes. “To do it for four weeks [the average international staff placement] is straining but to be living with Ebola for the last eight to nine months, it’s really, really hard,” she says. “Most of our staff have either lost family members or friends, as well as living in the constant potential fear of being exposed.” Thirteen have died so far.在廖满嫦看来,近距离接触疫情所产生的这种影响并不令人意外。事实上,她认为,多数MSF工作人员因为接近疫情,驱使他们采取行动。对这些医生来说,将死的不是在遥远国家的无名人氏,而是自疫情开始一起做事的那位护士的表亲。MSF从每个国际成员国聘请约10名医生,廖满嫦相信他们都是真正的英雄。“连续做4周工作(国际员工的平均安排)的强度很大,但在过去8-9个月里面对埃拉,这真的很难很难,”她称,“我们多数人员不是失去了家人,就是失去了朋友,还要生活在可能暴露在病毒中的恐惧中。”目前为止,已有13人死亡。Liu is fiercely protective of the people that she works with: “What makes MSF, the strength of us, it’s our people.” In April, the organisation lost four staff in an attack on hospital grounds in CAR, and the question of how best to work in increasingly dangerous contexts — Syria, Libya, South Sudan, Somalia among others — remains unresolved. “Hospitals being targeted, patients being targeted, ambulances being targeted#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;the last spot that was supposed to have a minimum of respect has been violated in 2014,” she says. She believes it critical that MSF maintains a hands-on presence. How precisely that can happen will be one of her focuses in 2015.廖满嫦对一起共事的人有强烈的保护欲:“是什么成就了MSF,我们的力量,是我们的人。”4月,中非共和国的医院遭受袭击,该组织失去了4名员工,而在越来越危险的环境——叙利亚、利比亚、南苏丹、索马里等等——如何更好开展工作的问题仍然没有解决。她称:“医院成为袭击目标,病人成为目标,救护车成了目标……这些原本应受到最起码尊重的仅存之地,在2014年被侵犯了。”她认为,MSF保持亲临现场是至关重要的。如何确实做到这一点,将成为她2015年的工作重点之一。And what about that Ebola train? Are we still running behind? “I think that what is happening now in some places is we’re jumping in the train and trying to get hold of the brake,” she says. “What has been the hampering, the hindering factor is fear#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;People are scared to deploy, scared of being infected.” Her hope is that the episode will teach the international community that someone needs to take responsibility before such a crisis escalates again in the future. “We all know that if the world had woken up in the spring, we wouldn’t be where we are today.”那么“埃拉列车”怎么样了?我们仍然跟在后面跑吗?“我想有些地方的情况是,我们跳上了火车,并试着控制刹车,”她称,“一直以来的障碍,造成阻碍的因素是恐惧……人们害怕采取行动,害怕被传染。”她希望这件事将使国际社会明白,有人需要担起责任,以防未来这样一场危机再次升级。“我们都知道,如果世界在今年春天能警醒,我们就不会处在今天这种局势。”When we talked, Liu was about to get back on a plane to west Africa to reassess the situation. MSF is hosting trials there and she is determined to make sure that any new treatment will be accessible to those on the ground. (On her return she will speak out about the potential for a double failure, both initially and now in adapting the response.) For her, the most crucial thing is keeping the world’s attention. “It’s like when you’re sick and you have pneumonia and you’ve been given antibiotics for 10 days and then you start to feel better after three days and would like to stop taking your antibiotics,” she says. “We’re just getting ahead of the game. We need to finish.”我们谈话时,廖满嫦准备乘机返回西非,对埃拉疫情进行重新评估。MSF在那里组织试验,她决心确保任何一种新治疗手段将能被用于处在疫情中心的人。(回去后,她将阐述双重失败的可能性,包括最初的应对措施和现在的对策调整。)对她来说,最重要的事情是让全世界的人继续关注疫情。“就好像你生病,得了肺炎,医生给你开了10天的抗生素,刚治了3天你感觉有所好转,就想停了抗生素,”她说,“我们刚要在游戏中占得优势。我们要完成它。”Alice Fishburn is the deputy editor of FT Weekend Magazine本文作者为《FT周末杂志》(FT Weekend Magazine)副主编 /201412/350939。

White potatoes have gotten a bad rap.白土豆的口碑很不好。All the starch contained in spuds can raiseblood sugar.And potatoes — which are often consumed with loads of fat (think french fries and chips) — may not do our waistlines any favor.土豆所含淀粉会提高血糖。并且土豆常常和大量脂肪一起被吃掉——例如一大堆的炸土豆条和土豆片——会不利于我们的腰围。But the reputation of the humble spud may be on the mend.但是土豆卑微的名声有望修复。In a new report, an expert committee from the Institute of Medicinerecommends that white potatoes be eligible for purchase with WICvouchers – that#39;s shorthand for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children. WIC is a food assistance program for low-income, nutritionally at-risk women, infants and children.在一篇新闻报道中,一个来自医学会的专家委员会向人们推荐白土豆,称它符合用“妇婴童”优惠券购买的标准(“妇婴童”优惠券是向妇女、婴儿和儿童提供特殊营养计划的简写)。“妇婴童”计划是为低收入及缺乏营养的妇女、婴儿和儿童提供食品援助的计划。The IOM report concludes that potatoes ;contribute useful quantities of potassium and fiber to Americans#39; diets; — something most of us aren#39;t getting enough of.美国医学研究院在一份报告中总结称:土豆为美国人的膳食提供大量有用的,而大部分人却摄入不足的钾和纤维。And, the panel says, many Americans — including women and children — are falling short of the recommended targets for starchy vegetables.该专家小组也说包括妇女而儿童在内的大量美国人,吃的淀粉蔬菜不够推荐量。The recommendation is a reversal of IOM#39;s earlier position, in 2006, when it weighed in against supporting white potatoes#39; eligibility in WIC. The following year, the U.S. Department of Agriculture ruled that people enrolled in WIC couldn#39;t use program vouchers to pay for spuds.在2006年,美国医学研究院反对白土豆加入“妇婴童”计划,并撤销对白土豆的推荐。于是2007年,美国农业部规定凡是在“妇婴童”计划登记的人,不能用“妇婴童”优惠券买土豆。But, as we#39;ve reported, politicians on Capitol Hill and potato lobbyists have been fighting to overturn WIC#39;s anti-potato stance不过,正如我们所报道的那样,国会山的政客们和土豆的说客们已经设法改变了“妇婴童”计划的反土豆姿态。;It creates a misperception that the potato doesn#39;t have nutritional value,; Mark Szymanski, spokesman for the National Potato Council,told The Salt back in 2013.马克·赛门斯基是国家土豆委员会的发言人,在2013年就曾对《盐报》说:“这就造成了一种土豆没营养的错误认识。”So, why did the IOM committee decide to reverse course? We askedKathleen Rasmussen, a Cornell University nutrition professor, who was chair of the IOM committee.那么美国医学研究院的委员会是为何要决定改弦易辙的呢?对此我们询问了康奈尔大学的营养学教授凯瑟琳·拉斯姆森,正是她执掌该美国医学研究院委员会。It turns out that the Dietary Guidelines (which were last revised in 2010) recommend higher intakes of starchy vegetables compared to the guidelines that were in place when the IOM reviewed the issue in 2006. Starchy vegetables include potatoes, corn and peas. And many Americans are not reaching those targets.结果我们发现2010年最新一版的《膳食指南》所推荐的淀粉类蔬菜摄入量要高于美国医学研究院所参照的2006年版。淀粉类蔬菜包括土豆、玉米和豌豆。许多美国人摄入不达标。;I was surprised by how much the guidelines had changed,; Rasmussen told us. The guidelines now advise women to consume 5 cups of starchy vegetables per week, compared to the target of 3 cups that was in place in 2006.拉斯姆森女士告诉我们:“该《指导原则》做了这么多改变,令我很吃惊。”该《指导原则》现在建议妇女每周要摄入5杯淀粉类蔬菜,而2006年的目标量是3杯。Today#39;s decision has its cheerleaders on Capitol Hill. Maine Sen.Susan Collins, a Republican, released a statement in support of the recommendation.今天的决定得到来自国会山的强有力持。缅因州参议员苏珊·柯林斯是一位共和党员,发表了一份声明持这个新的推荐量。;A medium baked potato contains 15 percent of the daily recommended value of dietary fiber, 27 percent of the daily recommended value for vitamin B6, and 28 percent of the daily recommended value of Vitamin C,; Collins#39; statement said.柯林斯在声明中说:“一份中等分量的烤土豆含有每日纤维摄入推荐量的15%,每日维生素B6摄入推荐量的27%,每日维生素C摄入推荐量的28%。”So, it seems — as is typical in nutrition science — it#39;s easy to make the case for and against the potato.所以,不管是持土豆还是反对土豆似乎都很容易。这在营养科学中极具代表性。On one hand, if you#39;re among the millions of Americans aiming to control your blood sugar due to type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes, perhaps going heavy on potatoes isn#39;t a good idea.一方面,如果你患有2型糖尿病或处于糖尿病前期,属于那一百万需要控制血糖的美国人,那么吃大量土豆不是明智之举。But, as is the case with many others — including many of the women and children reached by WIC — if you#39;re looking to boost nutrients such as potassium and fiber, don#39;t rule the spud out.但是,剩下的人,包括“妇婴童”计划援助的妇女儿童,如果想要提高像钾和纤维那样的营养,就不必从食物中剔除土豆。And remember: To get the most from your potatoes, eat the skins. ;Ounce for ounce, the skin contains more nutrients — including the majority of the vegetable#39;s fiber — than the rest of the potato,; according to Victoria Jarzabkowski, a registered dietician at the University of Texas at Austin.并且记住:想要从你的土豆中得到尽可能多的营养,就吃掉土豆皮吧。因为德克萨斯大学的注册营养师维克多利亚·贾兹科瓦斯基说过:“一盎司接着一盎司地吃掉土豆皮吧,因为土豆皮中含有大部分的植物纤维,远远多于土豆的剩余部分。” /201502/358586。

Liar,Liar骗子,骗子A wife went to the police station with her next-door neighbor to report that her husband was missing.老婆与隔壁邻居到警察局报案 说她的老公失踪了。The policeman asked her for a description.警察要求,她形容一下。She said,;He is 35 years old,6 feet 4 inches,has dark eyes,dark wavy hair,an athletic build,weighs 185 pounds,is soft-spoken ,and is good to the children.;她说:“他三十五岁,六尺四寸,黑眼睛,波浪状的深色头发;体格健壮,体重185磅,说话很轻,而且对小孩子很好。”The next-door neighbor protested,隔壁邻居期提出反驳说:;Your husband is 5 feet 4 inches,chubby,bald,has a big mouth,and is mean to your children.;“你老公五尺四寸,胖嘟嘟 的,秃头,有一个太嘴巴,而且对你的小孩很刻薄。”The wife replied,;Yes,but who wants;THIS KIND OF STUFF;back?;老婆回答说:“你说对了,可是谁会要 这种没用的废物 回来呀?” /201504/368417。

YOUR co-worker brought in brownies, your daughter made cookies for a holiday party and candy is arriving from far-flung relatives. Sugar is everywhere. It is celebration, it is festivity, it is love.同事带来了布朗尼,女儿为假期的聚会做了曲奇饼,八杆子打不着的亲戚也送来了糖果。到处都是糖。糖代表了庆祝,代表了节日,也代表了爱。It’s also dangerous. In a recent study, we showed that sugar, perhaps more than salt, contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease. Evidence is growing, too, that eating too much sugar can lead to fatty liver disease, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, obesity and kidney disease.但糖也是一种危险。在最近的一项研究中,我们明了糖分对心血管疾病的发展有推动作用,而且其影响或许比盐分更大。也有越来越多的据表明,吃太多糖会引发脂肪肝、高血压、二型糖尿病、肥胖症和肾病。Yet people can’t resist. And the reason for that is pretty simple. Sugar is addictive. And we don’t mean addictive in that way that people talk about delicious foods. We mean addictive, literally, in the same way as drugs. And the food industry is doing everything it can to keep us hooked.然而人们无法抗拒。原因也相当简单,糖分是有成瘾性的。我们所说的「成瘾」并不是人们谈论美味时的那种意思,而是实实在在的,像毒品一样的成瘾性。而且食品工业正在竭尽所能,试图把我们勾住。Up until just a few hundred years ago, concentrated sugars were essentially absent from the human diet — besides, perhaps, the fortuitous find of small quantities of wild honey. Sugar would have been a rare source of energy in the environment, and strong cravings for it would have benefited human survival. Sugar cravings would have prompted searches for sweet foods, the kind that help us layer on fat and store energy for times of scarcity.直 到几百年前,浓缩糖实际上在人类的饮食中还不存在,除非偶然间找到少量野生蜂蜜。糖分在环境中是一种罕见的能量来源,对其产生强烈的渴望,对于人类的生存 是有利的。对糖分的渴求会促使我们寻找甜味的食物,也就是帮助我们堆积脂肪、积蓄能量,以备匮乏时期的那种食物。Today added sugar is everywhere, used in approximately 75 percent of packaged foods purchased in the ed States. The average American consumes anywhere from a quarter to a half pound of sugar a day. If you consider that the added sugar in a single can of soda might be more than most people would have consumed in an entire year, just a few hundred years ago, you get a sense of how dramatically our environment has changed. The sweet craving that once offered a survival advantage now works against us.今 天,添加的糖分随处可见,在美国买到的包装食品中,有大约75%含有添加糖分。普通的美国人平均每天消耗的糖分在四分之一磅到半磅(约合110克至220 克)之间。如果我们思考一下,今天一听碳酸饮料里含有的添加糖分,可能高于几百年前多数人一整年消耗的糖分,就能明白我们周围的环境发生了多么巨大的改 变。渴求糖分曾经是我们的生存优势,但现在却对我们不利。Whereas natural sugar sources like whole fruits and vegetables are generally not very concentrated because the sweetness is buffered by water, fiber and other constituents, modern industrial sugar sources are unnaturally potent and quickly provide a big hit. Natural whole foods like beets are stripped of their water, fiber, vitamins, minerals and all other beneficial components to produce purified sweetness. All that’s left are pure, white, sugary crystals.天 然的糖分来源,如完整的水果和蔬菜,糖分浓度通常并不高,因为其中的甜味有水分、纤维和其他成分来缓冲。然而现代工业生产的糖分来源,却浓重得不自然,很 快就能提供巨大的冲击。就说甜菜这样的天然完整食品,其水分、纤维、维生素、矿物质,乃至其他所有有益成分都被剥离,用来生产纯化的糖。剩下的就只有白色 的、纯粹的糖晶体。A comparison to drugs would not be misplaced here. Similar refinement processes transform other plants like poppies and coca into heroin and cocaine. Refined sugars also affect people’s bodies and brains.在这里与毒品相提并论并不过分。将其他植物,如罂粟和古柯转变为海洛因和可卡因的提纯过程,与上述程序是相似的。纯化的糖分也会影响人的身体和大脑。Substance use disorders, defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, exist when at least two to three symptoms from a list of 11 are present. In animal models, sugar produces at least three symptoms consistent with substance abuse and dependence: cravings, tolerance and withdrawal. Other druglike properties of sugar include (but are not limited to) cross-sensitization, cross-tolerance, cross-dependence, reward, opioid effects and other neurochemical changes in the brain. In animal studies, animals experience sugar like a drug and can become sugar-addicted. One study has shown that if given the choice, rats will choose sugar over cocaine in lab settings because the reward is greater; the “high” is more pleasurable.按 照《精神障碍诊断与统计手册》(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)的定 义,列明的11项症状中存在至少两到三种,就构成了物质使用障碍。在动物模型中,糖分至少产生了三种与物质滥用和依赖相吻合的症状:渴求感、耐受性、戒断 症状。糖分其他与毒品相似的特性还包括(但不限于)交叉敏化、交叉耐受性、交叉依赖性、奖赏效应、阿片效应,以及大脑中的其他神经化学变化。在动物实验 中,动物对糖的感受就像一种毒品,而且可能会对糖产生依赖。一项研究显示,如果提供了选择,大鼠在实验室的环境中会选择糖而不是可卡因,因为前者的奖赏效 应更强,即糖带来的「兴奋感」有着更高的愉悦度。In humans, the situation may not be very different. Sugar stimulates brain pathways just as an opioid would, and sugar has been found to be habit-forming in people. Cravings induced by sugar are comparable to those induced by addictive drugs like cocaine and nicotine. And although other food components may also be pleasurable, sugar may be uniquely addictive in the food world. For instance, functional M.R.I. tests involving milkshakes demonstrate that it’s the sugar, not the fat, that people crave. Sugar is added to foods by an industry whose goal is to engineer products to be as irresistible and addictive as possible. How can we kick this habit? One route is to make foods and drinks with added sugar more expensive, through higher taxes. Another would be to remove sugar-sweetened beverages from places like schools and hospitals or to regulate sugar-added products just as we do alcohol and tobacco, for instance, by putting restrictions on advertising and by slapping on warning labels.对 于人类,这些情况可能也并没有多大不同。就像鸦片类物质一样,糖分也会刺激大脑回路,而研究发现,糖分会影响人类习惯的形成。糖分产生的渴求感与可卡因和 尼古丁等成瘾性物质所产生的渴求感可以相提并论。而尽管其他的食品成分也会让人愉悦,但是在食品当中,糖分可能具有独一无二的成瘾性。例如,对饮用奶昔的 人进行的功能性磁共振成像(fMRI)检测显示,让人产生渴望的是糖分,而不是脂肪。食品企业在食品中加入糖分,目的是调整产品成分,使其尽可能地难以抗 拒、成瘾性尽可能地强。我们怎么才能戒除这个习惯?一种途径是通过提高税收,让含有添加糖分的食品或饮料更昂贵。另一种途径则是要求学校、医院等地,停止 提供加糖增甜饮品,或者像监管烟酒一样监管添加糖分的产品,例如对广告加以限制,或者加注警示提醒。But as we suggested in two academic papers, one on salt and sugar in the journal Open Heart and the other on sugar and calories in Public Health Nutrition, focusing narrowly on added sugar could have unintended consequences. It could prompt the food industry to inject something equally or more harmful into processed foods, as an alternative.但 就像我们在两篇论文——一篇发表在《开放心脏病学》(Open Heart)上,主题是盐和糖,另一篇发表在《公共健康营养学》 (Public Health Nutrition)上,主题是糖分和卡路里——里提出的,只是狭隘地关注添加糖分可能会产生始料未及的后果。这样做可能 会促使企业在加工食品中,加入同样有害,甚至危害更大的其他物质作为替代。A better approach to sugar rehab is to promote the consumption of whole, natural foods. Substituting whole foods for sweet industrial concoctions may be a hard sell, but in the face of an industry that is exploiting our biological nature to keep us addicted, it may be the best solution for those who need that sugar fix.摆脱糖分的更好途径是,推广食用未经加工的天然食品。用完整的天然食品替代工业生产的甜食,或许很难让人接受,然而面对这样一个利用我们的生物天性让我们成瘾的产业,这对那些渴求糖分摄入的人,或许是最好的方法。 /201412/351197。