楼主:妙手典范 时间:2019年09月23日 09:35:40 点击:0 回复:0
So why was I stalling? I realized that what I was being pitched was a binary solution.我到底在迟疑什么?我发觉这是因为我把它当作一个二分法的问题。It was either youre a meat eater or youre a vegetarian,你需要决定你到底是吃肉还是吃素and I guess I just wasnt quite y. Imagine your last hamburger.我想我实在没做好心理准备,想象最后的一个汉堡。So my common sense, my good intentions, were in conflict with my taste buds.于是乎我的常识,我的用意良善和我的味蕾产生了矛盾。And Id commit to doing it later, and not surprisingly, later never came. Sound familiar?我总是想着之后再做,之后却永远不会来,听起来很熟悉吗?So I wondered, might there be a third solution?于是我想着,或许应该有第三种选择?And I thought about it, and I came up with one.经过思考以后,我想出了一个。Ive been doing it for the last year, and its great. Its called weekday veg.去年我便这么实行,感觉很好,叫做周间素食。The name says it all: Nothing with a face Monday through Friday.事如其名,礼拜一到五不吃任何有脸的东西。On the weekend, your choice. Simple.周末,自由选择,如此简单。If you want to take it to the next level, remember,如果你想更进一步,记得,the major culprits in terms of environmental damage and health are red and processed meats.红肉和经处理的肉类是今日破坏环境和健康的罪魁祸首So you want to swap those out with some good, sustainably harvested fish.如果你想要和它们说不,你也可以改为食用一些以不破坏环境平衡养殖的鱼类。Its structured, so it ends up being simple to remember, and its okay to break it here and there.有了这样的规律,就比较容易记得,偶尔犯戒也没关系。After all, cutting five days a week is cutting 70 percent of your meat intake.毕竟五天不吃肉,减少七成的肉。201705/511896The other thing that religions know is were not just brains, we are also bodies.宗教还知道我们人类不仅仅有智慧,我们还有躯体And when they teach us a lesson, they do it via the body.所以他们通过身体来教会我们道理So for example, take the Jewish idea of forgiveness.举个例子,像是犹太人懂得宽容Jews are very interested in forgiveness and how we should start anew and start afresh.他们很喜欢饶恕宽让,也喜欢重新有个崭新的生活They dont just deliver us sermons on this.他们不仅仅通过传教来告诉我们They dont just give us books or words about this.也不仅仅给我们书本去学习They tell us to have a bath. So in Orthodox Jewish communities, every Friday you go to a Mikveh.他们告诉我们去沐浴。在正统的犹太社会里,每个星期五他们都去一个池子You immerse yourself in the water, and a physical action backs up a philosophical idea.让身体浸没在水里,身体上的动作撑着哲学思想We dont tend to do that. Our ideas are in one area and our behavior with our bodies is in another.而世俗的人们不这么做,我们的身体和智慧在不同的世界里Religions are fascinating in the way they try and combine the two. Lets look at art now.而宗教却把智慧和躯体结合起来,现在看看我们的艺术Now art is something that in the secular world, we think very highly of. We think art is really, really important.在世俗的世界里,我们认为艺术是崇高的,我们认为艺术是非常重要的A lot of our surplus wealth goes to museums, etc.许多盈余的钱财都花在了艺术馆里We sometimes hear it said that museums are our new cathedrals, or our new churches.有时候我们听到有人说物馆是我们新的教堂Youve heard that saying.你们一定听过这句话Now I think that the potential is there, but weve completely let ourselves down.我觉得物馆是有潜力成为新的教堂,但是我们完全没有那样去做And the reason weve let ourselves down is that were not properly studying how religions handle art.我们让自己失望的原因是我们没有适当地学习宗教的艺术,是我们没有适当地学习宗教的艺术201608/460889I mean, how much do we consume our memories?我们使用了多少的记忆?That is one of the explanations that is given for the dominance of the remembering self.这可以解释记忆自我为何能成为主导的自我。And when I think about that, I think about a vacation we had in Antarctica a few years ago,这让我想起一次假期,几年前在南极度过的假期,which was clearly the best vacation Ive ever had,这可以说是我最棒的一个假期,and I think of it relatively often, relative to how much I think of other vacations.与其它假期相比,我常常会想起这个假期。And I probably have consumed my memories of that three-week trip, I would say,这趟旅程大概让我用掉了三周的记忆量,for about 25 minutes in the last four years.大概仅在过去四年中占了约25分钟。Now, if I had ever opened the folder with the 600 pictures in it, I would have spent another hour.现在,如我打开资料夹,里面大概有600张相片,我可能要花一个小时来回忆。Now, that is three weeks, and that is at most an hour and a half.三周的旅程最多只用一个半小时来回忆。There seems to be a discrepancy.这似乎不成比例啊。Now, I may be a bit extreme, you know, in how little appetite I have for consuming memories,这让我有点不满,因为我记得真是太少了,but even if you do more of this, there is a genuine question:不过就算你记得再多,这里也会有个实际的问题。Why do we put so much weight on memory relative to the weight that we put on experiences?为什么我们用来记忆比依赖经验还多?So I want you to think about a thought experiment.所以我希望你能思考一个有关思考的实验。Imagine that for your next vacation,假使你的下一个假期,you know that at the end of the vacation all your pictures will be destroyed,当你知道假期结束后假期中所有的相片将被销毁时,and youll get an amnesic drug so that you wont remember anything.而你也会吞下一颗遗忘药以使你遗忘一切。Now, would you choose the same vacation?这样,你还会想过同样的假期么?201610/474409For example, most other Germanic language speakers例如,说日尔曼语系的人feel completely comfortable talking about rain tomorrow by saying, ;Morgen regnet es,;会很自然的用以下的话表达明天下雨:“Morgen regnet es”quite literally to an English ear, ;It rain tomorrow.;说英语的人听了就类似“It rain tomorrow.”This led me, as a behavioral economist, to an intriguing hypothesis.这让我,作为一个行为经济学家,想到一个有趣的假设。Could how you speak about time, could how your language forces you to think about time,你描述时间的方式,你的语言迫使你思考时间的方式,affect your propensity to behave across time?是否会影响到你对不同时间段的偏好?You speak English, a futured language.你们说的是英语,区分将来时态的。And what that means is that every time you discuss the future, or any kind of a future event,这意味着每次你谈论到未来的时间,或者未来要发生的事情时,grammatically youre forced to cleave that from the present你需要在语法层面将未来和现在分来,and treat it as if its something viscerally different.就像是两者之间有本质不同一样。Now suppose that that visceral difference makes you subtly dissociate the future from the present every time you speak.现在假设这种语言上的差别让你每次说话的时候都意识到当下和未来细微差别。If thats true and it makes the future feel like something more distant and more different from the present,如果这个假设成立,会导致“未来”看起来跟“现在”更加遥远一些,thats going to make it harder to save.要你存钱就会困难一些。If, on the other hand, you speak a futureless language, the present and the future, you speak about them identically.另一方面,如果你的语言没有区分将来时态,你说现在和未来的句式是一样的。If that subtly nudges you to feel about them identically, thats going to make it easier to save.这点细微的差别会让你觉得他们是一样的,会让你更倾向于存钱。Now this is a fanciful theory. Im a professor, I get paid to have fanciful theories.现在我有了一套奇特的理论。我是教授,教授就是生产奇思怪想的。But how would you actually go about testing such a theory?但是你怎么检验这样一套理论呢?Well, what I did with that was to access the linguistics literature.我阅读了大量的语言学文献作为调研。And interestingly enough, there are pockets of futureless language speakers situated all over the world.有意思的是,没有将来时态的语言,全球各地都有。This is a pocket of futureless language speakers in Northern Europe.欧洲北部也有一些语言没有将来时态。201703/496381

033 meat and fish Words Pork beef veal chicken lamb mutton dog bacon salmon steak hamburger spices tuna liver Duck barbecue turkey innards bone sauce boil fry roast boil slice chop cut Phrases Be a meat lover Meat and two vegetables Hold a barbecue Roast over an open fire Go hunting/fishing Beginner A: which kinds of meat are most popular in your country? B: we eat a lot of chicken, pork and beef. You eat those meat a lot in your country too, don’t you? A: yes, we do. We also eat a lot of lamb. B; yes. I’ve heard that people in your country like to eat lamb chops. A: that’s right. They tastes so good! We eat them with mint sauce. Have you every tried them? B: yes, I have . I tried them when I visited your country last year. I thought they were very tasty. Can you cook them? A; I certainly can. If I can get some from the butcher’s, I’ll cook them for you. B; that sounds great. I’ll bring a bottle of wine. Intermediate A; what do we need for the barbecue? B; well, I’ve bought a lot of meat. I’ve got pork chops, small steaks, chicken wings, and plenty of hot sausages and hamburger patties. A; I can’t wait to start cooking! I’ve bought the grill and charcoal. Do you have enough plates and utensils? B: I think so. I bought some paper plates and cups for people to use. It will save on the washing up! A; and if people drop them ,they won’t break. We’ll need to buy some buns to make hot dogs and hamburgers. B; they sell them at the shop around the corner. We can go and get some in a few minutes. A; I brought some cheese to make cheeseburgers and some onions for the hot dogs. We’ll need some tomato ketchup and some barbecue sauce. B; I have the sauce, but remind me to get some ketchup at the shop. A: how long does it take to cook meat on a barbecue? B; it only takes a few minutes. Some people like their meat well done. Others like it rare. The great thing about a barbecue is that everyone can choose how they want their meat cooked. A; they can cook it themselves to make sure it’s exactly how they like it. B; I hope you haven’t invited any vegetarians! /200705/13132

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