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Revamping Skopje重塑斯科普里Stones of contention竞争与炫示的雕塑Macedonia writes a new story for its capital马其顿首都的新篇章Colouring the future描画未来IN 2010 a computer-generated of plans for the Macedonian capital was released to journalists.2010年,一份电脑生成的视频规划被公布给记者,展示了马其顿首都未来的面貌。There were to be statues and monuments, new museums and civic buildings, a triumphal arch, even an eternal flame. After decades in hibernation Skopjes turbocharged planners seemed determined that the city should make up for lost time. While Nikola Gruevski, the prime minister, was in office they planned to erect as much public art as some European capitals have put up in three centuries. Many assumed it was some sort of joke.视频规划里的首都,有无数雕塑和纪念碑,簇新的物馆和市政大楼,壮丽辉煌的,以及熊熊不熄的火焰。规划者们野心勃勃,决意一扫几十年来斯科普里的寂寂无名。尼古拉格鲁耶夫斯基任总理后,计划在首都建造和陈列的公共艺术作品数目之巨,达到了欧洲一些首都三个世纪以来才缓慢积累起来的总量。起初,很多人认为这不过是痴人说梦而已。Three years later, the project is nearing completion and this corner of the Balkans is suffering the shock of the new. For this is more than just a city rejuvenation project. Almost every structure and statue is part of a wider ideological scheme to recast Macedonias identity. The heart is Skopjes central square, which for decades was a bleak and empty space. Now it has been crammed with statuary. There are 19th-century Macedonian heroes, the medieval Tsar Samuel and Justinian, a Byzantine emperor who was born near Skopje. Nearby are two saints, Cyril and Methodius, the fathers of the Cyrillic alphabet. Centre-stage goes to a giant bronze Alexander the Great. He is encircled by warriors, who in turn are surrounded by a fountain, with music, roaring lions and lights that change colour.然而三年之后,规划已近峻工。其影响和冲击席卷了这个位于巴尔干一隅的国家;因为它已经远远超越了单纯城市复兴工程的范畴—它是一幅意识形态宏图,旨在重塑马其顿身份;几乎每一座建筑,每一尊雕塑都是这幅巨图的一个符号。其核心是斯科普里广场。该地几十年来都荒凉破败,空旷无人,如今却雕塑林立,石碑处处。除了在此济济一堂的19世纪的马其顿英雄雕像外,还有中世纪的撒母尔,生于斯科普里附近、后成为拜占庭皇帝的查士丁尼以及创制最早斯拉夫字母的两位圣人,西里尔和迪乌斯。广场中心,被武士雕塑众星拱月般环绕着的,是亚历山大大帝的巨大青铜像。武士是音乐喷泉,怒狮塑像穿插其间,无数灯斑谰变幻。Ever since Macedonia became independent in 1991 Greece has fought a bitter diplomatic war with its northern neighbour. The new state, created from a former Yugoslav republic, it argued, was a thinly veiled territorial claim on its own northern region of Macedonia. Worse the Slav Macedonians, said the Greeks, were trying to steal their Hellenic history and culture.马其顿共和国1991年独立。自此之后,希腊与这位北部邻居外交倾轧不断。希腊称,这个由前南斯拉夫共和国独立出来的新国家,对于马其顿北面希腊领土的觊觎之意,简直是司马昭之心,路人皆知。更让人不齿的是,这帮斯拉夫-马其顿人居然肖想窃取希腊的历史与文化。Until Greece blocked Macedonias accession to NATO in 2008, the government in Skopje never really took the history bait from Greece. Since then, however, the nationalist ideologues have become louder.对于希腊人后一个控诉,马其顿从未与之一较长短。然而,2008年马其顿加入北约的意图被希腊挫败之后,马其顿国内的民族主义呼声愈发高涨。Far from the Macedonians being an invented nation, as the Greeks argue, Vangel Bozinovski, one of the architects working on Skopjes revamp says that it is in fact the Greek nation that was invented in the 19th century, and hence it is they who are stealing Macedonian history, including that of Alexander the Great. Just to make the point, a statue of Alexanders father, Philip of Macedon, has been erected and several of his mother, Olympia. A neoclassical archaeological museum is nearing completion and a new foreign ministry with a classical temple-style portico has just been completed.Vangel Bozinovski是参与重建斯科普里的建筑设计师。他说,希腊人一直指责马其顿是个虚构的民族,事实上,希腊才是个在19世纪被虚构出来的民族,并自此一直在盗用马其顿的历史,包括亚历山大大帝。为了昭示这一点,他们还雕刻了一座亚历山大的父亲腓力二世的塑像和好几座他母亲奥林匹娅斯的雕像。一座新古典主义风格的考古物馆已近完工。新建的外交部官邸则采用了古典圆形柱廊式的庙宇风格。Neoclassicism is not the only style being reused. Mr Bozinovski, who has built a “memorial house” to honour Mother Teresa, the Skopje-born nun who found fame caring for the dying in Kolkata, speaks of “eclecticism”. He is working on a plan for redeveloping a building which he says “is going to be real baroque”. In 1689 the then Ottoman city was torched by the Austrians. Mr Bozinovski claims that by building baroque he is only restoring this style to its rightful place; before the fire, he says, Skopje was as baroque as Prague.新古典主义不是唯一被重新使用的建筑风格。Bozinovski说这里的建筑风格是“兼收并蓄”式的。他曾建造过一座特蕾莎修女的纪念堂,用以铭记这位生于斯科普里,在印度加尔各答照顾垂死者的著名修女。目前,他正在着手重建一座巴洛克风格的建筑。在斯科普里还属于土耳其时,它和布拉格一样充斥着巴洛克建筑,然而在1689年它被奥地利人付之一炬。Bozinovski称,巴洛克风格的建筑将使城市恢复到大火前的面貌。But the city also wants to reclaim its more recent past. Close to the parliament building, on top of which new glass cupolas are now sprouting, is a war memorial for Macedonians killed fighting guerrillas from the countrys Albanian minority in 2001. Albanians make up at least a quarter of the population and many loathe what has been done to the capital. “I hate it,” says Lura Pollozhani, a young Macedonian-Albanian journalist. “I dont see me here.” By concentrating on ancient Macedonian themes, she believes, Albanians are being told: “We were on this land first.”当然,这座城市也想展示其更近的历史。议会大厦上崭新的玻璃穹顶正在施工,它的旁边就是一座战争纪念碑,用以铭记2011年在抵抗阿尔巴尼亚少数民族游击队入侵时牺牲的马其顿勇士们。作为占该国人口四分之一以上的少数民族,很多阿尔巴尼亚人憎亚斯科普里的大改造。“我恨这些。”一位年轻的阿尔巴尼亚族记者说,“在这里我找不到自己的民族。”她觉得改造过分集中于马其顿历史,好像在告诉阿尔巴尼亚人:“我们才是头一个来这儿的。”But Albanians have political clout in Macedonia and a new square in the predominantly Albanian part of the city is also being built. A statue of Skanderbeg, their medieval hero was aly here, and more monuments will follow. A 30-metre statue of Mother Teresa, an Albanian, is planned for the citys main square. The reconstruction of a church destroyed in 1963 was stopped as part of a vicious quarrel in which Albanians, for their part, demanded the reconstruction of a mosque.但是由于阿尔马尼亚人的政治影响力,在斯科普里的阿尔马尼亚人聚集区,一座广场也正在兴建。一座阿尔马尼亚中世纪民族英雄斯坎德培的雕像已然完工,更多的纪念碑将紧随其后。修女特蕾莎是阿尔巴尼亚人,她的雕像足有30米高,将被矗立在城市的主要广场上。一座焚毁于1963年的教堂的重建工作被迫叫停,因为阿尔巴尼亚人想重建一座清真寺。Macedonians have mixed feelings about the governments cultural aggrandisement. Something needed to be done, they say, and something has been done, even if sometimes it is over the top. But Macedonian liberals and the opposition feel aggrieved. Questions are being asked in parliament about how much the projects are costing. Saso Ordanoski, a veteran commentator, is especially critical. “It is a catastrophe. It is a Disneyland. They consider Macedonia to be the ancient cradle of civilisation and not a normal, small, modern European country. That would be below their standards.”对于政府好大喜功式的文化炫示,马其顿人喜忧参半。他们觉得有些事儿该做,也确实做了,虽然过头了些。但是马其顿自由主义者和反对派则心怀不满。有人在国会公然质疑该计划所费几何。一位叫Saso Ordanoski的资深员极为尖锐地指出:“这是一场灾难。这简直是个迪斯尼乐园。他们自诩马斯顿为文明的摇篮,却忘了它只是一个普遍的欧洲现代小国——仿佛承认这一点有损品格似的。 /201406/303766。

  • Chinese patents中国专利Ever more inventive越来越具创造性Mainland companies are building up their intellectual property内地企业正在建立自己的知识产权CHINAS leaders see patents as rungs on the ladder to becoming an innovation powerhouse. So in five-year plans and through subsidies and official exhortations, they have encouraged locals to file patents. And locals have responded with gusto. Two years ago Chinas patent office became the worlds busiest. Sceptics have scoffed that most of those filed are “utility model” patents—short-term ones granted for relatively trivial ideas, as opposed to proper “invention” patents—and that few Chinese inventors have won patents in countries where standards are higher.中国的领导人们认为,专利便是通往创新大国那扶梯上的横档。因此,不论是在五年计划里,还是经由种种补贴和官方规诫,他们一直鼓励国人申请专利,而国人也对此颇为捧场,两年前,中国专利局一跃成为世界上最繁忙的专利机构。怀疑论者对这些专利嗤之以鼻,他们认为,大多数人申请的都是“实用新型”专利,与正式的“发明”专利不同,这类短期专利价值不高。而且,对那些专利门槛颇高的国家而言,很少有中国发明人能入其法眼。Many patents, it is also argued, are exercises in a-filling by academics, with no hope of commercialisation. In short, these patents are a sham. Not quite, argues the UNs World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO). A new study scrutinises Chinese patents and concludes that a small but rapidly growing proportion are up to world standards.也有另一种说法称,许多专利是学者们纯粹为了定量完成任务而练手的结果,并没有将其商业化的期许。说白了,这些都是伪专利。不过在联合国世界知识产权组织(WIPO)看来,也非尽然如此。一项审视中国专利的新研究得出结论,称其占比虽小,但迅速增长的比例已达到世界标准。The WIPO included only patents filed by Chinese residents—that is, those with a Chinese address—who filed their patents first on the mainland. So, inventions by the Shanghai labs of GE or Philips are not included, since Western multinationals typically file first in America or Europe. Foxconn, a manufacturing goliath controlled by Hon Hai of Taiwan, is included in the study because, unlike other Taiwanese firms, it resides in China and files its patents first on the mainland.世界知识产权组织仅将中国居民申请的专利列入统计—这包含两个概念:申请人居住在中国,且是在内地首次注册专利。而由于西方跨国公司通常会先在美国或欧洲申请专利,通用和飞利浦的上海实验室做出的发明便不包括在统计之列。之所以台湾鸿海集团旗下的制造业巨擘富士康包括在此项研究之内是因为和其他台商不同,它的驻地在中国,且是在内地首次注册专利。The findings challenge conventional wisdom in several ways. Not only do they show that the number of Chinese patents filed abroad is rising sharply (see chart). They also show that, since 2003, most of these have been invention patents, not utility-model ones.该研究结果在许多方面挑战了传统认知。他们不仅表明在国外申请的中国专利数量急剧上升。还表明自2003年以来,这些专利大部分都是费了番脑子的发明,而非中看不中用的“实用新型”绣花枕头。Finally, the firms topping the rankings of foreign patent applications are also revealing. Some, like Huawei and ZTE, are unsurprising: 29% of all foreign filings from 2005 to were in information and communications technology. Lenovo comes in at 16th. Others, like Sinopec in oil and gas, and BYD in batteries, suggest the energy industry is rising.而值得注意的是,国外专利申请排名靠前的公司也慢慢冒头。华为和中兴之类的企业跻身其中不足为奇:2005至年,源自信息和通信技术行业的专利申请占国外专利市场的29%。联想位列第16位。而出现在名单上的其他公司,像石油和天然气领域的中石化,以及电池行业的比亚迪,都意味着能源产业的崛起。The surprise is that three of the top five spots are held by divisions of Foxconn. By 2012 it had filed more than 12,000 patents abroad, in areas from electrical machinery to computer technology to audio- technology. A firm some scorn as a low-tech sweatshop turns out to be a model of invention.出人意料的是,名单上排名前五的公司有三位是由富士康的部门占据。至2012年为止,富士康已在国外申请超过12000项专利,覆盖面从电机到计算机技术,再到音视频技术。被一些人所轻视的低技术含量的血汗工厂到头来居然是发明界的典范。 /201407/309038。
  • Microblogs微Big Vs and bottom lines大V和底线Authorities move against some of China’s most vocal microbloggers政府对中国最直言不讳的微用户采取行动Aug 31st 2013 | BEIJING |From the print editionBETWEEN August 20th and 23rd Beijing police arrested several microbloggers on a charge normally reserved for rabble-rousers on the streets: that of “creating a disturbance”. They were nabbed, police claim, for sping false rumours. Earlier in the month two influential microblogging activists were also arrested in east-central China. Each had accused officials of wrongdoing. An online crackdown is under way on those who do not follow the Communist Party’s line.8月20日至23日,北京警方已煽动民众(制造混乱)为名逮捕了几个微用户。警方声称他们被捕的原因是散播谣言。这个月早些时候,中国中东部两个有影响力的微活跃用户也被逮捕。他们都曾指控政府官员违法。一场网络行动正在打击不与共产党统一战线的人。Yet those arrested are small fry. Of greater concern to authorities are the so-called “Big Vs”, popular microbloggers on Sina Weibo and Tencent Weibo, the two leading microblogs, who have been verified not to be writing under a pseudonym (and so have a V beside their name). Many Big Vs have millions of followers and some write provocatively about sensitive social and political issues. On August 23rd Beijing police detained one Big V, Charles Xue, and later accused him of holding group sex parties with prostitutes. Mr Xue, who is a naturalised American, is a wealthy businessman with 12m followers.这些被捕的还只是小人物。政府最担心的是所谓的大V,大V是指新浪微和腾讯微上通过实名认(名字后面有个V)并且广受欢迎的用户。许多大V有数百万粉丝,并且对敏感的社会政治问题发表激烈言论。8月23日,北京警方拘留了名人薛蛮子,随后指控其聚众淫乱。薛蛮子是美籍华人,一个拥有1200万粉丝的富商。Many assume that Mr Xue’s arrest is a message to the rest of the Big Vs, including holders of foreign passports, that no one is too big to be touched. They hardly needed warning. The authorities have by turns been courting and intimidating the Big Vs in their efforts to control the virtual public square. Arresting or silencing the biggest ones comes with risks for the government, because of the stir it would cause: Kai-Fu Lee, a Taiwanese tech celebrity living in China, has more than 50m followers on Sina Weibo. On the other hand, many microbloggers with foreign passports have good cause to be compliant. They often have business interests and Chinese family members to protect.许多人认为薛蛮子被捕时政府向包括拥有外国签的其他大V发出的讯息,没有人不被管制。他们甚至都不需要警告。政府通过拉拢和威胁大V试图控制虚拟公共场所。但是如果拘留或者封杀这些大V的话,政府面临风险,因为这样做可能会引起强烈的社会反响。例如居住在中国的台湾籍科技名人李开复在新浪微上有超过5000万粉丝。另一方面,许多拥有外籍的微用户有理由顺从,因为他们要维护自己的商业利益,保护自己在中国的家庭。On August 10th Mr Xue and more than a dozen other Big Vs attended a forum, portions of which were later shown on state television, to promote social responsibility among microbloggers. Lu Wei, chief of the State Internet Information Office, declared that microbloggers with large followings had a particular responsibility to tell the truth, protect state interests and social order, and uphold the law and “socialist” ideals and morals. The Big Vs publicly affirmed the wisdom of these strictures, known as the “seven bottom lines”. One Big V, Pan Shiyi, a property developer with 16m followers, posted a short in which he compared the seven bottom lines to traffic rules, suggesting they are reasonable and should be obeyed.八月十日薛蛮子和其他十几位微名人参加了一个促进微用户社会责任感的论坛,部分内容随后在央视播出。国际互联网信息办公室主任鲁炜表示,拥有大量粉丝的微用户有义务讲真话,维护国家利益和社会秩序,并且拥护法律和社会主义意识形态和道德准则。大V公开肯定了被称为七条底线的一系列约束的必要性。其中一个大V潘石屹是一个房地产开发商,拥有1600万粉丝,他发了一天短视频,视频中他将七条底线与交通规则相比较,说明其合理性并应该遵守。Authorities have since made clear that microbloggers who break the strictures can be treated just as if they were causing a real-world ruckus. On August 21st Legal Evening News reported that Beijing police now consider the online world as much a public space as the real one. It was a “judicial breakthrough” that appears to be the legal basis for some recent detentions.政府对待违背这些准则的微用户态度很清楚,就像对待现实生活中骚乱分子一样。8月21日,法制晚报报道称北京警方现在已经将网络世界看作现实生活中的公共空间。这看起来是为最近一系列拘留行动提供了法律依据,是一项“司法突破”。Zhang Qianfan, a professor of law at Peking University, recently wrote a critique of this legal approach, suggesting that order cannot be maintained on the internet, nor should it be. By nature, he wrote, the internet is a noisy place. “The government should step aside. Once it interferes with the internet, we will soon find it becomes the biggest rumour-monger.”北京大学法学教授张千帆最近就这些法律措施发表了,指出网络秩序不能维护也不应该维护。他写道,网络本质上是一个言论聚集之地。“政府应该靠边站。一旦政府干涉网络,很快我们就会发现最大的造谣者就是政府。”201309/255127。
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