德州不孕不育科华知识

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年07月22日 01:58:50
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BEIJING — Two young Chinese tourists carve their names on the Great Wall. Hundreds of picnickers leave their garbage moldering on the banks of the Yellow River.北京——两名年轻的中国游客在长城上刻下自己的名字。数百名在黄河边野餐的人把垃圾留在了那里。Such episodes during the recent National Day holiday have produced a flurry of photographic postings and a spasm of soul-searching in China, highlighting anxieties over the habits and image of tourists at home and abroad in a nation that is increasingly cash-rich but, some say, short on manners and experience with the outside world.在最近的国庆节长假期间,这种事情已经在中国引发了一串照片帖子和自我反省,突显了人们对中国人在国内和海外旅游的习惯和形象所感到的焦虑,中国人的腰包正变得日益充裕,但有些人认为,国人缺乏礼貌以及与外界打交道的经验。They are also raising questions as to why a “tourism blacklist” the government set up last year to name and shame misbehaving travelers does not seem to have had a greater impact.人们也提出一个问题:为什么政府去年设立了“游客黑名单”,点名批评行为不文明游客的做法,似乎并没有产生多大作用。In May 2015, to counter the impression left by an array of widely publicized episodes that have included travelers storming a buffet in Thailand to consume all the prawns, throwing hot water at a flight attendant, carving inscriptions on an ancient Egyptian monument, allowing children to relieve themselves in public places and opening emergency exits on airlines “for fresh air,” the government announced the blacklist.2015年5月,政府宣布设立游客黑名单,为的是抵消被广泛报道的一系列不良事件给人们留下的印象,这些事件包括游客在泰国自助餐厅抢光大虾,向一名飞机乘务员泼热水,在埃及的古迹上刻字,让孩子在公共场所大小便,在飞机上打开紧急出口以“呼吸新鲜空气”等。People may land on it either for legal crimes or moral offenses at home or abroad, according to People’s Daily.据《人民日报》报道,在国内或海外有犯罪行为或不道德行为的人可能会被列入这个黑名单。Possible offenses include interfering with aircraft or public transport, damaging public property or the environment, defacing cultural relics, disrespecting local customs and participating in gambling, illicit drug activities, prostitution or “dangerous sexual activities.”可能的不良行为包括:扰乱航空器或者其他公共交通工具秩序;破坏公共环境卫生、公共设施;损毁、破坏旅游目的地文物古迹;违反旅游目的地社会风俗、民族生活习惯;参与、色情、毒品内容的活动或者危险性活动。People added to the list remain there for three years, during which their names are made available to travel companies, airlines, work units and the Public Security Bureau, among other groups. This puts the person on notice that he or she is under watch and could be barred from tour groups. They may be barred from flying or from visiting scenic spots. But there is no financial penalty.上黑名单的人的信息将保存三年,旅游公司、航空公司、工作单位和公安局等机构可以查到他们的名字。这警告当事人,他们受到监督,有可能被禁止参加旅游团。他们也可能被禁止乘坐飞机或进入景区,但并没有财物惩罚。Over all, the blacklist appears to have had a slow start, suggesting the difficulty of policing human behavior even in an authoritarian nation.总地来看,黑名单的效果似乎并不如意,说明即使是在一个集权国家,监督人们的行为也很困难。The list is unavailable on the website of the China National Tourism Administration. But according to the Shenzhen Metropolis newspaper, only 24 people are on it.中国国家旅游局的网站找不到这份名单。但据《深圳都市报》报道,名单上只有24个人。That number includes two people added over the recent holiday, according to the China National Tourism Administration: Hou Geshun from Heilongjiang Province, who was accused of burning Vietnamese money in a bar in the Vietnamese city of Danang, and Lu Shan from Beijing, who was said to have beaten up her tour guide in Yunnan Province.据国家旅游局说,黑名单上包括两个在最近的假期被列入的人:黑龙江游客侯歌顺和北京游客卢珊,侯歌顺被指在越南城市岘港的一家酒吧烧“越南盾”,卢珊据说在云南打了导游。The report did not explain why Mr. Hou burned the money, but China and Vietnam have a testy relationship over conflicting territorial claims in the South China Sea that have led to nationalistic demonstrations on both sides. The reason for Ms. Lu’s outburst was also not given, but disputes between tour guides and tourists are common, often over travel conditions or shopping requirements.这篇报道没有解释为什么侯歌顺烧越南盾,但中国与越南的关系由于南海领土争端变得很紧张,两国都曾发生过民族主义者的游行示威。报道也没有提卢珊殴打导游的原因,但导游与游客之间的纠纷很常见,往往涉及旅游条件或购物要求。Hundreds of millions of people made 593 million domestic trips on national transportation networks during the weeklong holiday, according to the tourism administration. That number does not include trips by private car. An additional six million traveled abroad during that period, the tourism administration said.旅游局的资料显示,在国庆节黄金周期间,全国共接待游客5.93亿人次。此外,还有接近600万人次的出境游,旅游局说。Last week, after the fresh round of episodes over the holiday, Xinhua, the state news agency, questioned the list’s effectiveness.上周,在国庆长假爆出新一轮不文明事件之后,官方通讯社新华网对黑名单的有效性提出了质疑。“Carving Names and Drawing Pictures on the Great Wall, Throwing Garbage in the Yellow River, Why Does the Blacklist not Control Uncivilized Tourists?” its headline asked.文章标题问道,“长城刻画黄河扔垃圾,黑名单为何管不住不文明游客?”An article on the WeChat account of Guangming Online asked whether the list was merely a “paper tiger.”“光明网”微信公号发表的一篇文章问道,游客黑名单是否成了“纸老虎”。One man added to the blacklist shortly after it was set up told The Zhejiang Elderly News that being on it did not change his life much.一名在黑名单刚建立不久就上了名单的男子对《浙江老年报》说,被纳入黑名单对自己的生活影响不大。“I got back from Thailand and am off to Korea,” said the man from Jiangsu Province, identified only by his surname, Wang. “At the worst, you can’t join a tour group. Independent travel is the thing to do.”这名江苏男子说,“刚从泰国回来,我就去了韩国。大不了不跟团,自由行就是了。”文章中只提到他姓王。But perhaps travel will grow more difficult for Mr. Wang and others on the list.但是对王先生和其他上了黑名单上的人来说,旅游也许将会变得更加困难。In August, The Qianjiang Evening News reported, officials drafted another set of rules that has not yet been approved, but it includes a ban on foreign travel.据《钱江晚报》报道,今年8月,官员们已起草了新条例,目前尚未获得批准,但上了黑名单的人将有可能被限制出境。 /201610/470827

Pope Francis says the leaking of sensitive Vatican documents is a ;crime; and ;a deplorable act; that will not stop him from moving forward with church reforms.天主教教宗方济各说,泄露梵蒂冈敏感文件是“犯罪”和“可悲的行为”,这不会阻止他继续推进教会改革。The leader of the world#39;s Roman Catholics, in his first comments since two people suspected of leaking the documents were arrested last week, said ;this sad fact will certainly not distract me from the work of reform that is moving ahead.; Francis made his remarks before tens of thousand of people at his Sunday blessing in Saint Peter#39;s Square.这位世界罗马天主教领袖在两名泄露文件的嫌疑人上周被逮捕后的首次回应中说:“这一令人痛心的事件绝不会让我从正在推进的改革事务中分心。”方济各是在圣彼得广场举行周日祝祷时,面对成千上万民众说这番话的。Two new books are based on the leaks that detail how some prelates are resisting the pope#39;s financial and administrative changes in the Holy See.最近有两本新书都是基于被泄露的梵蒂冈文件完成的。这些文件提供了高层神职人员是如何在教廷抵制教宗财政及管理改革的细节。 /201511/408553

  

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  RIO DE JANEIRO — In the campaign against mosquitoes, Brazil has deployed soldiers to destroy habitats where the insects thrive. Colombia is releasing swarms of mosquitoes treated with bacteria that limit their capacity to sp disease. Mexico is testing the first vaccine against dengue fever, a mosquito-borne virus raging throughout the region.里约热内卢——为了消灭蚊子,巴西派遣士兵去摧毁蚊子滋生的栖息地。哥伦比亚放出了大批经过细菌处理的蚊子,该细菌可以限制蚊子传播疾病的能力。而墨西哥正在测试第一登革热疫苗,这种蚊媒病毒正在整个地区肆虐。Yet at each turn, mosquitoes are outwitting their human opponents, a challenge highlighted by the ed States’ decision to advise pregnant women to postpone traveling to more than a dozen Latin American or Caribbean countries and Puerto Rico where mosquitoes are rapidly expanding the reach of Zika, the virus linked to a surge in cases of infants born with brain damage.但是在每轮战斗中,蚊子都击败了人类对手,美国的一个决定更是突显了该问题的严重性——美国建议,计划前往十多个拉丁美洲和加勒比国家以及波多黎各的妇,应延期出行,因为在这个地区,蚊子正迅速扩大兹卡病毒(Zika)的传播范围。这种病毒可能导致婴儿出生时就患有脑损伤,目前这种病例出现了激增。The warning by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta has intensified a debate across Latin America over the hemisphere’s growing vulnerability to mosquito-borne diseases. These concerns are especially acute in Brazil, the region’s largest country, where officials hope that tourism can help revive a beleaguered economy as they prepare to host the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro.西半球对蚊媒传染病日益脆弱的防线,已经在拉丁美洲各地引发了争论,而亚特兰大的美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)发布的这项警告,更是加剧了这种争论。在巴西,人们的担忧尤为严重。巴西是该地区最大的国家,2016年夏季奥运会将在这里的里约热内卢举办,官员们寄望旅游业能有助于重振该国陷入困境的经济。Henrique Alves, Brazil’s tourism minister, took issue with the C.D.C.’s warning on Saturday. He argued that the Brazilian authorities were adopting measures to prevent Zika from intensifying in the country, even though health officials were investigating more than 3,500 cases of microcephaly, a previously rare condition linked to Zika in which infants are born with abnormally small heads.巴西旅游部长恩里克·阿尔维斯(Henrique Alves)对美国疾控中心上周六发布的警告表达了不满。阿尔维斯说,巴西当局正在采取措施,防止兹卡在该国蔓延;但是该国卫生官员正在调查逾3500起婴儿小头症(microcephaly)病例,这种与兹卡有关的疾病以前很罕见,患病婴儿在出生时头部小得不正常。Asked in a telephone interview if Brazil was a safe destination for pregnant women, Mr. Alves responded, “I think so, without a doubt,” emphasizing that his government’s decision to refrain from travel alerts regarding Zika coincided with World Health Organization’s policies.当被问及巴西作为旅游目的地对妇是否安全时,阿尔维斯在电话采访中说:“我想是的,毫无疑问。”他强调,巴西政府决定暂不发布有关兹卡的旅游警告,与世界卫生组织(WTO)的政策是一致的。Mr. Alves added that he expected the Zika outbreak to ease to the point so that the Olympics here in August would not be affected.阿尔维斯还说,他预计兹卡疫情将会有效缓解,不会影响8月在这里举办的奥运会。Yet others in Brazil applauded the C.D.C.’s alert, pointing to the country’s struggle not just with Zika, a virus with origins in Uganda that is thought to have made the leap to Brazil in 2014, but also with two other mosquito-borne viruses, dengue and chikungunya. Last year, Brazil registered more than 1.6 million cases of dengue, a virus causing fever and joint pain, with 863 people dying from the disease.但在巴西,其他人却对美国疾控中心发出的警告提出了称赞,指出该国不仅在努力控制兹卡病毒,还在与另外两种蚊媒病毒——登革热和基孔肯雅热(chikungunya)抗争。据信,源于乌干达的兹卡病毒于2014年传播至巴西。去年,巴西登记的登革热病例超过了160万例,有863人死于这种疾病。这种病毒会引起发烧和关节痛。Those infected with Zika usually experience mild or no symptoms. It is not known whether the virus alone causes microcephaly or if it occurs only if the mother has had a previous infection, like dengue.感染兹卡病毒的人通常出现轻微症状,或没有症状。目前尚不清楚小头症是否由这种病毒单独引起,还是只在母亲之前感染过登革热等病毒的情况下,才会发病。Zika has emerged as a health threat elsewhere in Latin America. In El Salvador, cases of Zika have escalated since it was first reported at the end of November. As of last week, 3,836 cases had been reported, and the government raised the alert level in 47 municipalities where the illness had been detected. The government is planning intensive fumigation campaigns in those areas.兹卡病毒还在拉丁美洲其他地方蔓延,成为健康威胁。在萨尔瓦多,自11月末首次通报兹卡病例以来,感染人数急剧增加。截至上周,该国已有3836个报告病例。政府在47个出现病例的市镇提高了警戒级别。政府正计划在这些地区开展密集的喷雾消毒行动。El Salvador’s Health Ministry is particularly concerned about the rise of cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome, which leads to paralysis, usually temporary; researchers are exploring a possible link between Guillain-Barré and Zika. Forty-six suspected cases of the syndrome had been reported as of last week, Violeta Menjívar, the Health minister, said in a radio interview.格利-巴林综合症病例的增加令萨尔瓦多卫生部尤其担心,这种疾病会导致瘫痪,瘫痪症状通常是暂时的。研究人员正在探究格林-巴利综合症与兹卡病毒之间的潜在联系。该国卫生部长维奥莱塔·蒙吉瓦尔(Violeta Menjívar)在接受电台采访时表示,截至上周,上报的格利-巴林综合症疑似病例已达到46例。Dr. Pablo Kuri Morales, Mexico’s undersecretary for Prevention and Health Promotion, said in a telephone interview on Saturday that Mexico had diagnosed 15 cases of Zika, 10 of them in the state of Chiapas, on the border of Guatemala. He added that the authorities were preparing a television and radio campaign to warn everybody, especially women of reproductive age.周六,墨西哥疾病预防与健康促进部(Prevention and Health Promotion)副部长巴勃罗·库里·莫拉莱斯(Pablo Kuri Morales)士接受电话采访时表示,墨西哥已经诊断出15个兹卡病例,其中10例出现在靠近危地马拉边境的恰帕斯州。他还表示,当局正在准备发起电视及电台宣传,对所有人发出警告,特别是针对育龄妇女。Dr. Kuri said the C.D.C. was “within its rights” to issue the travel warning, but he argued that the blanket admonition did not make sense when the virus has appeared in only three Mexican states. The mosquitoes that carry the virus, he said, could not survive in the high altitudes of the central plateau, including Mexico City.库里士表示,美国疾控中心“有权利”发布旅游警告,但他辩称,墨西哥只有三个州出现兹卡病例,发布这种一刀切的警告不合情理。他表示,携带病毒的蚊子无法在高海拔的中央平原存活,包括墨西哥城。“I think it’s good to have these warnings,” he said, “but these things should be explained to people.”“我觉得发布警告是正确的,”他说。“但应该向人们说明这些情况。”In Washington, administration officials said the decision to issue a travel alert on Friday developed quickly at the end of the week and set off a flurry of diplomatic efforts to inform officials in the countries named in the alert.在华盛顿,政府官员表示,相关机构很快就在周末做出了于周五发布旅游警告的决定,并开展一系列外交努力,通知了警告所涉及国家的官员。Officials said the notification process forced the C.D.C. to postpone a news conference that had been planned for Friday afternoon, ultimately delaying an announcement until that evening.官员们表示,这个通知程序迫使疾控中心推迟了原本定于周五下午召开的新闻发布会,最终延迟到晚上才公布消息。Aside from anecdotal accounts, it seems too early to tell how the alert will affect travel. In Brazil, Olympic officials emphasized that the Games will take place in August, during the Southern Hemisphere’s winter. The dryer, cooler weather around that time is thought to reduce the presence of mosquitoes, though virologists warn that the insects can transmit viruses year-round in Brazil.除了各种传言,现在断定这种警告会如何影响旅游还为时过早。在巴西,奥运官员强调,奥运会将在8月举行,那会儿是南半球的冬季。人们认为,到时候干燥、凉爽的天气会致使蚊子减少,尽管病毒学家警告称这种昆虫能够全年在巴西传播病毒。“Rio 2016 will continue to monitor the issue closely and follow guidance from the Brazilian Ministry of Health,” said Philip Wilkinson, a spokesman for the committee organizing the Games.里约奥组委发言人菲利普·威尔金森(Philip Wilkinson)表示,“2016里约奥组委将持续密切关注这个问题,并听从巴西卫生部的指导。”Dr. Isaac I. Bogoch, a tropical infectious disease specialist at the University of Toronto who is part of a team modeling the potential for Zika to sp, warned that the Olympics could serve as a catalyst for the virus, which some researchers believe may have arrived in Brazil during another sports mega-event, the 2014 World Cup.多伦多大学(University of Toronto)热带传染病专家伊萨克·I·格赫(Isaac I. Bogoch)士警告称,奥运会可能成为这种病毒的催化剂,一些研究人员认为,这种病毒可能是在举办另一场体育盛事——2014年世界杯——期间传播到巴西的。格赫参与了一个通过建模来研究兹卡病毒潜在传播范围的小组。“There will be people traveling to Brazil from all over the world,” Dr. Bogoch said in an email.格赫士在邮件中表示,“世界各地的人都会前往巴西。”“The concern is that infected individuals will travel back to their home country and introduce the virus to new regions.”“令人担心的是,那些感染病毒的人会回到自己国家,将病毒带到新区域。”Dr. Bogoch and other researchers determined that Zika had the potential to rapidly sp to other parts of the world, according to findings published last week in the British medical journal The Lancet.英国医学期刊《柳叶刀》(Lancet)上周发表的文章显示,格赫及其他研究人员确定,兹卡病毒可能会迅速传播至世界其他地区。 /201601/424025

  US prosecutors charged four Chinese individuals and a Chinese company with conspiring to evade US economic sanctions on North Korea by establishing a web of shell companies that funnelled hundreds of millions of dollars through the US financial system.美国检方指控四名中国个人和一家中国公司合谋规避美国对朝鲜的经济制裁,称他们编织了一张空壳公司蛛网,通过美国金融体系输送数亿美元。The scheme, which ran for at least six years beginning in 2009, enabled Korea Kwangson Banking Corporation (KK) in Pyongyang to evade US sanctions and buy commodities including coal, sugar and fertiliser for North Korea’s battered economy. 从2009年开始,该计划运行了至少六年,它使平壤的朝鲜光鲜(KK)得以逃避美国的制裁,为困境中的朝鲜经济购买煤炭、食糖和化肥等大宗商品。The Department of Justice on Monday unsealed a criminal complaint charging Ma Xiaohong and her company, Dandong Hongxiang Industrial Development Co (DHID), and three executives, Zhou Jianshu, the general manager; Hong Jinhua, the deputy general manager; and Luo Chuanxu, the company’s financial manager, with conspiracy to violate US sanctions law and conspiracy to launder monetary instruments. 美国司法部(DoJ)周一对马晓红和她的公司丹东鸿祥实业发展有限公司(DHID),以及三名高管——总经理周建舒、副总经理洪锦花以及财务经理Luo Chuanxu——发出刑事诉状,罪名是阴谋违反美国制裁法律和阴谋用货币工具洗钱。No US financial institutions were implicated in the crimes, the DoJ said. 美国司法部表示,没有美国金融机构与本案的犯罪行为有牵连。The Department of Treasury also imposed sanctions on DHID, Ms Ma, Zhou and Hong for their efforts on Pyongyang’s behalf and moved to freeze funds in 25 Chinese bank accounts that allegedly belong to DHID and its network of front companies. 美国财政部还对丹东鸿祥实业发展有限公司、马晓红、周建舒和洪锦花实施制裁,理由是他们为平壤方面效劳。美方还采取行动,冻结据称属于丹东鸿祥实业发展有限公司及其幌子公司的25个中资账户。Once a federal judge issues the required restraining order, US officials will ask their counterparts in China to restrain the funds, which are held in accounts at several big Chinese banks, including China Merchants Bank, Shanghai Pudong Development Bank, Agricultural Bank of China, Bank of Communications Co of China, China Construction Bank, Guangdong Development Bank, and the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China. 一旦联邦法官发出所需的禁制令,美国官员将要求中国同行冻结涉案资金,这些资金被存在数家中国大,包括招商(China Merchants Bank)、上海浦东发展(Shanghai Pudong Development Bank)、中国农业(Agricultural Bank of China)、交通(Bank of Communications)、中国建设(CCB)、广东发展(Guangdong Development Bank)以及中国工商(IC)。DHID created a network of 22 front companies, located in jurisdictions such as the British Virgin Islands, the Seychelles and Hong Kong, to carry out the prohibited US dollar transactions, according to the DoJ. 美国司法部称,丹东鸿祥实业发展有限公司创建了22家幌子公司,形成一张蛛网,这些公司分布于英属维尔京群岛、塞舌尔群岛和香港等司法管辖区,以进行被禁的美元交易。Shell companies also were established in the UK in Cardiff and Daventry.此外还在英国卡迪夫(Cardiff)和达文特里 (Daventry)建立了空壳公司。The scheme allowed KK, which lost access to the US financial system in 2009 when it was sanctioned for its support of North Korea’s nuclear weapons programme, to make dollar-based purchases on the world market. 这项安排使在2009年因持朝鲜核武计划而受到制裁、被踢出美国金融体系的朝鲜光鲜得以在国际市场上进行美元采购。There was no legitimate business reason for DHID to go through the work and expense of setting up front companies to transact business in US dollars, except to avoid US sanctions, the DoJ said in the complaint. 除了逃避美国制裁以外,丹东鸿祥实业发展有限公司没有正当的商业理由为了用美元做生意而建立幌子公司,还要为此付出精力和费用,美国司法部在诉状中称。In one January 2012 transaction, a North Korean diplomat based in Nakhodka, Russia, used Ms Ma’s personal bank account to wire about m in Chinese currency so that DHID could make a US dollar payment on the diplomat’s behalf, according to prosecutors. 美国检方称,在2012年1月的一笔交易中,常驻俄罗斯纳霍德卡(Nakhodka)的一名朝鲜外交官利用马晓红的个人账户汇款价值约300万美元的人民币,使丹东鸿祥实业发展有限公司可以代表这名外交官进行一笔美元付款。In emails, the accused sought to mask the source of their business, referring to North Korea as that country, said the complaint. 诉状称,几名被告在电子邮件中试图掩盖他们的业务来源,以那个国家指代朝鲜。As part of their investigation, FBI agents visited the Hong Kong address used by 11 of the front companies and found no evidence of actual business being conducted. 作为调查的一部分,美国联邦调查局(FBI)探员走访了其中11家幌子公司所用的香港地址,发现那里没有实际开展业务的据。Agents also obtained emails via search warrants. 探员还凭借搜查令获取了电子邮件。One of the strengths of our sanctions programs is that they prevent sanctioned wrongdoers from engaging in US dollar transactions, said John Carlin, the assistant attorney-general for national security. 我方制裁方案的一个优势是,它们阻止被制裁的违法者用美元进行交易,美国司法部负责国家安全的助理部长约翰#8226;卡林(John Carlin)表示。Denying the use of the US financial system can greatly curtail illegal activities and disrupt efforts to provide weapons of mass destruction to terrorists and rogue nations. 不让制裁对象利用美国的金融体系,大大有助于遏制非法活动,挫败向恐怖分子和无赖国家提供大规模杀伤性武器的努力。Ms Ma is described as a woman in her mid-40s who owns 80 per cent of DHID and serves as chief executive. 马晓红被描述为一名40多岁的女性,拥有丹东鸿祥实业发展有限公司80%股份,并担任首席执行官。Her company, located in Dandong in northeastern China, just across the Yalu River from North Korea, claimed to account for more than 20 per cent of total trading volume between the neighbouring countries, according to the criminal complaint.她的公司总部位于中国东北的丹东,与朝鲜之间只隔着鸭绿江。美方的刑事诉状称,她的公司占了中朝贸易总量的20%以上。 /201609/468744Are the political upheavals of 2016 — Brexit and America’s election of Donald Trump — a triumph of democracy or a threat to it? Democracies must respond to legitimate grievances. 2016年的政治动荡——英国退欧和唐纳德.特朗普(Donald Trump)当选美国总统——是民主的胜利还是对民主的威胁?民主政体必须对合法的抱怨做出回应。Indeed, their ability to do so peacefully is among their strengths. 实际上,有能力和平回应是它们的长处之一。But the demagogue’s exploitation of such grievances threatens democracy. 但煽动家利用此类抱怨的做法威胁到了民主。This has happened elsewhere. 其他地方已经出现了这种情况。It would be foolish to assume western democracies are immune.认为西方民主政体不会受影响将是愚蠢的。In 2016, fear and anger became dominant political emotions in the UK and the US — two of the most important, stable and enduring democracies. 2016年,担忧和愤怒主导了英国和美国这两个最重要、稳定、悠久的民主政体的政治情绪。The fear was over downward mobility and cultural changes; the anger was against immigrants and indifferent elites. 担忧是围绕向下流动(downward mobility)和文化变迁,而愤怒是针对移民和冷漠的精英。They came together in resurgent nationalism and xenophobia. 它们汇聚为卷土重来的民族主义和仇外主义。Some Brexiters and Republicans believe in the ideal of absolutely free markets. 一些英国退欧派人士和共和党人相信绝对自由市场理念,But that idea did not bring Brexit to the UK or Mr Trump to Washington. 但这种理念不会让英国退欧或者让特朗普当选总统。The emotions were far more visceral and less attractive.担忧和愤怒要深刻得多,也更不吸引人。For democrats, the outburst of such primal emotions is disturbing because they are so hard to contain. 对民主主义者而言,此类原始情绪的爆发之所以令人担忧是因为它们很难遏制。Democracy is at bottom a civilised form of civil war. 民主政体本质上是一种文明的内战。It is a struggle for power contained by understandings and institutions.它是一种受谅解和制度制约的权力争斗。The understandings are that winners never take all. 谅解是赢家永远不会拿走一切。Opposition is legitimate, opinion free and power curbed. 反对派是合法的,可以自由表达观点而且权力受到限制。The values of the citizenry are a democracy’s most important asset. 公民价值观是民主政体最重要的资产。They must understand in their bones that it is illegitimate to make temporary power permanent by rigging elections, suppressing contrary opinions or harassing the opposition. 他们必须发自内心地明白,通过操纵选举、打击异见或者骚扰反对派让临时权力永久化是不合法的。There exists no such thing as the people; this is an imaginary entity. 不存在什么人民,这是想象出来的实体。There are merely citizens whose choices not only may, but surely will, change. 只有公民,而他们的选择不仅可能、而且必然会改变。While a way must be found to aggregate those views, it will always be defective. 尽管必须找到方法整合公民的观点,但始终会有缺陷。Ultimately, democracy, or a democratic republic, provides a way for people with different views and even cultures to live side by side in reasonable harmony.最终,民主政体或者民主共和国为不同观点乃至不同文化的人们提供了较为和谐地比邻而居的方式。Yet institutions matter, too, because they set the rules of the game. 然而,制度也同样重要,因为它们设定了游戏规则。Institutions may also fail. 制度也可能失效。The US electoral college has failed doubly. 美国选举人团制度已经在两方面失效。Its selection of Mr Trump neither accords with the votes cast in the election nor reflects judgment of the candidate’s merits, as desired by Alexander Hamilton. 它促使特朗普当选不仅与选举中的投票数不符,而且也没有反映出亚历山大.汉密尔顿(Alexander Hamilton)想要的那种对候选人德行的判断。This founding father argued that the college would both guard against the desire in foreign powers to gain an improper ascendant in our councils and ensure the office of President will never fall to the lot of any man who is not in an eminent degree endowed with the requisite qualifications. 这位开国之父指出,选举人团既会防范外国势力想在我们议会中获得不当影响力之心,又会确保总统之位永远不会落到并非具备必要素质的杰出者那种人手里。The charges of Russian hacking and Mr Trump’s evident defects of experience, judgment and character show that the college has not proved the bulwark Mr Hamilton hoped for. 对俄罗斯黑客行为的指控以及特朗普在经验、判断和性格上的明显缺陷表明,选举人团制度没能佐汉密尔顿希望的那种保障作用。It is up to other institutions — notably, Congress, courts and media — and the citizens at large now to do so.现在基本上只能依靠其他制度(尤其是国会、法庭和媒体)以及公民。The more powerful the passions and the more uncontained the ambitions, the more likely the democratic system will collapse into despotism. 煽动家越是热情洋溢和野心勃勃,民主体制就越有可能沦为专制统治。Demagogues are the Achilles heel of democracy. 煽动家是民主的软肋。There is even is a standard demagogic playbook. 现在甚至还出现了标准的煽动剧本。Whether of left or right, they present themselves as representatives of the common people against elites and unworthy outsiders; make a visceral connection with followers as charismatic leaders; manipulate that connection for their own advancement, frequently by lying egregiously; and threaten established rules of conduct and constraining institutions as enemies of the popular will that they embody. 无论是左翼还是右翼,他们都标榜自己是反精英的大众代表和不合适的局外人,并作为魅力领导人与追随者密切联系,他们往往通过弥天大谎来操纵这种联系,用以谋求自己的进步;他们威胁既有的行为准则和约束性制度,把这些准则和制度描述为他们所代表的民意的敌人。Mr Trump is almost a textbook demagogue. 特朗普几乎是教科书式的煽动家。Nigel Farage, former leader of the UK Independence party, has not advanced so far because it has proved harder to capture the UK’s party-based institutions than it is the US presidency.英国独立党(UKIP)前领袖杰尔.法拉奇(Nigel Farage)略逊一畴,就是因为事实明攻破英国基于党派的制度比美国总统选举更难。Yet there are similarities between the demagogic elements of the Brexit campaign and the rise of Mr Trump. 然而,英国退欧运动和特朗普崛起中的煽动因素存在相似之处。For both, opponents are enemies rather than fellow citizens who think differently. 对两者而言,反对派是敌人而非观点不同的同胞。Both claim to represent the people against foreigners and traitors.两者都宣称代表反对外国人和卖国贼的人民。The demagogue’s campaign leads naturally to despotism — the tyranny of the majority that is a mask on the tyranny of one. 煽动家的运动自然导致了专制统治——多数人的暴政掩盖了一个人的暴政。As institutions are brought under dictatorial control, the opposition is driven into rebellion or acquiescence. 由于制度是在专制统治下制定的,那么反对派就会被迫反叛或者顺从。Despots use the former as an excuse for repression and the latter to demand absolute obedience. 独裁者利用前者作为镇压的借口,利用后者要求绝对从。A host of examples of the demagogic route to power exists, in both past and present. 无论是过去还是现在,都有一系列通过煽动攥取权力的例子。Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler are case studies of demagogues turned into despots. 贝尼托.墨索里尼(Benito Mussolini)和阿道夫.希特勒(Adolf Hitler)就是煽动家变身独裁者的经典例子。It is not hard to think of recent examples, from Hugo Chávez to Viktor Orban and Vladimir Putin.最近的例子也比比皆是,从乌戈.查韦斯(Hugo Chávez)到欧尔班.维克托(Viktor Orban)和弗拉基米尔.普京(Vladimir Putin)。 /201612/485427Slideshow About 10,000 troops and 4,600 police were deployed to search for survivors following the powerful earthquake in Ecuador, with the official death toll rising to 233 on Sunday. 厄瓜多尔发生强烈地震后,该国投入1万军人和4600名警察搜索幸存者,周日官方公布的死亡人数已升至246人。 A 7.8 magnitude quake struck on Saturday evening off Ecuador’s coast about 200km from the capital Quito, causing widesp damage to local communities. The tremor was the strongest to hit the Andean country since 1979, and came only a day after a 7.3 magnitude quake struck Japan on the other side of the Pacific. 上周六夜晚,距离首都基多200公里的海上发生7.8级地震,对当地社区造成广泛破坏。这是这个安第斯山区国家自1979年以来遭遇的震级最高的地震。仅一天前,位于太平洋另一端的日本发生了一场7.3级的地震。 Rafael Correa, Ecuador’s president, declared a national emergency and cut short a visit to Rome, as he urged Ecuadoreans to stay strong while authorities handle the disaster. He said that support for the rescuers from neighbouring countries was on its way. “Immediate priority is to rescue those [trapped] among the rubble,” he said on Twitter. 厄瓜多尔总统拉斐尔#8226;科雷亚(Rafael Correa)宣布该国进入紧急状态,他中断了对罗马的访问,敦促厄瓜多尔人在当局处理这场灾难的时候保持坚强。他表示,邻国对救援人员的援正在路上。“当务之急是救援那些困在废墟中的人们,”他在Twitter上表示。 Gabriel Alcivar, mayor of Pedernales, an area of 55,000 people close to the quake’s epicentre, pleaded for authorities to send earthmoving machines and emergency rescue workers as roads were cracked and several of buildings in the town were flattened, trapping residents among the rubble. 靠近震中、人口5.5万人的佩德纳莱斯镇的镇长加布里埃尔#8226;阿尔西瓦(Gabriel Alcivar)请求当局向该市派遣推土机和紧急救援人员,该市的道路裂开,镇内的几栋建筑被夷为平地,将一些居民困在了瓦砾之中。 “This wasn’t just a house that collapsed, it was an entire town,” he told local television. 他告诉当地电视台:“倒塌的不仅仅是一栋房子,是整个镇。” /201604/438180

  Natural disasters across China have left at least 1,074 people dead and 270 unaccounted for since the beginning of the year, an official at the Ministry of Civil Affairs said last Tuesday.民政部官员上周二表示,今年年初以来,全国各地的自然灾害共造成至少1074人死亡,270人失踪。The most notable events included floods, heavy winds, hail and a range of geological disasters, said Yang Xiaodong, deputy head of the disaster relief department in the ministry.民政部救灾司副司长杨晓东表示,我国自然灾害以洪涝、大风、冰雹和各类地质灾害为主。In total, natural disasters caused RMB298.3b in direct economic losses. About 400,000 houses collapsed and 6.24m residents were relocated.各类自然灾害共造成直接经济损失2983亿元,约40万间房屋倒塌,624万人被重新安置。Since June, natural disasters have left 833 people dead and 233 missing, the largest number of casualties over the same period since 2011, Yang said.杨晓东表示,6月以来,自然灾害已造成833人死亡、233人失踪,为2011年以来同期因灾死亡失踪人数最高值。Anhui, Fujian, Guizhou, Hebei, Hubei, Jiangsu and Jiangxi were the hardest hit regions.安徽、福建、贵州、河北、湖北、江苏和江西是受灾最严重的地区。The central government has allocated more than 1.67 billion yuan this year to help people in disaster-hit areas through emergency relocation, resettlement, reconstruction of damaged houses, and to assist those who have lost loved ones, Yang said.杨晓东表示,中央政府今年已拨款超过16亿7000万元,帮助灾区人民紧急搬迁、安置、重建受损房屋,并救助那些失去亲人的人。This year, the ministry and the China National Commission for Disaster Reduction have sent 17 emergency teams to assist relief work.今年以来,工信部和中国国家减灾委员会共派出17个应急小组协助救援工作。 /201608/458290The mayor of Xingtai City in north China#39;s Hebei Province apologized last Saturday night for inadequate responses to the storms that have caused 25 deaths and 13 missing in the city.上周六晚,中国北部河北省邢台市市长就本次暴雨灾害应对不力,造成25人死亡及13人失联向民众道歉。Dong Xiaoyu said the government had underestimated the intensity of the rainfall, been insufficient in emergency ability, and late and inaccurate when it came to disaster assessment.邢台市市长董晓宇表示,政府低估了此次降雨的强度、应急能力不足,对灾害评估不及时、不准确。;I am deeply sorry for failing to protect people#39;s lives and properties, no matter howserious the natural disaster is,; Dong said. ;On behalf of the city Party committee and government, I pay deepest condolences to the victims and their relatives, and apologize tothe public.;董晓宇市长说道:“无论面对多大的天灾,没能保护好人民群众生命财产安全,我深感内疚。我代表市委、市政府向所有遇难者及亲属表示沉痛哀悼,向全社会诚恳道歉。”Dong said the city has initiated an accountability investigation and will punish those responsible for the tragedy.他表示,目前邢台市已启动责任追究程序,对这次抗洪中工作不力的责任人将给予处分。Torrential rain and floods have left 114 people dead and 111 others missing in Hebei, according to the provincial civil affairs bureau.据河北省民政局数据显示,此次特大暴雨已造成河北省114人死亡,111人失踪。 /201607/457442

  

  Beijing#39;s environment authorities last Friday vowed zero tolerance to falsification of environmental figures, after Net users complained that mist cannons, or the ;magic smog cleaner,; are used around the capital#39;s air quality monitoring stations so that the data gathered will be more ;satisfying.;北京环保部门上周五宣布,将对环保数据造假的行为零容忍,因为有网民称有人在首都空气质量检测站附近使用驱雾炮和“魔力雾霾清洁剂”,使收集的数据更令人满意。The Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau announced on its website that they have been insisting on the principle from the beginning to end to make sure the monitoring data are accurate and reliable, vowing to investigate the falsification of data.北京市环保局在其官网上声明,他们自始至终都坚持这样的原则:监测数据要准确可信,对造假行为严惩不贷。Since last year, many Beijing residents have written online that mist cannons are only used around some air quality monitoring sites, which shows a tenfold drop in ings compared with nearby regions.自去年开始,有许多北京市民在网上表示,驱雾炮只用于空气质量监测点附近,这使得空气污染指数与周边地区相比下降了十倍。Data from monitoring sites serves as key input to central and local governments for policy-making on environmental protection, which under no circumstances should be tampered, Wang Gengchen, a research fellow from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, told the Global Times on Friday.中国科学院大气物理研究所研究员王庚辰在上周五接受《环球时报》采访时表示,监测点的数据是中央和地方政府指定环保政策时的重要依据,无论如何都不该被伪造。Besides the data falsification, China#39;s environmental inspectors and officers are often blocked during their inspection.除了伪造数据,中国的环境检测员在检测环境过程中还常常会被拒之门外。According to information regularly released on the website of the Ministry of Environmental Protection, law enforcement officers in Jinan, capital of East China#39;s Shandong Province, were held for one hour by staff from a local company during an inspection on April 16. The company also refused to provide any data and shut the doors of its offices during the inspection.据环境保护部官网定期发布的信息显示,4月16日,山东省济南市的检测人员在检查一家公司时,被该公司员工扣留了一个小时。此外,公司还拒绝在检查期间提供任何数据并关闭办公室。Separately, work certificates of inspectors in Xingtai, Hebei were snatched during an inspection on April 17.另外,河北省邢台市检查员的工作书在4月17日检查期间也一度被抢。As China enhances its efforts to curb air pollution, it often faces resistance from local companies, as the cost of violation, which might include fines and detention in China, is far lower than the cost of compliance. In some cases, companies are even shielded by local governments, which makes independent inspection more necessary.随着中国治理空气污染进程的加快,环保部门常常面临着当地企业的抵抗,因为违规成本(包括罚款和拘留)远远低于合规成本。有时当地政府还会包庇违规企业,这就使得独立检查势在必行。However, cheating or hindering inspectors from local governments is intolerable, as government bodies are fully aware of the consequences of the illegal behavior, Wang noted.王庚辰指出,由于政府部门已经深刻意识到这些违法行为的后果,因此会对作弊和阻挠环保部门执法的行为采取零容忍的态度。 /201705/508676。

  Married couples in Japan must keep using the same surname after the country’s supreme court ruled that a century-old law is constitutional.日本最高法院裁定该国一项有百年历史的法条符合宪法,日本的夫妻双方必须继续使用同一姓氏。The decision is a blow to women’s rights campaigners who argue the requirement for married couples to use the same name violates their constitutional right to equality.这项裁定对妇女权利活动人士是一个打击。这些活动人士认为,要求夫妻使用同一姓氏违反了宪法赋予她们的男女平等权利。The ruling throws the fight over married names back to Japan’s parliament, where Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s enthusiasm for putting women in the workforce is much greater than his appetite for human rights or social reform.这项裁定将婚后姓氏之争抛回了日本国会,而日本首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)对推动女性加入劳动力大军的热情远大于他对人权或社会改革的兴趣。It shows the continuing battle for gender equality in Japan, where traditional roles are still deeply rooted, and women often face discrimination at work. Mr Abe has set targets for women in management positions but passed few concrete reforms.这项裁定表明,日本女性争取男女平等的斗争仍将继续。在日本,男性和女性仍然很难挣脱自己要扮演的传统角色,而且女性在职场常常遭受歧视。虽然安倍设定了管理层中女性占比的目标,但并未通过多少具体的改革措施。Five plaintiffs sued the government in 2011 seeking compensation for their distress at being forced to change their names. After losing at lower levels, they appealed to the Supreme Court.2011年,5名原告起诉日本政府,以苦于被迫改姓为由向国家提出赔偿要求。在较低级别的法院败诉后,她们上诉至最高法院。“One view is that by having to change their name, a person loses their identity, but it has become easier to keep using it as a popular name so this is not unconstitutional,” said Itsuro Terada, chief justice of the Supreme Court.日本最高法院首席大法官寺田逸郎(Itsuro Terada)说:“一种观点认为,被迫改姓让个人失去了自我认同,但继续使用原姓作为日常用姓已变得更为容易,所以这并不违宪。”Mr Terada said the law was not discriminatory because couples could choose the man’s or the woman’s surname. In practice, however, more than 90 per cent of women adopt their husband’s name and some companies require staff to work under their legal name.寺田称,该法条并不构成歧视,因为夫妻双方可选择随男方或随女方的姓。然而,在现实中,超过90%的女性婚后随夫姓,而且有些公司要求员工在工作中使用法定姓名。Reports from the courtroom said five of the 15 judges had dissented, agreeing the law was unconstitutional, raising the prospect that the Supreme Court will revisit the law in the future. Opinion polls show the public is split roughly 50-50, although younger generations want to change the law.来自法庭的报道称,15名法官中有5名持有异议,认为该法条违宪。这带来了最高法院未来重新审议该法条的可能性。民调显示,对这一问题持对立看法的公众数量大致相当,尽管较年轻的人群希望修改该法条。Campaigners were victorious in a second case, however, with the Supreme Court striking down another 19th-century law requiring women, but not men, to wait for six months after a divorce before getting remarried.然而,活动人士在另一起案子中胜诉:日本最高法院推翻了另一项源于19世纪的法条——该法条要求女性离婚后6个月内不得再婚,对男性则无此要求。The law on remarriage is supposed to prevent disputes about who fathered children — of vital importance in the Meiji era when inheritances were at stake but less relevant with the advent of DNA paternity tests.这项针对再婚的法条本意是为了防止搞不清楚离婚后出生的子女的生父是谁而产生的纠纷——在遗产继承利害攸关的明治时代,这一点至关重要,但随着DNA亲子鉴定技术的出现,其重要性已经降低。“With the advance of technology, at this point any period in excess of 100 days is an excessive restriction,” said Mr Terada. Depending on how the government applies the law, the remaining 100-day restriction will probably apply only to pregnant women, leaving most able to remarry immediately.寺田说:“随着技术的进步,在这一点上,任何超过100天的期限都是过度的限制。”仍保留的100天限制很可能将仅适用于妇,而大多数离异女性都可立即再婚,具体怎样将取决于日本政府如何实行该法条。“In the 21st century, people are no longer getting married for their family but for themselves,” said Tomoshi Sakka, the lawyer who brought the case on behalf of a women in her 30s from Okayama prefecture. “From that perspective I think it’s a great decision.”“在21世纪,人们不再为自己的家族、而是为自己结婚,”代表冈山县一名30多岁的女性提起诉讼的律师作花知志(Tomoshi Sakka)说,“从这一角度看,我认为这是一个伟大的决定。”Yoshihide Suga, chief cabinet secretary, said the government would move quickly to revise the law so as to comply with the 100-day limit.日本内阁官房长官菅义伟(Yoshihide Suga)表示,政府将尽快修订该法条,以便符合100天的限制。 /201512/417476

  China, Sweltering, Doles Out Subsidies for High Heat三伏天在户外工作,你拿到高温补贴了吗?BEIJING — After three days of torrid heat in Beijing, with thermometer ings in the upper 90s Fahrenheit, the air in the city’s concrete canyons and on its giant ring roads has cooled a little, to 95. Enough for city officials to drop the health warning they had posted on Sunday, as they do whenever temperatures exceed that threshold.北京——北京经历了三天的酷热,温度计的读数直奔40摄氏度。然后,混凝土峡谷之间及恢弘的环路上的空气似乎冷却了一点,降到了35度,足以让市政府撤销了周日发布的健康警告。每当温度超过35度阈值的时候,他们就会发出这种警告。Sure, it is not the heat of the deserts of Rajasthan in India, where temperatures in May crackled to 123.8 degrees. But the air in Beijing and other parts of China can reach 106 in the summer, and work rarely stops on the 24-hour construction sites even under these “bamboo steamer” conditions, as The Beijing Evening News described them.当然,北京没有印度拉贾斯坦邦的沙漠那么热,今年5月那里的温度高达51度。不过,根据《北京晚报》的报道,北京和中国其他一些地区的夏季气温可以达到42度,但即使在这种类似“蒸笼”的条件下,一些24小时施工的建筑工地也很少停工。China has something rare to address the problem. By law, many people who work outdoors are eligible for a heat subsidy when temperatures go above 95, or 35 degrees Celsius — a pay supplement that in Beijing amounts to 180 renminbi a month, or , China News Service reported.中国用一种罕见的办法来应对这个问题。中国新闻网报道,根据法律规定,当温度超过35摄氏度的时候,很多在户外工作的人就有资格享受高温补贴——在北京,这种补贴的标准是每个月180元人民币。Employers do not always give the money, and workers may not know about it or may fear losing their jobs if they ask, said a business and legal consultancy based in Shanghai.总部设在上海的一家业务和法律咨询公司称,雇主并不总是按规定付这笔钱,员工也许不知道有这种补贴,或者可能担心,要是自己向雇主讨要,就会失去工作。“Employees have the right to file a complaint if an employer fails to pay, but rarely do in fear of repercussions,” reported China Briefing, a newsletter of the consultancy, Dezan Shira amp; Associates. “In many cases, employees aren’t even aware of the allowance.”“如果雇主不发高温补贴,雇员有权提出申诉,但他们很少这么做,担心导致不利后果,”协力管理咨询公司(Dezan Shira amp; Associates)的新闻通讯务China Briefing称。“有很多时候,雇员甚至不知道有这笔津贴”。Several people in Beijing who work on contract, or without any contract, laughed when asked whether they had received the subsidy, as temperatures soared this week.当被问及本周气温飙升期间是否拿到了补贴时,几名在北京工作的工人笑了起来,他们中有些签了合同,有些没有签。“Who gets that?!” asked one man, in a typical response.“有谁拿到了?!”有一个人问。这是很典型的反应。In the face of global warming and rising temperatures that are affecting human health and productivity worldwide, might the Chinese practice, which aims to protect people’s health, catch on? Could such subsidies become a cost of doing business in a hotter world?在世界各地,全球变暖和温度日益上升对人类健康和生产力产生了影响。既然如此,中国用高温补贴来保护大家健康的做法,会流行起来吗?当世界变得更热,这种补贴可能成为做生意的一种成本吗?While there is some public discussion in China about the long-term human or economic implications of global warming, in general the implications of rising heat are poorly studied, wrote Rui-Dan Chen, a scientist at Sun Yat-sen University in the southern city of Guangzhou, and Ri-Yu Lu at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, in a recent review of published material on extreme heat in the journal Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters. The authors defined extreme heat as temperatures that exceeded 95 degrees.虽然在中国,人们也对全球变暖对人类或经济的长期影响进行了一些公开讨论,但广州中山大学的科学家陈锐丹以及北京中国科学院的陆日宇近日在《大气和海洋科学快报》(Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters)上发表的一篇综述文章写道,总体而言,中国关于升温影响的研究非常少。他们把超过35摄氏度定义为极端高温,全面回顾了已经发表的关于这方面的文献。China, like everywhere else, is experiencing those rising temperatures and also rising deaths related to heat, the authors said, ing the World Meteorological Organization. During the decade ending in 2010, they said, 136,000 deaths were caused by heat waves, an increase of 2,300 percent over the 6,000 deaths recorded in the previous decade.作者引用世界气象组织 (World Meteorological Organization)的资料称,在中国,像在其他地方一样,气温不断上升,与高温有关的死亡案例也在增加。在截至2010年的十年中,有13.6万人因热浪死亡,而之前十年的这个数字为6000人,增幅达2300%。“Extreme heat events have become an important public concern,” the authors wrote. But far more attention is paid to “precipitation extremes,” they said, “possibly due to the long history of China as a traditional agricultural country.”作者写道,“极端高温事件逐渐成为公众关注的一个重要焦点。”但人们对“极端降水事件”的关注远远更多,他们说,“可能是因为中国是一个历史悠久的传统农业国。”China has a record of flooding along its rivers, especially in the center and south of the country, and leaders regularly appear at major floods to demonstrate support for rescue efforts.中国河流的洪涝灾害比较常见,尤其是在中心和南部地区。发生大洪水时领导人常常会出面,显示对救援工作的持。Despite the patchy enforcement of the regulations, the government appears to be trying to raise consciousness of the heat subsidies, not least among foreign employers who may need to pay them to their workers.尽管高温补贴的条例执行不力,政府似乎正在设法提高这方面的意识,尤其是针对可能需要向雇员付补贴的外国雇主。In an article in June in its “Learning Chinese” section, the state-run newspaper Global Times offered the following dialogue about the subsidies:官方报纸《环球时报》在“学汉语”栏目6月发表的一篇文章中,刊登了下面这段关于高温补贴的对话:“It’s way too hot today! Too bad, I still have to work,” “A” said.A:“今天太热了!可惜我还得上班。”“Don’t let it get you down,” “B” urged. “Workers that work during sweltering summer days have a right to a ‘high heat subsidy’!”B:“别闷闷不乐了,酷暑时期上班,可享受高温补贴哦!”The amounts vary across the country. Shanxi Province, in the north, offers 240 renminbi a month, while Guangdong, in the far south, provides a relatively low 150 renminbi, according to China News Service.地区不同,补贴的金额也不同。中国新闻网表示,在北部省份山西,高温补贴一个月有240元人民币,南部省份广东只有150元。Some provinces mandate complex calculations based on daily, or even hourly, rates and temperatures, an exercise that might cause anyone trying to figure it out to break into a sweat.一些省份根据温度和日薪、乃至时薪进行复杂的计算,任何人想要算清楚可能都会出一身汗。 /201607/454550

  It has only been a week since the stunning revelation that the Volkswagen group equipped millions of diesel-powered cars with software designed to fool anybody testing their emissions, and just days since the company’s chief executive, Martin Winterkorn, resigned.大众汽车(Volkswagen)在数百万辆柴油动力车上安装软件、以骗过车辆尾气排放检测系统的事情曝光(并震惊世界)才一周,而该公司首席执行官文德恩(Martin Winterkorn)辞职还不到一周。And yet there are reasons to believe that the fallout from this scandal will be as big as Enron, or even bigger. Most corporate scandals stem from negligence or the failure to come clean about corporate wrongdoing. Far fewer involve deliberate fraud and criminal intent.然而,我们已经有理由相信,这桩丑闻的后果将和安然(Enron)丑闻相同,或更大。大多数企业丑闻源于失职或者未能坦白企业的不当行为。涉及故意欺诈或者犯罪意图的丑闻要少得多。Enron’s accounting manipulation is often held up as a prime example of the latter and cases featuring the US energy company’s massive financial fraud are therefore taught in business schools around the world.安然的会计作假案常被作为后一种情况的主要案例,因此,全世界各地的商学院都在讲授有关这家美国能源企业大规模财务欺诈的案例。Here are seven reasons why the Volkswagen scandal is worse and could have far greater consequences.以下是大众丑闻为何比安然丑闻更为恶劣、影响可能远大于后者的七个原因。First, whereas Enron’s fraud wiped out the life savings of thousands, Volkswagen’s has endangered the health of millions. The high levels of nitrogen oxides and fine particulates that the cars’ on-board software hid from regulators are hazardous and detrimental to health, particularly of children and those suffering from respiratory disease.第一,尽管安然欺诈案让许多人的毕生积蓄化为乌有,大众的造假则危及更多人的健康。这些汽车上安装了一种能够不让监管机构发现汽车排放高浓度氮氧化物和细颗粒物的软件,这些有害物质会危害人的健康,尤其是儿童和呼吸道疾病患者。Second, led by Volkswagen, Europe’s car manufacturers lobbied hard for governments to promote the adoption of diesel engines as a way to reduce carbon emissions. Whereas diesel engines power fewer than 5 per cent of passenger cars in the US, where regulators uncovered the fraud, they constitute more than 50 per cent of the market in Europe thanks in large part to generous government incentives.第二,以大众为首的欧洲汽车制造商曾努力向许多政府游说,希望政府推进柴油发动机的采用,作为减少碳排放的手段。尽管在监管机构发现了大众尾气造假行为的美国,只有不到5%的乘用车采用柴油发动机,但在欧洲市场,这个比例超过了50%,主要原因是政府慷慨的激励措施。It was bad enough that Enron’s chief executive urged employees to buy the company’s stock. This, however, is the equivalent of the US government offering tax breaks at Enron’s behest to get half of US households to buy stock propped up by fraudulent accounting.当年安然首席执行官敦促其员工购买安然股票的事情已经够恶劣了。然而,欧洲的柴油车激励措施相当于美国政府应安然要求提供税收优惠,让半数美国家庭购买了靠假账撑起来的股票。Third, the fines and lawsuits facing Volkswagen are likely to surpass Enron in both scale and scope. Volkswagen’s potential liability to Environmental Protection Agency fines is bn. Add to this fines in most or all of the 50 US states and class action lawsuits by buyers and car dealers who have seen the value of their cars and franchises diminish overnight and you have a massive legal bill.第三,大众面临的罚款和官司在规模和范围上都可能超过安然。大众可能面临美国国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency) 180亿美元的罚款。再加上美国50个州中大多数或全部州的罚款,以及因大众汽车及其特许经营权的价值一夜间缩水而吃亏的汽车购买者和经销商发起的集体诉讼,大众将面临一笔庞大的法律费用。No jury in the US will be lenient with a foreign car company that touted its “clean diesel” technology when the technology on board instead served to hide the fact that particulate emissions were up to 40 times greater. And that is before expert testimony about the effects on children with asthma. Yet crucially, fewer than 5 per cent of the cars in question were sold in the US and regulators in Europe, South Korea and elsewhere have aly launched investigations. This is a truly global fraud and global scandal.当一家外国汽车公司鼓吹其“清洁柴油”技术,而车辆实际装载的技术其实是隐瞒了车辆颗粒物排放量最多可比法定上限高出40倍的时候,没有哪个美国陪审团会心慈手软。这还是在专家们就这对哮喘病患儿的影响作之前。更关键的是,在美国卖出的涉事车辆占这些车辆总数的比例还不到5%,欧洲、韩国和其他地方的监管机构已经着手调查。这是一场货真价实的全球性欺诈和全球性丑闻。Fourth, Enron was wiped out when the revelation of its accounting fraud showed the company had been suffering massive losses. Volkswagen could get wiped out even though the company is financially healthy. The stock collapse is only the beginning. Potentially irreparable reputational damage, a crisis of confidence and massive legal liabilities could do the company in.第四,当安然的会计造假曝光,该公司此前一直巨亏的事实暴露后,安然就倒掉了。大众也可能倒掉,就算其财务状况是健康的。股价暴跌仅仅是开始。可能无法挽回的名誉损失、信任危机和巨大的法律责任可能让这家公司走到寿命终点。And whereas Enron was a young, though admittedly admired company, Volkswagen is the 78-year-old centrepiece of Germany’s most important industry.尽管安然可以说曾经是一家受到尊敬的企业,但其历史并不长,而大众却拥有78年历史,并且是德国最重要的汽车行业的标志。Fifth, because of Volkswagen’s central role in Germany’s automobile industry, the scandal is a devastating blow to the country’s global image. For years, Mercedes, BMW, Audi and Volkswagen have used German slogans and tag lines in their English-speaking advertising to link their products to the country’s engineering prowess. Expect to see “Das Auto” and “Vorsprung durch Technik” to be wiped off billboards as fast as value has been wiped off German car manufacturers’ market caps.第五,由于大众在德国汽车业中的核心地位,大众丑闻是对德国国际形象的毁灭性打击。多年来,梅赛德斯(Mercedes)、宝马(BMW)、奥迪(Audi)、大众都在英语广告中使用过德语口号和标语,将它们的产品和德国的制造业实力联系起来。可以预见,随着德国汽车制造商的市值迅速蒸发,“Das Auto”(大众的品牌口号,“车之道,唯大众”)和“Vorsprung durch Technik”(奥迪的品牌口号,“突破科技,启迪未来”)这样的标语也将同样迅速地从广告牌上消失。It was fairly easy for most US companies to distance themselves from Enron’s fraud. It will be much harder for the rest of German industry.对多数美国企业来说,与安然欺诈案划清界线相当容易。而对德国制造业其他企业来说,与大众造假案划清界线将要困难得多。Sixth, even if it turns out that other European and Asian car manufacturers who have invested heavily in diesel technology did not commit such brazen fraud, the scandal will probably reestablish the perception of diesel engines as dirty after two decades of concerted effort to change that view.第六,即便事后明,在柴油技术上投入重金的其他欧亚汽车制造商并未实施这种无耻欺诈,该丑闻仍可能令人们重新建立起柴油发动机污染环境的印象,而这种看法是此前二十年业内曾一致努力改变的。This will not only put hundreds of thousands of jobs at risk, but also deprive policymakers of a tool they counted on to reduce carbon emissions. In the long run, the impetus to develop even cleaner alternatives may be good but in the short run it is a massive problem for Europe in particular.这种状况不仅会令数十万工作岗位面临裁撤风险,还令决策者手中少了一个能用以降低碳排放的工具。从长期来说,由此激励人们开发更清洁的替代手段,可能是件好事;但从短期来说,这是个大问题,尤其是对欧洲。Seventh, and perhaps most importantly, whereas Enron tainted the accounting profession’s mantra of trustworthy financial reporting, Volkswagen’s fraud will for a long time confront anybody advocating technology and engineering as a means to achieving greater environmental sustainability.第七点——或许也是最重要的一点是,安然玷污了会计专业人士常说的一句话,即财务报告可以信赖,而大众欺诈案则会在很长一段时期内,成为任何提倡以技术和工程为手段,提高环境可持续性的人们不得不正视的问题。“Clean diesel”, it turns out, is as much a lie as “clean coal”. Volkswagen’s abhorrent behaviour therefore threatens to delegitimise the countless and essential efforts by companies around the world to develop scalable environmental solutions.该事件明“清洁柴油”是个和“清洁煤炭”差不多的谎言。出于这个原因,大众令人反感的行为,可能会令世界各地企业开发可伸缩环境解决方案的无数必要努力丧失合法性。Herein lies perhaps the biggest tragedy in this whole affair: Volkswagen has emboldened the cynics at a time when we need business efforts to save the planet more than ever.这里也许还蕴含着整个事件中的最大悲剧:在我们前所未有地需要企业界付出努力拯救地球之际,大众却让那些不相信企业界可以为拯救地球作出贡献的人更加坚信自己的观点。 /201510/401932

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