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2019年12月12日 07:18:42 | 作者:快乐网 | 来源:新华社
Never a happy topic, bed wetting is a very distressing problemfor five to seven million American kids.尿床可是个不愉快的话题。尿床困扰着500万至700万名美国儿童。If we cant explain whysome people like to pick on these kids, can we at least shedsome light on what causes bed wetting?如果我们无法解释为什么偏偏这些儿童尿床,那么我们至少探究下尿床的原因吧!At one time, people punished bed-wetters for acting badly, but today scientists believe that thiscondition has several physical causes.以前,经常尿床的儿童会被罚。但是,如今科学家相信尿床是基于生理因素。Some kids suffer from problems like infections or anatomical defects that can be easily identified and treated.一些儿童患常见可治愈传染病或结构缺陷。Other causes are harder to pin down.其它原因就很难下定论了。One promising area of research is on the kidney hormoneADH.有种可行性研究的方向是肾脏激素:抗利尿激素。We all produce more ADHhormone at night.夜晚人体分泌的抗利尿激素较多。ADH signals the kidney toslow down production.抗利尿激素向肾脏发出减慢新陈代谢的信号。This is why we dont go to the bathroom for eight hours at night but couldnever last that long between bathroom breaks during the day.这是为什么我们夜晚八小时不上厕所,但是白天上厕所的间隔时间却更短。Some children who wet their bedsdo not produce enough ADH at night.一些儿童尿床是因为夜晚没有分泌足够的抗利尿激素。When given drugs that boost this hormone, they stopbed wetting.用药物促进抗利尿激素分泌就可以治疗儿童尿床。Finally, some kids simply have small bladders and an undeveloped nervous system.另外,有些儿童尿床仅仅是因为膀胱小且神经系统发育不完善。The goodnews is that these kids, like most bedwetters, will grow out of it as their bodies develop andmature.可喜的是随着身体机能的发育和成熟,大多数尿床儿童不再尿床。 201409/324974Fine-wine fraud伪造的美酒Chateau Lafake法国酒庄拉法克红酒The fine-wine boom is attracting forgers美酒追捧热潮催生造假者Taste is a delicate thing味觉一种微妙的东西WINE buffs are like art collectors.葡萄酒爱好者与艺术品收藏者相同,Few can tell the difference between a well-made fake and the real thing.他们中很少人能分清真品与制作精良的赝品有什么区别。Yet whereas counterfeit art has been around for centuries, wine forgery is relatively new.但艺术品伪造已经有几百年历史了,酒类伪造却还只是近几十年的事。It started in the late 1970s when the prices of the best wines—especially those from Bordeaux—shot up.20世纪70年代末期,由于精品美酒尤其来自法国波尔多的葡萄酒价格飙升,名酒伪造应运而生。Today, with demand from China fuelling a remarkable boom, counterfeiting is rife.现在,中国对尊贵名酒的需求推动了名酒市场的繁荣,假冒伪劣酒也开始盛行。By some estimates 5% of fine wines sold at auction or on the secondary market are not what they claim to be on the label.据估计,拍卖会或二级市场出售的美酒有5%货不对板。The simplest technique is to slap the label of a 1982 Chateau Lafite onto a bottle of 1975 Lafite.伪造名酒最简单的方法是将1982年产法国酒庄拉法克红酒的标签贴到1975年产的红酒空瓶上。Another trick is to bribe the sommelier of a fancy restaurant to pass on empty bottles that once held expensive wine, along with the corks.另一个伎俩是贿赂高级餐厅的调酒师,将盛装过昂贵名酒的空瓶和瓶塞一起拿到手,These can be refilled with cheaper wine, recorked and resealed.然后将空瓶重新灌装廉价酒,重新装塞,重新密封就完成了造假过程。Empty Lafite and Latour bottles are sold on eBay for several hundred euros.在eBay网上,Lafite和Latour红酒的空瓶通常价值几百欧元。The margins are fruity.酒类伪造有可观的利润。A great wine may cost hundreds of times more than a merely excellent one.一瓶尊贵名酒的价格可能比一瓶单纯的优质酒贵上几百倍。Small wonder that oenophiles are growing more vigilant.难怪鉴酒专家们越来越趋于谨慎。Bill Koch, an energy tycoon and avid wine collector, currently has five lawsuits pending against merchants, auctioneers and other collectors.能源巨头比尔.科赫热衷于名酒收藏,他近来提起5宗涉及酒类的法律诉讼,分别状告酒商,拍卖师和其余酒类收藏家,案件至今未有裁决。His grape-related gripes began in 2006, when he filed a complaint against a German wine dealer who sold bottles of Lafite he claimed had once belonged to Thomas Jefferson.科赫先生对买红酒的抱怨始于2006年,当时他从一名德国酒商手中购买了很多据称是托马斯杰斐逊收藏过的红酒,后来发现有假而投诉了这名德国酒商,The case is unresolved.案子至今未果。There is a code of silence in the industry, says Mr Koch, who owns 43,000 bottles of wine and estimates that he has spent 4m-5m on fakes.科赫先生说:业界存在着一套潜规则,即买到假酒也要毫不声张。 他拥有43000瓶上好葡萄酒,但用于购买假酒的钱估计也在4-5百万美元左右。Some collectors are too proud to admit that they have been duped.有些收藏者觉得承认被骗不是件光的事。Others fear sullying a vintages reputation and thereby reducing the value of their own collections.另一些则担心玷污了葡萄酒的声誉会降低自己拥有葡萄酒的收藏价值。So instead of speaking out, they dump their fakes into auctions or sell them to other private collectors, says Mr Koch.因此他们不会将事情张扬,而是;将假酒转手到拍卖会或出售给其它私人收藏者;,科赫先生如是说。Wine merchants and auction houses say they are doing everything they can to filter out the fakes.酒商及拍卖行表示他们正尽一切所能筛选出假货。Simon Berry, the chairman of Berry Brothers amp; Rudd, a British wine merchant, says his firm never buys wines from before 2000 unless they come from its own cellars.英国酒商贝瑞兄弟与陆克文主席西蒙贝里称他的公司从来不购买2000年以前的葡萄酒,除非它们真的来自出产的酒窖。Christies, an auctioneer, says all the wines it auctions are inspected three times by different people, using detailed checklists for condition and authenticity.拍卖商佳士得称,它拍卖的所有名酒都要经过不同人反复检验三次,对他们出具的葡萄酒情况和真实度详单逐一对比验。Fear of fakery has not stopped the boom.对伪造名酒的担忧并没有阻止名酒的市场繁荣。But the wines that win the best prices at auction are those whose provenance is certain.在拍卖会上竞得高价的名酒其来源也是真实可靠的。In May, Christies sold an impériale of 1961 Latour for 6,000 in Hong Kong.五月份,佳士得在香港以21.6万美元拍售了一瓶1961产的impériale葡萄酒,It came directly from the cellars of Chateau Latour.它直接来自于产地Chateau Latour的酒窖。 /201305/241376

Businesee商业报道AHAB and Maan al-Sanea曼恩·阿尔萨尼亚 Clash of the Saudi titans沙特巨头冲突The contours of a Saudi financial scandal become clearer沙特财务丑闻真相日显AT THE weekend, many Saudis speed across the 28km causeway joining their country to the more relaxed kingdom of Bahrain to enjoy a drink, a film,每逢周末,许多沙特阿拉伯人穿过连接沙特阿拉伯和巴林王国的28公里堤道,去享受巴林更为悠闲的生活,譬如喝喝饮料、看看电影、or a pair of beautiful legs, as one Bahraini delicately puts it.赏赏美腿,一名巴林人这样细致描绘道。Sometimes, in their eagerness, they crash over the rails.但有时由于太过热切,就会在轨道上相撞。The financial traffic between the two countries also produced a terrible wreck last year—one of the worst in the history of banking in the Gulf.去年,两国之间的金融交通也发生了严重破坏,这是波斯湾业历史上最为严重的一次。In May The International Banking Corporation, a Bahrain bank owned by a venerable Saudi merchant family, the Gosaibis, defaulted on its obligations.年5月,可敬的萨特商业家族Gosaibis所拥有的巴林国际公司出现债务违约。The default was an early sign that its parent, the Ahmad Hamad Algosaibi amp; Brothers Group, was in financial trouble.这也是其母公司艾哈迈德·哈马德·阿尔戈萨伊及兄弟公司陷入财务困难的早期迹象。In the legal disputes that followed, AHAB alleged it was the victim of a spectacular billion fraud, orchestrated by Maan Al-Sanea,在随后的法律纠纷中,AHAB宣称其是沙特亿万富翁萨尼亚精心策划的90亿美元巨额欺诈案的受害者,a Saudi billionaire married to the daughter of one of the groups founders.萨尼亚还娶了一名集团创始人的女儿。Mr Sanea, they alleged, enjoyed complete control of their financial businesses, raising money in their name from as many as 118 banks.AHAB创始人宣称萨尼亚完全控制了集团金融业务,还以他们的名义从118家筹资。He siphoned billions out of the group, they claim, to entities he controlled.他从集团抽取数十亿美元到他自己控制的企业。Mr Sanea denies any wrongdoing, and insists that although he used to be involved in the running of AHAB, he has not been for many years.但萨尼亚否认做过任何违规行为,并坚持他虽过去参与过运营AHAB,但已退出多年。The court battles surrounding TIs collapse hinge on this row about the extent and nature of Mr Saneas role—something that recent court filings and TIs former boss have shed some light on.围绕TI倒闭的法庭纷争关键在于对萨尼亚的角色的范围和性质的争论,即是最近法庭备案和TI前CEO已清楚阐明的一些事情。The subject is urgent, as AHABs creditors are closing in.当AHAB的债权人们步步紧逼时,这一主题也变得相当迫切。On June 16th TIs administrators, Trowers amp; Hamlins, who are running the bankrupt firm on behalf of its creditors,6月16日,Trowers和Hamlins代表债权人运行这一破产公司,filed a 0m claim against AHAB in Saudi Arabia, the first of a series of proceedings that they hope will recover .2 billion from the group.他们对萨特阿拉伯AHAB发起了一项7.2亿美元的索赔,开始了向该公司索赔32亿美元的一系列诉讼。Others are pursuing the Gosaibis in Bahrain, London, New York and elsewhere.巴林、伦敦、纽约和其它地区的Gosaibis也正在受到起诉。Saudi Arabias king has formed a 12-member committee to resolve the dispute, and Bahrains public prosecutor is questioning executives from time to time.沙特国王已组成了一个由12人组成的委员会来解决这一纠纷,巴林的公诉人也不时对高官们进行质询。One of them was Glenn Stewart, the chief executive of TI until its collapse.格林·斯图尔特就是其中一员,他在TI倒闭之前任该公司的首席执行官。Mr Stewart recently escaped from Bahrain to America, eluding a travel ban.斯图尔特最近避过了一项旅游禁令,从巴林逃到了美国。In a complaint to the ed Nations Human Rights Council, Mr Stewart says that he was caught in the middle of a Clash of the Titans, between the Gosaibis and Mr Sanea.斯图尔特向联合国人权理事会提出了投诉,称自己被夹在两大巨头-Gosaibis和萨尼亚-的冲突中,进退两难。As boss of TI, Mr Stewart says he took instructions from Mr Sanea because he believed that the Gosaibis had given Mr Sanea full power of attorney to act on their behalf.斯图尔特称作为公司CEO他接受萨尼亚的指示,因为他认为Gosaibis已全权授命萨尼亚代表其行事。Mr Sanea had indeed been given power of attorney to run one of AHABs financial divisions, the Money Exchange, in 1983.1983年,阿尔巴尼亚确实被授权运营AHAB金融分-货币交易所。But that was revoked in the 1990s, he says, and a narrower authority to sign documents on a case-by-case basis lapsed in 2003.但他说这在90年代就取消了,一项根据具体情况签署文件的较为狭义的授权也于2003年被取消。In 2005 Mr Sanea resigned from the board of TI and other AHAB financial businesses, citing too many pressures on my time.2005年,萨尼亚以闲暇时间的压力太大为由,辞去了在TI董事会以及其它AHAB业务上的职位。After TIs default, he issued a statement saying he was not involved in the operations of AHAB in any way,在TI违约事件后,他发表了一项声明,称自己并未以任何方式参与AHAB的运营。although his spokesman now refuses to confirm or deny whether he had any continuing power of attorney related to AHAB.但对萨尼亚是否具有任何与AHAB相关的代理权,其发言人目前还拒绝表示确认或否认。He also claims the Saudi committee has found no evidence of wrongdoing.萨尼亚还称沙特委员会并未发现任何违规据。The Gosaibis, in a lawsuit against Mr Sanea in the Cayman Islands, say he exercised complete managerial control of the business of Money Exchange, with the full trust and confidence of AHAB.在开曼群岛Gosaibis对萨尼亚发起一项法律诉讼,称他在AHAB的充分信任下,实施了对货币交易所的完全经营控制。They allege that Mr Sanea abused their trust, concealing his borrowings from them and forging documents bearing the signature of Sulaiman al-Gosaibi, one of the founders of the group.他们指控萨尼亚滥用了他们的信任,对他们隐瞒借款,伪造有Sulaiman al-Gosaibi签名的文件。Sulaiman是集团创始人之一。The Gosaibis point out that TIs financial statements were purportedly signed by Sulaiman shortly before his death in ,他指出,据称TI的财务报表是在Sulaiman年去世前签过字的,when he was in a coma in Zurich.但当时他在苏黎世,还处于昏迷中。A guarantee to a creditor was supposedly signed in 2000 by Sulaimans brother, Abdulaziz, after a stroke left him unable to hold a pen.而一项债权人担保也据推测是由Sulaiman的兄弟Abudulaziz签署的,而此前他在中风过后连只笔也拿不了。They say that Audrey Giles, a forensic scientist in London, has cast doubt on hundreds of Sulaimans signatures, finding that many were too perfect a match to one another to be true.他们称伦敦法科学家奥德利·贾尔斯对数百个Sulaiman的签名产生了怀疑,发现许多签名相互之间匹配得太过完美,不像是真的。Three of the documents she examined were the subject of a hearing last month in Bahrain, where Bank Muscat International of Oman is demanding m from AHAB.她检查的其中三份文件就是上月在巴林举行的一场听会的主题,当时阿曼马斯喀特国际要求AHAB偿还2500万美元。The tribunal ruled that they were not forged.但法庭判决这些文件并非伪造。But the ruling does not necessarily contradict Ms Giless findings, since it merely concluded that the three documents were not among those she found to be forged.但这不一定与贾尔斯女士的发现相抵触,因为裁决仅仅推断这三份文件不在她发现是伪造的文件之列。Mr Stewarts claims raise one further question about this murky affair.斯图尔特的声明引发了对此模糊事件的另一个疑问。Why did he consent to be the boss of a bank he did not run?他为什么会同意担任一家未由自己运营的的CEO呢?You are nothing more than a glorified servant, he admits.斯图尔特承认你只不过是一个被美化的仆从罢了。Wasnt that a waste of his talents?但这岂不是对他才能的一种浪费。Mr Stewart, who studied Islamic history and Arabic at Oxford, says that after his long years in the Gulf he would find it hard to adjust to Western corporate culture.斯图尔特曾在牛津学习伊斯兰历史和阿拉伯语,他宣称在波斯湾生活多年后,将发现很难适应西方企业文化。He is fascinated by the turbulence and anarchy of the Arab world, he says,他称,自己深深着迷于阿拉伯世界的动乱和无政府状态,although he is now bearing the consequences of that ill-discipline.尽管现在承受着不良纪律造成的后果。 /201305/241754

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