2019年10月18日 10:40:26|来源:国际在线|编辑:中国咨询
TED演讲视频:珍惜想象力当用于展览的绘画展品丢失后,珍妮特·艾克曼不得不寻找非正统的新艺术材料来代替,也因而找到了她真正的艺术心声。现在,她塑造的作品站在科技前沿,有建筑般大小,且能随风波动。在这里,她用10分钟来传播真正创造力。201704/504181Severe bleeding, known as postpartum hemorrhage, or PPH, is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide,严重出血,即产后大出血或PPH,是全世界产妇死亡的主要原因,killing more than 100,000 women every year.每年都有10万多名妇女因此离开人世。For those who survive, it is a painful and traumatic experience.而对于那些幸存下来的人来说,这段经历真是让她们痛苦不堪。;I was bleeding, they were inciting something in me, even I was dying, they should give me blood.“我当时一直在流血。他们却还在刺激我。就算是我马上就要死了,他们也应该给我输血不是么。Now I want to die, cant live, I want to die, please let me…;现在我一心只想要死,真的活不成了。我想死。求求你们让我死吧……”The worlds poorest countries, are the worst hit, especially in Africa and the Indian sub-continent.世界上最贫穷的国家也是受影响最为严重的国家,尤其是在非洲和印度次大陆。But there is new hope the death can be significantly reduced.但如今我们又有了新的希望,因产后出血导致的死亡有望大幅减少。In the 1960s, Japanese researchers developed a drug called tranexamic acid, which works by stopping blood clots from breaking down.20世纪60年代,日本的研究人员开发出了一种叫做氨甲环酸的药物,通过阻止血块分解以达到治疗的作用。But they could not persuade doctors to carry out the trial of the drug for treating postpartum hemorrhage.但是他们却没能说医生对该药物进行试验,以治疗产后出血。The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine has done just that, in a trial involving 20,000 women in 21 countries.然而伦敦卫生和热带医学学院却着手进行了这个试验,试验范围包括21个国家的2万名妇女。;And the really good news is it reduces the risk of bleeding by about a third.;“而真正的好消息是,它可以将出血的风险降低三分之一。”The research has found no side effects for either mothers or babies.研究发现该药物对母亲和婴儿都没有任何副作用。They want it rapidly rolled out as a frontline treatment for PPH across the world.因而学院研究人员希望能够将其作为全球PPH一线治疗方法尽快推出。If a drug can prevent hysterectomies, a drug can prevent death, a drug can minimize the amount of blood we need to give,“如果有一种药物可以帮助女性免遭子宫切除,预防死亡,还可以最大限度地减少我们所需要提供的血量,then that is a good thing, all over the world.;那么这对于全世界都是一件非常好的事情。”But there are challenges to getting the drug where it is needed, first, the doctors must know about it.但是要想把该药物带到有需要的地方去也面临重重挑战。首先,医生们必须对其了如指掌。We want everyone to hear about the results, but then, we actually, you know, there are the nitty-gritty issues.“我们希望所有人都能够知悉结果。但实际上,如今还有许多本质上的东西亟待解决。Is the treatment available in the hospital? Do doctors and midwives know how to use it?比如医院里能否能用上这种治疗方法?医生和助产士是否知道使用方法?Its heat stable, so it does not have to be kept in the fridge.氨甲环酸耐热,所以无需再冰箱中保存。Its relatively inexpensive—you know, its about a dollar.而且它相对还是比较便宜的,才一美元。And no child should grow up without a mother for lack of a treatment that costs a dollar.;所有母亲都不应该因为得不到仅需一美元的治疗方法,而缺席孩子的一生。”In the trial, tranexamic acid was given via a drip.在试验当中,氨甲环酸是通过滴注方法使用的。Researchers say the next step is to find an easier way to administer the drug so it can be used in clinics and rural settings around the world.研究人员称,他们下一步要找到一种更简单的用药方法,以便世界各地的诊所和农村地区使用。Henry Ridgwell, for VOA news, London.VOA新闻,亨利·里奇维尔于伦敦为您播报。201706/513118Imagine youre at a football game when this obnoxious guy sits next to you.想象你在一场足球赛中,这个讨厌鬼坐在你的旁边。Hes loud, he spills his drink on you, and he makes fun of your team.他大吵大叫,把饮料溅到你身上,并且还嘲笑你持的足球队。Days later, youre walking in the park when suddenly it starts to pour rain.几天之后,当你正在公园散步,突然下起大雨。Who should show up at your side to offer you an umbrella?此时谁会出现在你身边为你遮雨?The same guy from the football game.恰巧就是足球赛上你旁边的那个人。Do you change your mind about him based on this second encounter, or do you go with your first impression and write him off?此时你对他的看法会因为第二次相遇而改变,还是会坚持对他的第一印象继续讨厌他?Research in social psychology suggests that were quick to form lasting impressions of others based on their behaviors.社会心理学专家认为我们会基于别人的行为作出永久的印象评价。We manage to do this with little effort, inferring stable character traits from a single behavior, like a harsh word or a clumsy step.我们为此无需付出太多努力,通过单一的行为作出对他人稳定性格的判断。比如一句伤人的话,或者笨拙的步伐。Using our impressions as guides, we can accurately predict how people are going to behave in the future.凭借主观印象,我们能准确预测他人将会发生的行为。Armed with the knowledge the guy from the football game was a jerk the first time you met him,由于把足球赛中第一次遇见的那个人定义为混蛋,you might expect more of the same down the road.你可能会预想他会做出更多混蛋事。If so, you might choose to avoid him the next time you see him.如果是这样,下次遇见的时候你可能会选择躲着他。That said, we can change our impressions in light of new information.基于这样的理论,通过新的信息我们可以改变自己的刻板印象。Behavioral researchers have identified consistent patterns that seem to guide this process of impression updating.行为研究者发现了引导印象更新过程的固定模式。On one hand, learning very negative, highly immoral information about someone typically一方面,对一个人的负面评价所带来的影响has a stronger impact than learning very positive, highly moral information.要高于对一个人的正面评价所带来的影响。So, unfortunately for our new friend from the football game,所以,很不幸对在足球赛中认识的那位新朋友来说,his bad behavior at the game might outweigh his good behavior at the park.他在观众席上不道德的行为带来的影响会大于他在公园里的友善行为。Research suggests that this bias occurs because immoral behaviors are more diagnostic, or revealing, of a persons true character.研究表明,这种偏见产生的原因在于负面行为更容易识别,或者说让一个人的真实性格更有呈现力。Okay, so by this logic, bad is always stronger than good when it comes to updating.根据这种思维逻辑,在涉及到信息更新时,坏行为的影响力要大于好行为。Well, not necessarily.这一理论不一定完全适用。Certain types of learning dont seem to lead to this sort of negativity bias.某些认知方式不会导致这种负面的偏见。When learning about another persons abilities and competencies, for instance, this bias flips.当了解到某人的能力时,以此为例,这种偏见就跳开了。Its actually the positive information that gets weighted more heavily.实际上,积极信息的影响力变得更大了。Lets go back to that football game.让我们再谈回足球赛的事。If a player scores a goal, it ultimately has a stronger impact on your impression of their skills than if they miss the net.一个球员踢进球在你对他技术的印象上比他们丢了球影响力更大。The two sides of the updating story are ultimately quite consistent.两方面的信息更新最终相当一致。Overall, behaviors that are perceived as being less frequent are also the ones总的来说,在人们建立或更新印象时that people tend to weigh more heavily when forming and updating impressions, highly immoral actions and highly competent actions.越是少见的行为人们越容易看得更重,比如,非常不道德的行为和能体现能力的行为。So, whats happening at the level of the brain when were updating our impressions?所以,在我们刷新印象时大脑里发生了什么呢?Using fMRI, or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging,利用fMRI--功能性磁共振成像researchers have identified an extended network of brain regions that respond to new information thats inconsistent with initial impressions.研究者发现,回应新信息的新扩展出的脑区网络同最初的印象并无关联。These include areas typically associated with social cognition, attention, and cognitive control.这些区域尤其同社会认知、注意力以及认知控制相关。Moreover, when updating impressions based on peoples behaviors,再者,当别人的行为刷新了印象,activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the superior temporal sulcus correlates with perceptions of how frequently those behaviors occur in daily life.腹内侧前额叶皮层的活动和颞上沟告诉我们这些行为在日常生活中是否频繁。In other words, the brain seems to be tracking low-level, statistical properties of behavior换言之,大脑似乎在进行低水平的行为统计in order to make complex decisions regarding other peoples character.以此来做出关于别人品行如何的复杂的决定。It needs to decide is this persons behavior typical or is it out of the ordinary?大脑需要判断这个人的行为是十分典型还是与众不同。In the situation with the obnoxious-football-fan-turned-good-samaritan, your brain says,在这个烦人的球迷变成好人的情境下,你的大脑告诉你“;Well, in my experience, pretty much anyone would lend someone their umbrella,依据往常经验,通常大部分人都会为别人遮雨,but the way this guy acted at the football game, that was unusual.;但这家伙在球赛时的举动可不多见。”And so, you decide to go with your first impression.所以,你决定遵从自己的第一印象。Theres a good moral in this data: your brain, and by extension you,这个信息里存在良好的道德:你的大脑,或者说你本人might care more about the very negative, immoral things another person has done compared to the very positive, moral things,也许更关注别人做出的负面的、不道德的事而不是积极的、有道德的事,but its a direct result of the comparative rarity of those bad behaviors.但这是那些罕见的坏行为带来的直接结果。Were more used to people being basically good, like taking time to help a stranger in need.我们习惯上认为人大体上是好的,乐于花时间帮助别人。In this context, bad might be stronger than good, but only because good is more plentiful.在这样的背景下,坏影响就远多于好的,但这只是因为好事更常见。Think about the last time you judged someone based on their behavior,回想一下你上次根据一个人的所作所为来评价一个人,especially a time when you really feel like you changed your mind about someone.尤其是在你真的想要改变对某人的看法时。Was the behavior that caused you to update your impression something youd expect anyone to do,那个引发你改变对方印象的行为,是每个人都会做的事,or was it something totally out of the ordinary?还是不同寻常的事?201707/516898

Too often young Somali-Americans in Minnesota have made headlines for all the wrong reasons:年轻一代的索马里裔美国人经常会成为新闻头条,而每次几乎都是因为下面这些错误的原因:a small number have fallen prey to the lure of drugs, gangs and extremist ideology.少数人沦为毒品、黑帮和极端主义意识形态的牺牲品。But youth organizations in the state are trying to challenge all that.但如今美国各青年组织正在设法挑战这一切。A group of 12 youth basketball organizations representing mosques around the Twin Cities held a tournament12个青年篮球组织代表双城的清真寺举办了一场锦标赛,where young people were given the chance to build athletic skills and gain self-esteem.从而使年轻人有机会培养运动技能,赢得自尊心。One of the players from the al-Rawda team, representing one of the mosques and won the tournament,同样代表清真寺出战的al-Rawda队在本次比赛中获得了胜利,explained why it was so important.一名队员向我们解释了获胜的重要性。Today we have succeeded in winning the cup after beating the finalist Umatul-Islam club.“今天在击败决赛选手Umatul-Islam俱乐部之后,我们获得了奖杯。We had worked very hard for this and we are so excited about it.;为了这个奖杯我们付出了很多努力,所以现在非常兴奋。”Minnesota is home to the largest Somali community in the U.S.,明尼苏达州是美国最大的索马里社区所在地,with more than 20,000 (people) living in the state out of a total of 80,000 across the country.全国总共有8万索马里人,其中有2万都生活在明尼苏达。According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), about a dozen people have joined militant groups in Syria in recent years根据联邦调查局的报道,近年来,大约有十几人加入了叙利亚武装组织,and about 22 men have been lured to join al-Shabab in Somalia dating back to 2007.从2007年开始,大约已经有22名男子被引诱加入索马里青年党。Most recently, nine Somali-American men were accused of plotting to join ISIS,最近又有9名索马里裔美国男子被控密谋加入ISIS,a Minnesota federal court handed them jail sentences.明尼苏达联邦法院已经对这些人处以监禁的惩罚。Programs like the basketball tournament are geared toward providing extracurricular activities to fend off negative influences.之所以举办像篮球锦标赛这一类的活动,是为了提供多样的课外活动,从而抵御负面影响。A local organization behind the tournament, ;For the Youth, by the Youth,;持举办本次比赛的一个当地组织“青年享,青年治”表示,says the impact of the competition is felt far beyond the basketball courts.比赛的影响远远超出了篮球场。;The reason we start this proram is when we saw what the youth are going through“我们之所以开展这个项目,是因为目睹了年轻人的遭遇,and how they were involved with gang fights among themselves, when we saw how they are suspected or labeled as extremists,亲眼看到了他们是怎么参与到帮派之间的斗争中,还眼睁睁地看着他们被怀疑,被贴上恐怖主义分子的标签,we started to bring them together in order to prevent them from getting involved with drugs.于是我们开始把他们召集到一起,防止他们参与到吸毒事件当中去。We found a place where they can stay fit and stay busy and avoid negative influences.;最终我们找到了一个地方,这里不仅可以让他们保持健康,还能保持忙碌的状态,避免产生那些负面的影响。”One of the players, Abdullahi Bare, agrees that sport can be a unifying force for good.阿卜杜拉·拜尔也是球员之一,他表示,运动永远都是一股凝聚人心的力量。This kind of tournament brings us together as brothers.“这种比赛让我们相聚在一起,我们就像是兄弟一样,We come together and when we finish the games we eat together and communicate as well.;来时一起来,比赛结束之后会一起吃饭,也会相互交流。”The basketball tournament is an annual event in Minnesota that has been going on for three years.作为明尼苏达州一年一度的活动,篮球锦标赛如今已经走过了三个年头。For Abdi H. Mahamud, Salem Solomon, VOA news.VOA新闻,阿布迪·H·马阿穆德,塞勒姆·所罗门为您播报。201706/515740

Hi Im Chetna, I love making Indian food.大家好我是凯特纳,我超喜欢制作印度食物。And today with Hotpoint, Im gonna show you the ultimate veggie curry.今天让我们用“Hotpoint”来制作极品素食咖喱。This is inspired by Chole which comes from Punjab, the north of India.印度北部旁遮普邦有一道传统菜名叫“Chole”,这道素食咖喱就是受到了它的启发。And its packed full of spices, ginger, garlic, coriander, chili with lots of fresh vegetables.这道菜有香料、姜、蒜、香菜、红辣椒以及许多新鲜蔬菜。My mum who still lives in India makes this very often.我妈妈现在住在印度,她经常做这道菜。She is an amazing cook,她做了一手好菜,and it reminds me of cooking with her and sitting down to have this meal together with my family.它让我想起了和她一起做饭,同家人一同享用这道菜的场景。It brings back so many memories.这让我回忆起了许多往事。Im using Hotpoint gas hob which gives me great control on the temperature.今天我们使用的是“Hotpoint”燃气灶,它能够更好地控制温度。Add 2 tablespoons of oil. Keep the temperature medium-high heat.首先加入两勺食用油,保持在中火就可以了。Add 1 teaspoon of cumin seeds, the whole chili.加入一勺小茴香子,将盘中所有红辣椒倒入。And Im keeping the seeds in because I want it nice and spicy.加入小茴香子的原因是让它更加入味,更加香辣。Now onions. That chili is hot. I can feel it.之后是洋葱,红辣椒真辣,我都已经感觉到了。Cook this for 10 to 15 minutes until I get golden brown color.之后翻炒10-15分钟,炒到金黄色就可以了。And they are the perfect color. Weve cooked it slowly.现在翻炒出来的颜色非常好,我们采用的是小火慢炒的方式。Grate ginger and garlic, into the onions now. Beautiful!把姜蒜倒入锅中,与洋葱一起翻炒,很漂亮!One thing my mum always says is do not rush,我妈妈总会强调不要着急,because this is going to give you that ultimate flavor in the curry.咖喱在小火慢炒下,味道将是无与伦比的。Add 2 tomatoes to this. Turn up the heat to medium now and cook this for 10 minutes.将切好的两个西红柿倒入锅中,开中火翻炒,翻炒10分钟。Add 2 tablespoons of tomato puree to this and well cook it for another 8 to 10 minutes.再加入两勺番茄酱,翻炒8-10分钟。Slow cooking it so that all the flavors come together.一定要慢炒,让食材的味道全部散发出来。Its all going to be worth it in the end. And youre gonna be thanking me later.所有的努力都是值得的,你一会儿肯定会感激我。Now add all the spices, 1 teaspoon of turmeric powder, half a teaspoon of chili,现在加入所有香料,一勺姜黄粉,半勺红辣椒粉,1 tablespoon of coriander powder and 1 teaspoon of garam masala.一勺香菜粉,还有一勺印度香料粉。My mum always has this spice box,我妈妈有个香料盒,and these are the basic spices in her box that are always y for whenever she needs to cook.这些都是她的基本香料,只要做饭这些她都会准备齐全。One teaspoon of salt, add 100ml of boiling water, one tin of chickpeas.加入一勺盐,100毫升开水,一听鹰嘴豆。We add all the liquid as well. So Im gonna now add all the vegetables to this.将所有液体放入锅中,然后加入所有蔬菜。Ive got a medium-sized cauliflower,a handful of green beans, one medium-sized carrot.放入一个中等大小的菜花,再抓一把绿豆放进去,还有一个中等大小的胡萝卜。Look at all those lovely colors. Now add frozen peas give it a good mix.看看这些五颜六色的食材,之后加入冻豌豆,搅拌均匀。Oh this smells takes me back home.哦,这个味道让我想家了。When I was studying away from home,and I would call my mum,我想起我在外学习的时候,我给我妈妈打电话,you know when I was about to visit and she said oh,what would you like to eat when you get home?说我要回家一趟,然后我妈妈会问我,你回家想吃什么?And I would very often say can you just make me some chole? Absolutely delicious!我经常会说,你能给我做些“Chole”吗? 美味至极啊!I will throw in another 100ml of boiling water. Good mix, lid on,之后再加入100毫升开水,搅拌均匀,盖上盖子,temperature medium and low and leave it for 20 minutes until the vegetables are cooked properly.控制在中小火,等待20分钟待蔬菜完全煮熟。Wow, Im gonna finish this curry with a tablespoon of double cream and fresh coriander.啊,最后加入一勺浓奶油,撒上新鲜的香菜。Quick mix and we are y to plate up with some steaming hot rice.之后快速搅拌,将它与盛满米饭的盘子放在一起。Ive also got some naan. I cannot wait to taste this.我还加上一些印度烤饼,我等不及要入口了。Its time to eat!开吃了!So so good,my mum would be proud of it.太好吃了,我妈妈一定会为我骄傲的。You can tell the base of the curry has been cooked nice and slowly.咖喱最深层的味道也被煮了出来。Hope youve liked my food memory. Me, Jamie and Hotpoint would like to know yours too.希望大家喜欢我的这道美食记忆,杰米,我们的“Hotpoint”还有我期待大家的美味佳肴。So please share it with us, using the #myfoodmemories and大家可以通过“#myfoodmemories”来与我们分享,tell us about that special food that takes you back in time, 让我们知道让你魂牵梦绕的菜肴。and if youd like to see more food memories including Jamies for Katya,如果你想知道更多关于美食记忆的话题,包括杰米的节目,then click on the link up here and go to food memories hub.请点击右边的链接,探寻更多关于美食的记忆。 201707/516453

TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201609/466637

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