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Despite car and truck sales that motored past 16 million for the first time since 2007, recalls dominated the news for most of the year. General Motors GM 1.42% held center stage, dealing with cascading revelations about faulty ignition switches and recalling millions of vehicles. While GM opted for something approaching full disclosure of its missteps , publishing an report into company-wide fumbles, Japanese airbag maker Tanaka chose to stonewall. It left any remedies up to its beleaguered customers, notably Honda and Toyota. They are the ones who deal with the fallout of exploding safety devices that fatally fired shrapnel throughout the passenger compartment.2014年,尽管汽车销量自2007年以来首次超过1600万辆,但占据媒体头条的还是各类召回事故。在召回舞台上最活跃的是通用汽车公司,由于不断曝出点火开关故障,通用今年已经召回了几百万辆汽车。这家汽车制造商选择勇敢曝光自己的失误,并公开发布了一份自查报告。而日本气囊生产商高田公司却对“气囊门”三缄其口,转而把补救措施留给其深陷困境的客户本田和丰田来实施。有问题的气囊爆炸后,会向驾驶室弹出致命碎片。On the sales front, General Motors and Ford F -0.13% lost market share to Chrysler, which leveraged its Jeep brand to previously unimagined heights – and then, metaphorically left its heritage behind when it established legal domicile in the Netherlands and changed its name to FCA US LLC.在销量方面,通用和福特的部分市场份额被克莱斯勒蚕食,后者已经把Jeep品牌成功提升到此前难以想象的高度。随后,克莱斯勒将它的光辉历史抛在身后,将总部搬到荷兰,并更名为FCA US LLC。Among the year’s biggest surprises was the plunge in gasoline pries. Economists differed on the economic impact—money in the pockets of consumers offset by declines in exploration and drilling activity—but everyone agreed that it was bearish for small cars and hybrids. The combination of cheap gas and a steep sticker price made the Cadillac ELR the runaway winner of the most disliked car of the year award. Only 155 of the Volt-based ,000 cars found buyers in November.今年最令人惊喜的消息还包括油价下跌。经济学家对油价下跌的经济影响也是见仁见智,一方面认为消费者因此节省了不少油钱,一方面则认为这种趋势会影响石油的开采钻探活动。但大家普遍认为这会影响小型车和混合动力车的销量。油价下跌加上车价过高,使得凯迪拉克公司的电动轿跑ELR稳居2014年最不受欢迎的车型“宝座”。11月份,这款售价高达8万美元的电动跑车只卖出了155辆。So what does 2015 portend? Here are some educated guesses.那么,于汽车业而言,2015年又意味着什么?以下是一些有根据的猜测。Auto sales: Car sales reach 17 million but manufacturers scramble to adjust capacity as trucks and SUVs soar in popularity. Pressure to hold down corporate fuel averages drives margins on small cars far below break-even.汽车销量:2015年,汽车销量将达到1700万辆,但随着皮卡和SUV的走俏,各大厂商也会纷纷调整产能。低油价的压力将导致小型车的利润更加单薄。Detroit Three: The other two Michigan-based manufacturers still face bumps. General Motors copes with continued fallout from its ignition switch recall while Ford fights through the most aggressive launch period in the company’s history.底特律三巨头:另两家底特律车企仍会遇到一些磕磕绊绊。通用还要继续应对“点火门”事件的余波,而福特将进入该公司有史以来最激进的产品发布期。Japanese Three: Honda ts water while it waits for bold new designs from its Americanized management team to reach market, particularly the Acura NSX super car, which has been on the auto show circuit now for several years. Focused now on his legacy, CEO Carlos Ghosn drives executives even harder to meet targets in his latest three-year plan while he grooms a successor. As for Toyota, Automotive News declares that it is firing on “all cylinders” before its move from Southern California with fresh products in key segments.日本三巨头:在本田的美国化管理团队将新品投放市场之前,该公司还会原地踏步,尤其是它的讴歌NSX超跑,这款车型已经在各大车展上亮相好几年了,但至今仍未上市。本田CEO卡洛斯o高森一边督促高管团队努力实现他的“三年计划”目标,一边培养继承人。《汽车新闻》报道称,丰田公司在携新产品搬离南加州工厂之前,正处于“马力全开”的状态。German Three:Mercedes-Benz begins to sag as new lower-priced Benz’s inevitably erode its once invincible “the best or nothing” status. At BMW, imminent arrival of a new 7-series cements its status as the preferred brand of Scarsdale, Shaker Heights, and Santa Monica. A new A3, starting at , 795, should nicely lift Audi’s sales beyond 2014’s 15% climb, and a new Q7 SUV should nicely lift profits.德系三巨头:由于奔驰的几款低价产品不可避免地会损害它“要么最好,要么什么都不是”(the best or nothing)的商誉,该公司也开始陷入低迷。而即将推出的新7系轿车则会进一步巩固宝马在美国富人圈中的地位。另外,起价30,795美元的奥迪A3,很可能会使奥迪的销量较2014年增长15%,新款Q7也将进一步提高奥迪的利润。Chinese manufacturers:Coming to the U.S.? Warren Buffett’s BYD says it is arriving in 2015 and Geely in 2016 but we’ve been hearing that someone was coming since at 2006. The refinement of Chinese cars is the issue. With more than 80 local automakers producing 524 different models in China, Ramp;D money is sp too thinly to produce meaningful results.中国厂商:中国汽车进军美国?巴菲特持股的比亚迪汽车公司称,它将于2015年登陆美国市场,吉利汽车也将于2016年进入美国市场。不过自2006年起,我们就一直在听说中国车企要登陆美国。中国汽车最大的硬伤是做工问题。中国有80多家汽车厂商,生产的车型多达524款,研发资金铺得太开,太单薄,以至于很难获得有意义的业绩。Tesla:In an effort to blunt criticism about slow refueling times for battery-powered cars, Tesla TSLA -1.54% starts to roll out of a network of battery-swap stations. CEO Elon Musk must hope he can outdo Shai Agassi’s Better Place, which tried to build a whole company around battery-swaps before going bankrupt in 2013.特斯拉:为了缓解外界对特斯拉电动汽车充电时间问题的诟病,特斯拉开始推出一个通过换电池快速充电的充电站网络。CEO埃隆o马斯克肯定希望自己的运气比夏伊o阿加西的Better Place公司好一些,这家公司在2013年破产前做的就是电池更换充电站业务。Headquarter shifts: With Toyota leaving for Texas and Mercedes headed toward North Carolina or Georgia from New Jersey, look for Subaru to chart its own path when it builds its new headquarters. One option: Moving closer to its customers by relocating in Vermont.换总部:随着丰田迁至德州,奔驰从新泽西搬往北卡罗来纳州或乔治亚州,斯巴鲁也要建它的新总部了。它的一个选择是搬到离其客户群更近的佛蒙特州。CEOs: Newbies Mary Barra at GM and Mark Fields at Ford start playing close attention to the moves made by FCA’s Sergio Marchionne. Despite running his growing empire on two continents, Marchionne tacked on a U.S market share gain of 1.2 points, unhindered by one of the weakest product lineups in the business and troubles with his much heralded eight-speed transmission.CEO:作为汽车业新人,通用CEO玛丽o芭拉和福特CEO马克o菲尔兹开始密切观注菲亚特和克莱斯勒集团CEO的塞尔吉奥o马基奥尼的一举一动。虽然他的商业帝国横跨欧美两个大陆,但马基奥尼还是成功地把公司的美国市场份额提高了1.2个点,完全没有受到公司最弱的一条产品线以及八速变速箱问题的影响。Awards: Despite early wins for VW’s Golf GTI, the Detroit-centric jurors of the North American Car and Truck award 2015 prizes to Ford’s Mustang as well as Ford’s F-150 pickup truck.奖项:尽管大众的高尔夫GTI先拔头筹,但偏向自家人的2015年北美汽车大奖的评审员们还是对福特的野马和F-150皮卡不吝溢美之辞。Truck wars: Awards aside, Ford’s aluminum pickup is hard to build and slow to sell, leaving an opening for Ram’s fast-rising 1500 while Nissan tries to forget the failure of its first full-size truck when it launches the second-generation Titan with the biggest of big rig styling. The industry’s biggest secret is revealed by veteran executive John Krafcik in Automotive News: In the over ,000 category, pickups and SUVs distributed through non-premium dealers outsell German luxury brands.皮卡大战:如果把得奖的问题抛在一边,福特的全铝皮卡生产起来很不容易,卖得也比较慢,这就为快速崛起的道奇公羊(Dodge Ram)1500提供了机会。同时,日产也试图忘掉该公司第一款全尺寸皮卡,也就是采用双拖斗造型的第二代Titan皮卡的失利。汽车业老将约翰o克拉福西克向《汽车新闻》透露了这个行业的最大秘密:在5万美元以上的市场区间,平价品牌的皮卡和SUV的销量要超过德系豪华品牌。Brands with the most to make up for in 2015:Volkswagen, whose stale product line depressed sales by 11%, thereby delaying Ferdinand Piech’s plans for global supremacy, and Volvo, down 17%, which has yet to make any progress under its Chinese owner.2015年最需要迎头赶上的品牌:由于产品线陈旧,大众今年的销量下降了11%,影响了费迪南德o皮切的“称霸全球”计划。沃尔沃的销量则下跌了17%,自从被中国车企收购后,该公司至今还没有任何进步。Brands with the most incentive to coast in 2015:Jeep, which must be exhausted after lifting sales an astonishing 44% on the back of the new Cherokee, and Subaru, now the 10th most popular brand in America after improving its sales by 21% in its usual fashion: quietly.2015年风头最劲的品牌:在新款切诺基的拉动下,Jeep在2014年的销量惊人地拉高了44%,而斯巴鲁的销量则静悄悄地提高了21%,现已成为美国第十大最受欢迎的汽车品牌。Alternative fuels: For the first time since diesel-powered cars from Europe started arriving here in the 1950s, old first-person accounts about the joys of driving a diesel fall off to near zero. They are replaced by new first-person accounts about the joys of driving cars with ridiculously high horsepower like the 580-hp Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 and Dodge’s Challenger SRT Hellfire with 707 hp. Elsewhere: fuel-cell cars with their longer cruising range move center-stage, stealing the limelight from battery-powered cars.替代燃料:自从柴油车于上世纪50年代从欧洲进入美国以来,人们对柴油车的热情首次冷却殆尽,取而代之的是马力高得吓人的雪佛兰CamaroZL1(580匹马力),和707匹马力的道奇挑战者SRT地狱火等车型。另外,续航里程更长的燃料电池汽车也开始登上舞台,从电池动力汽车那里抢走了不少风头。Technology:Cadillac will introduce high-resolution streaming in the rearview mirror, which improves the field of vision by about four times greater than a traditional mirror by removing obstructions like pillars and passengers. Just the thing for aging Cadillac drivers with stiff necks. Coming next: a “beep, beep, beep” signal like that used by garbage trucks whenever the car is driven in reverse.科技:凯迪拉克将在汽车的后视镜添加高清视频功能,其视野要比传统的后视镜开扩四倍,因为它能够在最大程度上减少了车柱和乘客对视线的影响,对于上了年纪的凯迪拉克车主和颈椎不好的人来说,这的确是个福音。下一个即将被广泛采用的技术,则是让汽车在倒车时,能够发出像垃圾车那样的“滴滴声”。Autonomous cars: Researchers are working on devices that will automatically park your car in a parking lot without you being in, or near, the car. It will also slip a note under the wipers of the car next to it with your phone number and insurance carrier in case of any scratches.自动驾驶汽车:研究人员正在研究能让汽车自动倒车入库的设备,让你甚至不必坐在车里就能完成倒车。这样你就不必在不小心刮蹭到别人的车时,往人家的雨刮器下面留张字条,并附上你的电话号码了。Dealers: Car dealers work toward reducing the paperwork involved in buying a car and the hours it takes to fill it out. That will give them more time to devote to upselling add-ons such as extended warranties, paint and fabric protection, and rust-proofing.经销商:经销商们正在努力精简购车的文书手续以及时间。这会使他们留出更多的时间向消费者推销延长质保、喷漆、织物保护、防锈等附加务。Classic cars:Prices plummet as an enormous supply of post-war classics, hidden away on an off-shore island, becomes available for the first time in 50 years. Collectors are especially eager to find Packards, Studebakers, Hudsons, Nashes, Kaisers, and Henry J’s. More’s the surprise because all of the cars are in running condition and are used as daily drivers.老爷车:由于今年在一个海外小岛上发现了一大批尘封50年之久的老爷车,导致现在二战后的老爷车的供给充足,价格也显著下降。收藏家们尤其喜欢Packards、Studebakers、Hudsons、Nashes、Kaisers和Henry J’s等型号的老爷车。更令人吃惊的是这批老爷车的车况都十分良好,能够满足日常使用。(财富中文网) /201501/352963

Two years ago, Neil Shen, head of Sequoia China, attempted to broker a marriage between two of the internet companies in which he was invested Meituan.com and Dianping Holdings. His efforts came as both were burning through cash as they spent heavily to gain customers and market share in businesses which partially overlapped. At that time, Mr Shen did not succeed.两年前,红杉中国(Sequoia China)掌舵人沈南鹏(Neil Shen)曾尝试撮合他投资的两家互联网企业美团(Meituan.com)与大众点评(Dianping Holdings)联姻。那时,两家公司都在烧钱,投入大笔资金在部分重叠的业务上争夺客户和市场份额。那一次,沈南鹏没有成功。This month, however, the war between the two groups, which are both in the business of delivering food and offering discounts at restaurants among other things, was called off and Meituan and Dianping agreed to combine.但在本月,美团和大众点评同意合并,它们之间的战争被叫停了。除了其他业务,美团和大众点评都在提供送餐和餐饮折扣务。The deal, worth up to bn, was just the latest in a series of mergers between Chinese competitors who have decided often with the forcible intervention of their investors that they had more to gain by joining forces.这笔价值高达200亿美元的交易,只是中国竞争对手之间一系列合并案(经常涉及投资人的强力干预)中的最新一笔。这些企业已意识到,结盟会带来更大收益。“In this case one plus one will equal three or four,” says Mr Shen.“在这种情况下,一加一将等于三或四,”沈南鹏说。“Consolidation is the best way to maximise returns,” adds Bao Fan, whose Beijing-based Chinese Renaissance advisory and banking boutique advised both companies. “Everything is a function of the supply of capital.”“整合是实现回报最大化的最佳途径,”为美团和大众点评都提供咨询的华兴资本(Chinese Renaissance)的掌舵人包凡补充说。“一切都是资本供应的函数。”华兴资本是一家位于北京的咨询机构和精品投行。This year is becoming the banner year for mergers in the sector. According to Mergermarket, there have been 267 Chinese technology mergers worth bn so far this year, compared with 338 deals worth bn for all of 2014.今年将成为互联网企业合并的标志性年份。Mergermarket的数据显示,今年迄今,中国发生了267起科技企业合并案,交易额达320亿美元,而2014年全年合并案为338起,交易额为260亿美元。As the flow of money into these companies slows, valuations have ceased their gravity-defying ascent and investors have begun to enforce greater discipline on their portfolio companies, despite objections from some of the founding entrepreneurs.随着流入互联网企业的资金放慢,貌似不受地心引力作用的估值已停止上升,投资人开始对被投资企业施加更严格的约束,尽管这遇到了一些企业创始人的反对。Investment firms such as Sequoia and Tiger Global have drastically reduced the money they are putting into the Chinese internet sector in recent months and have warned the companies in which they invest that if they are too greedy they will not be able to raise money at higher valuations in the future, people familiar with the matter say.知情人士表示,近几个月,红杉资本(Sequoia Capital)和老虎环球基金(Tiger Global)等投资机构已大幅减少了对中国互联网行业的投入,并向被投资企业发出警告:如果它们过于贪婪,那么它们未来将不能以较高估值获得融资。Both the trend toward consolidation and the resistance to it on the part of many entrepreneurs reflect an environment that bears little resemblance to that of the US, even as many Chinese internet companies now challenge their American counterparts in valuation and exceed them in scale.行业整合趋势,以及许多企业创始人对该趋势的抵制,都表明中国的环境跟美国没有相似之处,尽管许多中国互联网企业如今开始在估值上挑战美国同行,在规模上超过后者。In the US, start-ups “tend to begin life with original business models, the winners tend to emerge early”, said Mr Fan. In China, where most start-ups tend to be modelled on an overseas template, “there are many more players, and consolidation takes place over time”, he said.包凡说,在美国,初创企业“通常靠着原创的商业模式起步,胜者倾向于较早涌现”。他说,在多数初创企业通常拷贝海外模板的中国,“参与者更多,随着时间的推移必然走向整合”。But that means egos are at stake and negotiations can become personal. At times the ill-feeling has become so pronounced that investors sometimes require their unruly entrepreneurs to sign non-disparagement agreements.但这意味着创始人的虚荣心可能发作,谈判可能走上“往心里去”的歧路。有时怨恨成为太大的妨碍,以致投资者要求难搞的创业者签署非贬低(non-disparagement)协议。Ctrip and Qunar, the great rivals in the online travel business, finally agreed to merge earlier this week, in a bn tie-up.作为在线旅游业务的两大对手,携程(Ctrip)和去哪儿(Qunar)终于同意合并,合并后估值达150亿美元。But a slowing of outside funding may change things now. Analysts widely expect online travel companies and auto rental firms to either merge with each other or with companies in related spaces. Likely candidates include search engine companies such as Baidu or for the taxi booking firms such as Didi Kuaidi. The goal would be to preserve cash and migrate to different, more value-added business models.但如今,外部融资放慢或许会改变局面。分析师普遍预计,在线旅游企业和租车公司或者彼此合并,或者跟相关行业公司合并。可能合并的企业包括,百度(Baidu)等搜索引擎企业,或者滴滴快的(Didi Kuaidi)等出租车叫车企业。目标将是保存现金,过渡到不同的、附加值更大的商业模式。In addition, business models in China tend to be fluid, which can make for shifting alliances. What could be seen as conflicts of interest elsewhere in the world occur with frequency in the mainland.此外,中国的商业模式经常变化很快,可能导致联盟关系洗牌。在世界其他地区可能被看作利益冲突的事情,在中国大陆经常发生。Internet group Alibaba is both the third-biggest investor in Meituan, which is primarily a group buying site, and one of its biggest rivals now.互联网集团阿里巴巴(Alibaba)既是美团(主要是一家团购网站)的第三大股东,如今也是美团最大的竞争对手之一。But the two were not in direct competition at the time the larger group made its investment. And there may be even more bitter rivalry to come. Meituan plans to go from selling film tickets to the film distribution business. Such a step could lead to a face-off against Alibaba’s Ali Pictures in the future.但是,当阿里巴巴入股美团时,两者并未处于直接竞争之中。未来,两者之间或许会发生更激烈的竞争。美团计划从销售电影票拓展到影片发行。此举可能导致美团在未来与阿里影业(Ali Pictures)发生冲突。Similarly, Mr Shen invested in VIP Shop when it didn’t compete with JD.com, another Sequoia investment. Today, however, the two are bitter rivals.类似地,沈南鹏投资唯品会(Vipshop)时,唯品会并未与京东(JD.com)竞争。京东也是红杉中国的投资对象。但如今,唯品会和京东发生了激烈竞争。 /201510/406686

Why Crafty Crocodiles May Be Sleeping With One Eye Open为什么鳄鱼睁一只眼睡觉?While for humans the expression ;sleep with one eye open; is just a metaphor to keep alert, for some animals it is a way of life. Called unihemispheric sleep, it is the ability to snooze with one eye open and the corresponding half of the brain awake, while the other half rests.对人类来说,“睡觉睁一只眼”只是对要“提高警惕”的一个比喻;但是对某些动物来说却是一种习性。一半大脑处于休息状态,另一半大脑时刻保持警惕,这种现象被称为“半脑睡眠”。Researchers believe that this talent that has been observed in marine mammals like dolphins and seals as well as numerous bird species, serves many purposes. Birds use it to keep an eye out (literally) for predators while dolphins do it to keep track of their pods and young ones. Many social animals are also believed to use the technique to keep track of any interesting activities going on around them.科学家相信,这种在海豚海狮等海洋哺乳动物和多数鸟类身上存在的天赋,实际上有很多用途。鸟儿睡眠时一只眼保持警惕是为了免受捕食者伤害,海豚却是为了看护自己的幼崽。很多群居动物也用此技能来保持对身边任何有趣活动的关注。Now researchers from Australia#39;s La Trobe University have discovered that crocodiles may have also evolved this capability. The scientists began by placing three juvenile saltwater crocodiles inside a large enclosure at the University#39;s aquarium and filming their behavior. They noticed that when left undisturbed, the reptiles spent less than an hour with one eye open. The crocodiles instead seemed to prefer snoozing with both eyes shut just like the rest of us.澳大利亚La Trobe大学的研究者发现,鳄鱼似乎也进化了出此技能。他们在大学水族馆腾出地方,圈禁了3条幼年咸水鳄并监控它们的表现。他们发现,在无外界打扰的情况下,这些爬行动物只有不到一小时睁一只眼闭一只眼。似乎大多数时间里,它们跟人类一样,是紧闭双眼睡觉的。However, things changed drastically when the researchers introduced an external stimulus. They began by bringing a new young crocodile to the enclosure. Though it was one of their own, the other reptiles immediately appeared to perk up. The researchers noticed that the crocodiles slept with one open eye directly aimed at the newcomer, for longer amounts of time.然而,当研究者们加入了干扰,情况立刻转变了。他们加了一只新鳄鱼进入围栏。虽然都是同类,其他鳄鱼还是立刻进入警戒状态。它们开始针对这个新来的鳄鱼,更久地保持一只眼睁着。If the tests are positive, it would indicate that birds, mammals and reptiles all display this behavior. The only ones that don#39;t? Land-based animals and humans that need to fully shut down the brain and eyes for a snooze. Lesku says that while we have always called the one-eyed napping animals odd it may be that they are perfectly normal!如果实验有效,我们可能会获得鸟类、哺乳动物和爬行动物都有此行为的结论。什么动物例外呢?陆地动物和人类睡觉时,才需要双眼紧闭。Lesku表示,虽然我们认为睁一只眼闭一只眼睡觉的动物奇怪,但其实这种行为才最正常不过。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201512/413422

Making a call is now only the sixth most common use for a mobile phone, a study has found。一项研究发现,在智能手机的常用功能中,打电话只能位居第六。Sending and receiving text messages, ing emails, browsing the internet and using the phone’s alarm clock have all overtaken actual conversation。收发短信,查邮件,浏览网页,定闹钟等等功能的重要性已经超过了实际的通话功能。In fact, almost four in ten smartphone users believe they would manage without a call function on their handset at all。事实上,有四成的智能手机用户称,就算他们的手机上没有通话功能,他们也能在生活中应付自如。The study found the average person uses their mobile phone for an hour and 52 minutes a day。该研究发现,人们使用手机的时间一般为每天一小时52分钟。Most of this time is taken up with texting, emails and surfing the web, but around 20 minutes will be spent making an average of three calls。大多数的时间都花在收发短信,收发邮件,浏览网页上,人们平均每天只打三个电话,画上大概20分钟的时间。The survey of 2,000 people found that social media apps, calculators, calendars and cameras were also seen as particularly important functions。这项对2000人进行的调查发现,社交网络应用,计算器,日历和相机也被人们视为非常重要的手机功能。Navigation apps such as Google Maps were popular too – with one in six respondents admitting they would feel unable to travel around an unfamiliar city without one。谷歌地图之类的导航应用也非常受欢迎——1/6的受访者承认,如果没有导航应用的话,他们在陌生的城市会寸步难行。The study also found checking Facebook and taking pictures of others are carried out more frequently than making calls。研究还发现,上人人网,给旁人拍照等应用的使用频率也超过打电话。Also on the list were the calendar to remember appointments and birthdays, mobile banking and the news are applications that make day-to-day life a little easier。在常用功能的清单上还有日历应用,它可以提醒人们记住约会,亲友生日等特殊的日子,手机理财和新闻等应用也会使我们的日常生活变得更加便捷。Tom Barr, Hailo’s chief executive, said: ‘The functions on a smartphone have developed and improved drastically over the past decade。海铑机电的首席执行官,汤姆·巴尔称:“在过去的数十年里,智能手机上的功能不断发展,经历了剧烈的变革。”‘With so many ways to keep in touch nowadays, people are using the functions that are convenient for them.As we get less and less time to ourselves, we need more convenience in our lives and less hassle. While calling can be more personal, it doesn’t always save you time.’“现在人们相互联系的方法非常之多,人们会想要用方便的方法和他人联系。随着人们的私人时间越来越少,我们都希望生活中多点便捷,少点麻烦。打电话虽然更为亲近,但是却比较耗时间。” /201507/385609


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