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2019年07月16日 19:08:56来源:百科诊疗

Have you ever heard the color blue? Or tasted the musical note F-sharp? For most people, in both cases the answer is no. But for some people blue has a particular sound or shape, and F sharp has a slightly sour taste. This unusual blending of the senses is called synesthesia, a rare neurological phenomenon occurring in roughly 1 in 100,000 people.你曾听到过蓝色么?你曾经尝到过音符F调么?对于大多数人来说,是否定的。但是,对于某些特定人群来说,蓝色确实有一种特定的声音或形状,F调也确实有一种酸酸的味道。这种不寻常的感官混淆被称为“共同感觉”,一种鲜有的神经学现象,通常十万分之一的人有这种症状。People with this condition do not merely associate sound with color or taste with sound, or imagine hearing a sound when they see a certain color. Rather, when a person with synesthesia encounters a particular sensory stimulus, say seeing the color red, she will hear a sound even when there is no outside source producing the sound.有这种症状的人不仅仅会将声音与颜色联系、味觉与声音联系,也可能会在看到某种特定颜色时设想听到了某种声音。更确切地说,一个有“共同感觉”的人如果受到了某种特殊的感官刺激,比如看到了红色,哪怕外界并未有发音源,她也依然会听到某种声音。In a similar manner, a particular sound may cause someone with synesthesia to see certain shapes or certain colors, even when there is no object in that person’s line of sight. The same goes for taste and smell.类似情况下,某种特定的声音也会引发拥有“共同感觉”的人能看到某种形状或特定的颜色,哪怕在他的视觉范围内并未有这样的物体出现。对于味觉和嗅觉,这种情况也同样存在。Scientists know very little about what causes synesthesia. While it appears to be hereditary, the actual neurological processes that account for the phenomenon remain a mystery. Although most scientists agree that the hippocampus, an area of the brain responsible for memory, plays a role, exactly how the hippocampus might cause synesthesia is not clear.科学家们对于为何会引发“共同感觉”知之甚少。虽然看起来这是一种遗传疾病,但事实上,对于这种现象的神经发生过程如何解释依然成谜。尽管很多科学家们认为“海马体”-大脑中用于控制记忆的一片区域导致此种现象出现,但究竟它是如何影响并引发“共同感觉”的症状依然不得而知。Otherwise, scientific knowledge about synesthesia is limited to several interesting observations. For example, synesthetic perceptions remain consistent over time. In other words, if a person with synesthesia sees blue and green flashes when he hears a C-sharp, he will always see those same colors upon hearing that note.另外,目前对于“共同感觉”的科学认识也仅仅是基于几种有趣的现象观察。比如,这种连觉的感知并不会随着时间过去而消失。换句话说,如果当一个人在听到C大调时看到蓝色与绿色闪过,那么将来一旦他听到同样的声音,眼前就会浮现出蓝色和绿色。 /201307/248665。

  • Suppose one day scientists pick up a transmission they think isgenerated by aliens.假如有一天,科学家收到到外星人发来的信号该怎么办呢?Now what? Do we build a landing strip andbreak out the welcome wagon?我们有建造飞碟起落跑道来欢迎它们吗?Well heres the thing about picking up alien broadcasts.关于接收到外来广播的事情是这样的。The receivers scientists are currently using to listen to space noise are designed to find constant signals,or signals that are pulsing at regular intervals.科学家接者收目前会听航天噪音,然后找出不变信号或者找出那些常规跳动的信号。But any message carried by these signals wouldprobably be lost because the receivers cant pick up the modulation, or rapid variations, in thebase signal.但是任何携带信息的信号都可能丢失,因为接收者在信号基地不能收集到变调或快速变化的信号。The SETI institute, which searches for extra terrestrial life, has compared picking up asignals modulation to picking up the sound of a flute when its masked by the noise of a waterfall.对外星智能的探索研究院,专门寻找外星生物。它他们对接受到信号的变调和被瀑布声掩盖的笛声做了比较。Luckily, scientists would still have enough data to pinpoint where in the sky the transmission iscoming from.幸运的是,科学家们有足够的数据来确定信号广播的位置。And any slow changes in the broadcast frequency would reveal information aboutthe rotation and movement of the aliens planets.广播频率的细微变化都会揭露外星人星球的旋转和运动情况。Okay, but how will we know if they are friendly?我们怎样才知道那些是友好的信号呢?Well, If we ever do detect a transmission, thiswould be huge news. 如果我们发现了外来广播,那就是很大新闻了。The government would definitely allocate funds to building largerinstruments capable of picking up signal modulations.政府一定会拨款建造更大的仪器,能够接受信号变调。However, even once scientists are able tomeasure the modulation, it isnt certain that well be able to understand the message.不管怎样,即使科学家能够测量变调,也不能确定我们能明白这些信息。I guesseveryones hoping that if the aliens are anything like us, theyll send simple pictures and easy-to-decode messages.我想每个人都希望外星人与我们多少有点相似之处,会发简单的图画和容易解码的信息。 201408/320723。
  • Business商业报道Business regulation商业规程Reform school改革流派The big emerging markets are still much in need of reforms巨大的新兴市场仍亟需改革REFORM is a universal medicine urged upon struggling economies by liberal institutions.改革是自由派的市场体制敦促挣扎中的经济体所下的一剂万灵药。When a country has been messed up long enough, reform becomes much needed.当一个国家长时间处于混乱状态,那么改革就成为了亟需之物。Reform means many things, of course, from cutting budget deficits to improving education.当然,改革意味着很多事情,比如削减预算赤字和提高教育水平。But a big part of it concerns business regulation, which reflects how much a country encourages companies and how much microeconomic distortion there is to economic activity.但是改革的很重要的一部分涉及到商业规程,它反映了国家如何鼓励企业发展以及经济活动中有多少畸形微观经济。Such regulation is also measurable across boundaries, so one country can be compared with another.这种规程同样适用于所有国家,所以各国之间可以相互比较。So what does this years survey of global business regulation by the World Bank reveal about which countries most need much needed reform—and which might not?所以,世界今年关于全球商业规程的纵览透露了关于哪些国家最需要必要的改革以及哪些国家会不需要的什么信息呢?Italy and Greece are high on everyones list of places that need to change a lot, and the World Banks list confirms it.意大利和希腊高居所有关于需要改变国家的名单之中,而世界列出的榜单也确认了这一点。They come a lowly 65th and 72nd respectively, out of 189 countries.在189个国家中,他们分别位于第65和第72的较低位置。The same is true, more or less, of France and Spain, two fellow euro-sufferers.这种情况对于法国和西班牙这两个同为欧债受害国的也几乎如此。Germany, on the other hand, might not be in such urgent need of change, to judge by this measure.根据这个标准来判断,德国却可能并不如此紧迫的需要改变。It comes 21st on the World Banks list, immediately after the small Asian, Nordic and English-speaking countries that are always found at the top of the table.在世界的这项榜单中,德国位列21名,紧跟一些亚洲,北欧和以英语为母语的国家。这些国家总是位于榜单的较高位置。This puts Germany above such paragons of business-friendliness as Estonia and Chile.这使得德国领先于爱沙尼亚和智利这些作为友好型商业模范的国家。Japan does not score too badly either, coming 27th, above the Netherlands.日本排名为27,也获得了并不逊色的名次,位于荷兰之前。This does not mean these countries can rest on their laurels, but the doing-business scores might suggest why they do a bit better than their distorted macroeconomic indicators might lead you to expect.这并不意味着这些国家就可以居功自傲,止步不前。但是商业经营方面的分数可能暗示了为什么这些国家会比你根据他们本国畸形的宏观经济指标给出的期望值做的稍好的原因。The biggest emerging markets, on the other hand, do surprisingly badly.从另一方面看,这些最大的新兴市场的情况却是出人意料的糟糕。Russia comes in at number 92, China is 96th, Brazil 116th and India a deplorable 134th—below Yemen.俄罗斯位列92,中国96,巴西116,而印度则不幸被排在134名,位于也门之后。Yet until recently, these BRICs were exemplars of economic growth.然而直到前段时间,这些金砖国家还是经济快速增长的楷模。Two possible conclusions might be hazarded: either they would have done even better had their business regulations been reformed; or, because they were growing so fast for other reasons, they shrugged off bad regulation that would have crippled less buoyant countries.两种可能的结果都会十分危险:他们要么改革商业规程以期做得更好,要么对于损害那些发展势头并不良好国家的恶劣规程表示不屑一顾,因为他们一度由于其他原因发展迅速,比如农民逐渐迁入城市从事生产率更高的工作。Or, probably, both.或者可能两种结果都会出现。 /201311/263204。
  • China’s outward investment中国的对外投资The second wave第二波投资来袭What to make of Chinese firms’ latest foreign purchases促使中国企业最新一轮海外购买行为的推动力Oct 26th 2013 | SHANGHAI |From the print editionHAS China arrived at its Rockefeller Centre moment? In the late 1980s as Japan’s miracle economy was soaring, the Mitsubishi Estate Company bought the Rockefeller Centre in Manhattan, a landmark complex built by the eponymous oil and banking clan. Alas, Mitsubishi had to sell, at a big loss, after Japan’s asset bubble popped. Now it is Chinese firms that are seeking such trophies in New York.中国达到了它的洛克菲勒中心时刻吗?20世纪80年代末,日本经济奇迹般飞速增长,三菱房地产公司买下了曼哈顿的洛克菲特中心,它是由齐名的石油和业家族建造的一个具有里程碑意义的复杂体。可惜,在日本泡沫经济破灭后,三菱不得不以极大亏损价将其出售。如今,中国公司像是正在纽约寻求此类胜利。Fosun International, a Chinese conglomerate, has just agreed to pay 5m for 1 Chase Manhattan Plaza, a skyscraper near Wall Street, commissioned by David Rockefeller and completed in 1961. This follows a recent investment by Greenland, a Chinese state-owned firm, in Atlantic Yards, a big development in Brooklyn. Earlier this year a consortium involving Zhang Xin, a founder of Soho China, a private property giant, bought a stake in the General Motors Building in Manhattan.中国的一家联合企业,复星国际,刚以7.25亿美元买下第一曼哈顿广场——靠近华尔街的一座天大楼,由大卫·洛克菲勒实施建造并于1961年完成。紧接着,中国一家国有企业绿地集团投资大西洋院,成为布鲁克林的一项重大发展。今年早些时日,中国私有房产巨头SOHO创始人之一张欣也涵括在内的一个财团,购买了曼哈顿的通用汽车大厦的股份。It does not necessarily follow that this assault on New York will also end in tears. Whereas Mitsubishi overpaid, the Chinese investors seem to be negotiating reasonable deals. Michael Cohen of Colliers International, a property-services firm, says that although Fosun must modernise the ageing Chase tower, “The price per square foot appears to be a bargain.”在纽约的此番“袭击”未必会像日本那样悲剧收场。当初三菱收购价过高,而中国的投资者们正商榷一个合理价格交易。来自一家物业务企业高力国际的Michael Cohen表示,尽管复星国际需要革新老化的大通大厦,但是“每平方尺的价格很便宜。”A shift is under way in China’s overseas direct investment (ODI), which is growing fast but is still dwarfed by foreign investment into China (see chart). The first wave largely involved state-owned firms, and was directed at acquiring energy, minerals and land in poor countries. Resource insecurity lingers—witness the 20% stake taken this week by Chinese state firms in Libra, a giant Brazilian offshore oilfield—but it is no longer the driving force. New motives propel the second wave.中国海外直接投资的一种转变正在进行之中,其增速虽快,相比海外对华投资,仍然相形见绌(见图)。第一波投资主要涉及国有企业,被用来获取贫困国家的能源,煤矿以及土地。资源不安尚有残余,本周一国企购买了一块大型巴西近海油田Libra的20%股份就足以说明这一点,但资源不再是推动力,新的推动因素正酝酿着第二波投资。China’s government is keen to boost the miserable yields it gets on its overseas investments, argues Thilo Hanemann of Rhodium Group, a consultant. So it is now encouraging state firms to invest in property in prime locations, and in infrastructure and other assets in mature markets. In Britain, they have invested in Thames Water and Heathrow airport. This week the British government said a consortium involving Chinese state firms could build a nuclear-power station in the west of England.荣鼎集团顾问Thilo Hanemann表示,中国政府热衷于提高其海外投资中不见好的收益部分。因此,中国现在正鼓励国企投资于黄金地带的房地产,基础设施以及成熟市场的其他资产。在英国,中国国企在泰晤士水务及希思罗机场投资。本周英国政府方面声明,一个含有中国国企的财团将在英国西部修建一个核电站。Private firms seeking brands and technology are also playing a big role in this second wave. Geely, a Chinese carmaker, bought Volvo of Sweden. Dongfeng, another Chinese firm, is said to be considering buying a stake in Peugeot-Citro#235;n, an ailing French carmaker. On October 22nd Alibaba, a Chinese e-commerce giant, said it would open a new division in America to invest exclusively in internet start-ups. And Lenovo, a computer-maker, is preparing a bid for Canada’s BlackBerry.寻求品牌和技术的私企在第二波投资中也扮演很重要角色。中国汽车制造商吉利买下了瑞典的沃尔沃;据说另一家公司东风,将考虑对法国一家夕阳汽车商Peugeot-Citro#235;n进行购股;10月22日,中国电子商务巨头阿里巴巴宣布将在美国开启新的部门,专门用来投资互联网创业;电脑制造商联想,也准备竞标加拿大黑莓。As a result, the share of Chinese ODI going to rich countries has shot up from just a tenth in 2002 to two-thirds last year. Like Japan before it, China could yet experience a crash. But the shift in investment from free-spending state firms seeking resources to frugal private ones chasing markets and innovation is a positive sign.结果,中国对富裕国家的海外投资份额从2002年的十分之一猛增到去年的三分之二。要是像之前的日本,中国可能已经遇到重创。但是从挥金如土并寻求资源的国企到节俭并追求市场和创新的私企在投资方面的转变是一个好的迹象。 /201310/262275。
  • Science and technology科学技术Alternative medicine替代医疗Think yourself better往好处想Alternative medical treatments rarely work. But the placebo effect they induce sometimes does替代疗法的治疗效果见效甚微,但是所产生的安慰效果往往有所疗效ON MAY 29th Edzard Ernst, the worlds first professor of complementary medicine, will step down after 18 years in his post at the Peninsula Medical School, in south-west England.5月29日,作为世界首位互补性医学专家艾德撒.恩斯特将从位于英国西北部的半岛医学院退休,他在这里曾效力了18年。Despite his job title, Dr Ernst is no breathless promoter of snake oil.跟他的职务头衔相反Dr Ernst 并不是那种推销起蛇油舌灿莲花的人。Instead, he and his research group have pioneered the rigorous study of everything from acupuncture and crystal healing to Reiki channelling and herbal remedies.其实,他和他的研究团队是缜密研究针灸,水晶疗法,灵气疗法以及草药治疗的先驱。Alternative medicine is big business.替代性医疗是一个很大的商业市场。Since it is largely unregulated, reliable statistics are hard to come by.由于这一市场在很大程度上没有得到监管,所以很难获取可靠的数据统计。The market in Britain alone, however, is believed to be worth around £210m, with one in five adults thought to be consumers,然而,该市场仅在伦敦就达到约2亿1千万英镑,其中5个成年人中就有一个是替代性疗法的消费者,and some treatments available from the National Health Service.并且有些疗法还是国家医疗务制度中所提供的务项目。Around the world, according to an estimate made in 2008, the industrys value is about billion.根据2008年的评估,该产业在全球的价值约为600亿美元。Over the years Dr Ernst and his group have run clinical trials and published over 160 meta-analyses of other studies.在过去的几年中,恩斯特士和他的团队进行了临床实践并发表了160多份关于其他研究的再分化分析报告,并有了全然的发现。His findings are stark. According to his Guide to Complementary and Alternative Medicine, around 95% of the treatments he and his colleagues examined—in fields as diverse as acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy and reflexology—are statistically indistinguishable from placebo treatments.根据其《补充替代医学指南》,在他及其同事所验的治疗方法中从针灸到草药,从顺势疗法到反射疗法,约有95%在数据统计上等同于安慰疗法。In only 5% of cases was there either a clear benefit above and beyond a placebo, or even just a hint that something interesting was happening to suggest that further research might be warranted.在仅有的5%的病例中,其中要么明显属于非安慰疗法所带来的疗效,要么暗示了有某些有趣的因素使得需要进一步的研究。It was, at times, a lonely experience.这一研究在过去有时很少有人涉足。Money was hard to come by.资金难以筹集。Practitioners of alternative medicine became increasingly reluctant to co-operate as the negative results piled up, while traditional medical-research bodies saw investigations into things like Ayurvedic healing as a waste of time.并且由于负面效应的积累越来越多的替代性医疗从业者不愿意参与合作,于此同时传统医疗研究组织也将针诸如对阿育吠陀疗法的研究调查视作是浪费时间。Yet Dr Ernst believes his work helps address a serious public-health problem.而恩斯特士相信他的工作将有助于解决一系列公共健康问题。He points out that conventional medicines must be shown to be both safe and efficacious before they can be licensed for sale.他指出传统药品必须在确保安全和有效后才能许可出售。That is rarely true of alternative treatments, which rely on a mixture of appeals to tradition and to the natural wholesomeness of their products to reassure consumers.但是替代性疗法却不需要,这些疗法依赖于其产品的传统性以及天然健康性的综合体来赢得消费者的放心。That explains why, for instance, some homeopaths can market treatments for malaria, despite a lack of evidence to suggest that such treatments work, or why some chiropractors can claim to cure infertility.这解释了为什么一些顺势疗法在疟疾的治疗上具有市场,尽管缺乏据显示其疗效效,以及为什么脊椎推拿师声称他们可以治疗不育症的原因。Despite this lack of evidence, and despite the possibility that some alternative practitioners may be harming their patients, Dr Ernst also believes there is something that conventional doctors can usefully learn from the chiropractors, homeopaths and Ascended Masters.虽然缺乏医疗据以及存在一些替代性疗法从业者伤害患者的可能,但是恩斯特士相信传统医生仍然可以从脊椎推拿师,顺势疗法以及上师那里学到一些有用的东西。This is the therapeutic value of the placebo effect, one of the strangest and slipperiest phenomena in medicine.作为医学中最奇怪以及最棘手的医疗现象之一,这些东西是安慰疗法的医疗价值所在。Mind and body思想与身体A placebo is a sham medical treatment—a pharmacologically inert sugar pill, perhaps, or a piece of pretend surgery.安慰疗法是一种虚假性医疗方法在药物上使用糖丸,或者进行一次虚假手术。Its main scientific use at the moment is in clinical trials as a baseline for comparison with another treatment.其主要科学应用在于它可以作为其他疗法对比基准的临床实践性。But just because the medicine is not real does not mean it doesnt work.但是不使用真实药物并不代表没有疗效。That is precisely the point of using it in trials: researchers have known for years that comparing treatment against no treatment at all will give a misleading result.这也恰恰是在实践中使用它们的原因:研究者多年以来已经明白将完全不治疗跟某种治疗法做比较往往会产生误导的结果。Giving pretend painkillers, for instance, can reduce the amount of pain a patient experiences.比如,假的止疼药可以在一定程度上缓解患者的疼痛。A study carried out in 2002 suggested that fake surgery for arthritis in the knee provides similar benefits to the real thing.2002年进行的一次研究显示针对膝部关节炎患者进行一次虚假手术所带来的疗效如同对其进行了一次真实的手术。And the effects can be harmful as well as helpful.并且产生的效果有好有坏。Patients taking fake opiates after having been prescribed the real thing may experience the shallow breathing that is a side-effect of the real drugs.而处方规定需用鸦片制剂的患者实则用了假的鸦片制剂后会出现呼吸短促这种真实药物所带来的副作用症状。Besides being benchmarks, placebos are a topic of research in their own right.除了作为基准,安慰疗法在其自身领域内也是一个研究主题。On May 16th the Royal Society, the worlds oldest scientific academy, published a volume of its Philosophical Transactions devoted to the field.5月16日,作为世界最悠久的科学研究组织,皇家学会发表了一期此领域的《哲学会报》。One conclusion emerging from the research, says Irving Kirsch, a professor at Harvard Medical School who wrote the preface to the volume,为该会报撰写前言的是来自哈佛医学院的专家欧文.克尔斯,is that the effect is strongest for those disorders that are predominantly mental and subjective, a conclusion backed by a meta-analysis of placebo studies that was carried out in 2010 by researchers at the Cochrane Collaboration,其称这些研究所得出的一个结论是安慰疗法对于那些主要是脑力和主观紊乱的患者最为有效,这一结论同样得到另一个安慰疗法再分化研究的持,an organisation that reviews evidence for medical treatments.该项研究由医疗据审核组织科克仑合作所的研究者们在2010年开展。In the case of depression, says Dr Kirsch, giving patients placebo pills can produce very nearly the same effect as dosing them with the latest antidepressant medicines.对于抑郁症病例,克尔斯称给患者用安慰性药物将产生和给患者用最新抗抑郁症药物同样的疗效。Pain is another nerve-related symptom susceptible to treatment by placebo.疼痛是另一种容易得到安慰性治疗的神经性症状。Here, patients expectations influence the potency of the effect.在这里,患者的期望值可以影响治疗的效果。Telling someone that you are giving him morphine provides more pain relief than saying you are dosing him with aspirin—even when both pills actually contain nothing more than sugar.告诉患者你给他们用的是吗啡要比告诉他们用的是阿司匹林具有更好的阵痛效果其实两种药物的成分都只是糖。Neuro-imaging shows that this deception stimulates the production of naturally occurring painkilling chemicals in the brain.神经元成像显示这种欺骗行为可以促进大脑中自然分泌的阵痛化学物质的产生。A paper in Philosophical Transactions by Karin Meissner of Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich concludes that placebo treatments are also able to affect the autonomic nervous system, which controls unconscious functions such as heartbeat, blood pressure, digestion and the like.来自路德维希马克西米利安慕尼黑大学的卡琳.梅斯诺在《哲学会报》上发表的一份论文称安慰疗法同样可以影响控制诸如心跳,血压,消化等等这些无意识功能的自主神经系统。Drama is important, too. Placebo injections are more effective than placebo pills, and neither is as potent as sham surgery.表演在安慰疗法中也很重要。安慰性注射虽然比安慰药丸有效果,但是却没有虚假手术来得见效。And the more positive a doctor is when telling a patient about the placebo he is prescribing, the more likely it is to do that patient good.并且在向患者描述疗效的时候,医生显得越积极,对于患者来说安慰治疗的疗效越好。Despite the power of placebos, many conventional doctors are leery of prescribing them.尽管安慰疗法有着强大的力量,但是很多常规医生仍怀有猜疑。They worry that to do so is to deceive their patients.他们担心这种做法是在欺骗患者。Yet perhaps the most fascinating results in placebo research—most recently examined by Ted Kaptchuk and his colleagues at Harvard Medical School, in the context of irritable-bowel syndrome—is that the effect may persist even if patients are told that they are getting placebo treatments.然而,也许在安慰治疗研究中最引人入胜的研究结果便是即使患者之道他们所接受的是安慰治疗,其疗效却依然存在,这一发现由来自哈佛医学院的泰德.凯普扎克及其同事近期在过敏性肠综合症的研究中所确认。Unlike their conventional counterparts, practitioners of alternative medicine often excel at harnessing the placebo effect, says Dr Ernst.恩斯特士称与常规医生不同,替代性疗法的从业者善于利用安慰治疗的疗效。They offer long, relaxed consultations with their customers.他们会在轻松的气氛下向患者提供咨询。And they believe passionately in their treatments, which are often delivered with great and reassuring ceremony.并且他们对于治疗工作充满热情,使用杰出而令人放心的医疗方式进行治疗。That alone can be enough to do good, even though the magnets, crystals and ultra-dilute solutions applied to the patients are, by themselves, completely useless.仅此已足够,而那些用在患者身上的磁铁,水晶以及高稀释溶液本身就没有什么用处。 /201304/234897。
  • Business this week一周经济要闻Oct 12th 2013 |From the print editionBarack Obama nominated Janet Yellen to replace Ben Bernanke as chairman of the Federal Reserve in February. Ms Yellen is Mr Bernanke’s deputy and became the outright favourite for the top job when Larry Summers withdrew his name from consideration. She has been instrumental in creating the Fed’s policy of monetary stimulus and the “forward guidance” on interest rates that many central banks now give. However, she could get a rough ride from Republicans at her confirmation hearing in the Senate.奥巴马总统提名珍妮特·耶伦担任下一届联储主席,以接替将在2014年1月任期结束后离职的伯南克。珍妮特-耶伦为现任联储副主席,在劳伦斯·萨默斯主动退出这场竞争之后,她便成为这一宝座的首要人选。她曾对制定美联储的货币刺激政策提出建设性意见,并且对现行央行利率有前瞻性指引。但她可能在参议院的听会上遭到共和党人的挑战。Slaying George’s dragons杀掉乔治的龙The IMF’s latest GDP forecasts shaved 0.3 of a percentage point off the world’s economic growth rate for this year, to 2.9%. The fund warned that the Fed should not taper its stimulus programme too quickly, or the subsequent rise in borrowing costs would hinder growth. But it gave George Osborne, Britain’s chancellor, something to crow about by lifting Britain’s growth forecast by half of a percentage point; in the spring the IMF had raised concerns that Mr Osborne’s austerity measures could choke growth.IMF最近将今年国际经济增长率预期下调三个百分点至2.9%。IMF警告说,美联储不应过快减少其经济刺激计划,否则随后的借款成本上升会阻碍经济增长。因此,英国财政大臣乔治·奥斯本将英国经济增速预期上调了0.5%,这一政策足以让他得意一番。而早在今年春天,IMF就担忧过奥斯本的紧缩政策可能造成经济增长速度放缓。The IMF also cut its growth outlook for emerging markets. Brazil raised its main interest rate for the fifth time since April, by half of a percentage point to 9.5%, as it battles stubbornly high inflation.IMF同时也下调了发展中国家的经济增速预期。巴西苦苦挣扎于居高不下通货膨胀,将其基准利率上调至预期的一半至9.5%,这是该国自四月以来的第五次上调。Serbia proposed severe spending cuts. The government said it was also getting a loan “on favourable terms” that was almost a “gift” from the ed Arab Emirates.塞尔维亚提议大幅削减开。该国政府称其正在以“优惠的条件”申请贷款,这大抵算是从阿联酋得到的一份“礼物”。After 40 years without much success, Airbus at last broke into the Japanese aviation market in a big way when Japan Airlines ordered 31 A350 widebody jets with a total list price of .8 billion, and placed an option for 25 more aircraft. It is a blow to Boeing, which had a virtual monopoly in Japan. Analysts wonder if JAL’s decision to buy from Airbus is related to the technical problems that have beset Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner; two JAL Dreamliner flights had to be diverted this week because of glitches.日本航空公司(日航,JAL )以约为95亿美元的目录价格订购31架A350宽体飞机,并且保留追加购买25架A350飞机的选择权。这意味着在入驻日本民航市场40年未果之后,空客终于打入日本市场。这对于在日本保持垄断地位的波音公司来说无疑是一个打击。分析学家认为日航选择购买空客飞机可能跟波音787“梦幻客机”出现的技术问题有关。本周,两架“梦幻客机”由于小故障而不得不返航。Demand for shares in Royal Mail was said to be heavily oversubscribed ahead of its flotation, the biggest sale of a state asset in Britain for two decades. As with past privatisations, the government has been criticised by some for undervaluing what the market will pay for a public-sector company.还未上市,英国皇家邮政股票就获得超额认购。皇家邮政上市是英国政府20年以来最大规模的私有化行动。针对先前的私有化,有人批评英国政府低估了国有企业股票在市场中的价值。Twitter provided much-sought-after details of its finances ahead of its IPO. Revenue at the microblogging site was 3m in the first half of the year, double that from the same period last year, and it had 218m monthly active users, up by 44% from last year (around 5% of that is spam).还未进行首次公开募股,Twitter就披露了其引人瞩目的财政细节。上半年,其微网站收入为2.53亿美元,是去年同期的两倍。月活跃用户为2.18亿人,同比上升44%(其中约5%为垃圾邮件)。HTC reported a worse-than-expected quarterly loss, its first in 11 years. The Taiwanese smartphone-maker has fallen further behind its cheaper Chinese rivals, and now accounts for 3% of global market share, down from 9% in 2011.HTC称其季度亏损比预期的还要糟糕,是11年来的首次亏损。这家台湾智能手机制造商被中国内地价格更为便宜的竞争对手远远抛下。其所占有的全球份额由2011年的9%下降到现在的3%。The Apple of its eye对苹果情有独钟The Obama administration decided not to overturn a ban imposed by America’s trade commission on some of Samsung’s older phones for infringing patents held by Apple. It is unlikely to hurt the South Korean company’s sales much, though some have questioned the White House’s motives. In August it did quash a ban imposed by the commission on Apple’s older iPads and iPhones that were found to infringe Samsung’s patents.奥巴马政府未否决美国贸易委员会对侵权苹果的一些旧款三星产品颁布的禁令。尽管有人质疑白宫的动机,但这不会对这家韩国公司的销量有太大影响。而与之截然不同的是,今年八月,奥巴马政府解除了美国贸易委员会对侵权三星产品的苹果旧款iPads 和 iPhones发布的禁令。Alcatel-Lucent said it would cut 10,000 jobs, or around 15% of its worldwide labour force. Since France’s Alcatel and America’s Lucent merged in 2006, the combined telecoms-equipment maker has made a profit in just one year. Others in the industry, such as Cisco, are also retrenching. Although most of the cuts are outside France, the French government said it wanted “social dialogue” with the company about scaling them back.阿尔卡特朗讯公司称将裁员10000人,这相当于其全球范围内约15%的员工。自2006年法国阿尔卡特公司与美国朗讯公司合并以来,这家电讯设备制造企业仅获一年盈利。其他同类型企业,如思科公司,也在缩减开。虽然法国裁员人数并不多,法国政府称将针对裁员与该公司进行“社会性对话”。Walmart brought the shutters down on its troubled joint venture in India with Bharti. Foreign supermarket retailers have yet to set up shop fully in India after last year’s regulatory change that allows them to own up to 51% of their operations. Most are put off by the requirement that 30% of their produce must come from small local businesses.沃尔玛决定关闭与印度巴帝公司合作并不顺利的合资企业。根据去年印度修改的外商投资条例,印度允许外国企业拥有其在当地经营的超市51%股份,但是仍没有任何一家海外超市零售商进入印度开设零售店。印度规定海外零售商30%的商品必须在当地小型企业采购,这一规定使得他们望而却步。Electronic-cigarette companies were relieved when the European Parliament decided not to reclassify their products as medicinal, thereby avoiding tougher regulations. European governments, however, still want strict restrictions until more is known about the health effects of e-cigarettes.欧洲议会决定不将电子香烟产品归类为药品,这使得各大电子香烟公司如释重负,因为他们因此得以避免更为苛刻的管理条例。然而,在更多了解电子香烟对健康的影响之前,欧洲政府依然希望对其采取严格限制。Suited and booted你情我不愿 Men’s Wearhouse, a clothing chain that has most of its stores in America’s eastern states, rejected a .3 billion takeover bid from Jos A. Bank, a rival. Last month the boss of Men’s Wearhouse provided a novel explanation for a big quarterly drop in profit, saying that the13 in 2013 was causing suspicious brides (not grooms) to postpone their wedding plans until next year.大部分专营店开设在美国东部各州的装连锁Men’s Wearhouse拒绝其同行Jos A. Bank时装店以23亿美元的价格收购。上月,Men’s Wearhouse 老板对该企业季度大幅亏损做出了新奇的解释,称2013年中的13 这个不吉利的数字可能是造成新娘(不是新郎)将婚礼推迟到明年的原因。201310/261603。
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